x PETROLEUM DEVELOPMENT OMANExpression of Interest (EOI) for Combined Treatment and Reuse Opportunities of Highly Saline Produced Water REPORT NO: WM‐2013‐001 R‐TEN Water and Energy Innovative Solutions Limited3/30/2013
R‐TEN Water and Energy Innovative Solutions Limited Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) Muscat, Oman March 30, 2013 Petroleum Development Oman Mr. David Muscat, Oman Dear Sir/Madam: We would like to offer you our Expressions of Interest (EOI). This proposal is for making economic use of highly saline water produced as a byproduct from oil production activities. We would like to take this opportunity to introduce ourselves as a leading supplier of Oilfield, Gas Processing Industries & Government Departments. We deal in a wide range of products related to the Oil & Gas industries. We are the Stockiest and Distributors of Reputed and renowned International Manufacturers from the USA, Germany, United Kingdom, other members of the European Union and Japan. We are also specialists in local as well as international sourcing of products and our experience in this field is vast. We have formed a partnership for this project with Gáz‐Coop Kftl, Tech Group, SMB Environmental Projects, Zuccato Energia, and Batliwala Process Engineering. We are designing and supplying all such systems and equipment thorough a consortium of our groupfirms and very rarely, any outsourcing is required to supply these equipment.Sincerely, R‐TEN Water and Energy Innovative Solutions Limited XMohammed Taher NetarwalaCEO And Founder
iExecutive Summary R-TEN Water and Energy Innovative Solutions Limited and our partner Gáz-Coop Kft, Tec Group, SMBEnvironmental Projects, & Batliwala Process engineering are pleased to present this technical proposalsfor treatment and reuse of 5,000 m³/day of produced water at both Field 1 and Field 2 for a life cycle of 20years.We understand that PDO seeks Expressions of Interest (EOI) from companies capable and interested inmaking economic use of highly saline water it produces as a byproduct from its oil production activities.Two fields have been identified by PDO for study of beneficial reuse of highly saline produced water, inthe North i.e. Field 1 and Field 2.This proposal broadly covers the following scope of work.• Proposal for treatment and reuse• Description of plant and equipment• Description of process and outlet product(s) specifications• Waste specifications and disposal method• Material Balance Sheet• Details of resources required• Important milestonesWith our familiarity with the high saline content of produced water, deep understanding of therequirements of the Petroleum Development Oman (PDO)project and with a large pool of system supportengineers based locally in Oman , we in R-TEN Water And Energy Solutions Limited are fully confident ofcontributing to the success of this project by working as the desalination systems.Basis of Proposal Document References This proposal is based on the following specifications documents and references therein:• Advertisement released in the newspapers on 3rd Feb, 2013
• Report Number: WM-2013-001 Bidders organization RTEN Water and Energy Innovative Solutions Existence : 1 year Location : UNITED ARAB EMIRATES Area : 1300 Sq. Ft. Products : We are established in Abu Dhabi and are suppliers to almost all prestigious contracting & Oil and Gas companies in Abu Dhabi. Primarily a trading organization, we would like to introduce ourselves as suppliers of Building Hardware, Tools, Solar Energy and Water Treatment Chemicals & Equipment. Small Wind, PV Solar, Hybrid Power System, Photo Voltaic Solar Panels of Sunpower Inc Corporation, Invertors and Charge Controllers from Schneider Electric for Photo Voltaic Power Plants, Solar Powered Street Light, Unique solar powered electric vehicles, Mobile solar power units. Infrastructure : Design and Engineering office equipped with Latest Software and Hardware. Dedicated Meeting Room and Printing Facility. Computer Aided Design and Drawing Facility. Tendering, Estimation, Sales, and Service facility. BATLIWALA PROCESS ENGINEERING Existence : 35 years Location : India Area : 35000 Sq. ft Products : Process equipments, sterilizer trolleys, multipurpose trolleys / carts and change room furniture for Pharmaceutical companies and other custom fabrication in Stainless steel. Infrastructure : A dedicated workshop for stainless steel fabrication using CNC laser cutting machine, CNC punch press, CNC bending / folding, CNC machine shop, TIG welding facility, finishing and polishing facility for stainless steel. Tech Group of Companies Existence : 5 years Location :United States of America Area : 7000 Sq. ft Products :. Harness NATURAL Energy and Water via Innovative Optimized Technologies to enhance the Quality of Residents and Environment of our World assuring Sustainable, Affordable and Peaceful life of mankind through Natural Products and Holistic Education.
Infrastructure :. TECH Group completed the feasibility of 20 MW Power from Solar thermal‐Wind‐Bio‐Fuel and 500K Gallons per day of Potable Water for a coastal town in Baluchistan. TECH Group R&D team designed the Solar Powered Shuttle Van for Aga Khan University Karachi Campus. The R&D also completed the project of SCADA – System Control and Data Acquisition via GSM Network for Clean Drinking Water for All (CDWA) projects of KPK‐Pakistan Provincial Government. Designed & Developed the Fully Automated/Computerized Community Point of Sale (Water Vending Tower) capable of accepting payments via Coins, Prepaid Cards and Mobile Phone Payment Systems. Al Madad Foundation (TECH Group CSR Wing) participated in “Madad Operation” of Pakistan Navy to provide shelter to flood victims across Sindh & provided SAFE Drinking Water through Space Standard Water Processing Equipment for more than 20,000 IDEs. SMB Environmental Projects Existence : 5 years Location : India Area : 5000 Sq. ft Products : We have designed a State – of – the Art Evaporator System for recovering your costly chemicals as well as precious water which is other‐wise going to the waste stream. Our system is designed keeping in view a ZERO ‐ DISCHARGE EFFLUENT CONCEPT in view. Your waste water stream, not only causes environmental pollution to the ground water, river and field etc. but also carries with it costly chemicals which could otherwise be recovered and re‐processed for increasing the revenues for the factory / management. GázCoop Ltd. Existence : 5 years Location : Hungry Area : 5000 Sq. ft Products : Authorization process of water‐law establishment of sweet water well at 2 – 4 Vasút Street Tapolca. Bottled Mineral Water Plants. Designed & Developed the Fully Automated/Computerized Community Point of Sale (Water Vending Tower) capable of accepting payments via Coins, Prepaid Cards and Mobile Phone Payment Systems. Zuccato Energia Existence : 5 years Location : Italy Area : 5000 Sq. ft Products : We are a 100% italian firm, located in Verona, Italy, working in the field of renewable energies, with particular regard to Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) electric power generation systems , which have several applications in the efficient conversion of waste heat and low‐temperature heat into electricity. We are not just system integrator, as we design and build ourselves the special turbines which are the core of our systems. Bidders experience
1. TORRENT PHARMACEUTICALS LTD., INDIA 2. CADILA PHARMACEUTICALS LTD., INDIA 3. CADILA HEALTHCARE LTD, INDIA 4. NIRMA LTD., INDIA 5. CLARIS LIFE SCIENCES LTD., INDIA 6. INTAS PHARMACEUTICALS LTD., INDIA 7. BIOTECH, INDIA 8. NEO PHARMA , UAE 9. GLOBAL PHARMACEUTICALS, 10. UMDASCH SHOP CONCEPT, UAE 11. SPEEDWELL DECOR, UAE 12. FAT TANK, UAE 13. TECH Group completed the feasibility of 20 MW Power from Solar thermal‐Wind‐Bio‐Fuel and 500K Gallons per day of Potable Water for a coastal town in Baluchistan. TECH Group R&D team designed the Solar Powered Shuttle Van for Aga Khan University Karachi Campus. The R&D also completed the project of SCADA – System Control and Data Acquisition via GSM Network for Clean Drinking Water for All (CDWA) project of KPK‐Pakistan Provincial Government. Designed & Developed the Fully Automated/Computerized Community Point of Sale (Water Vending Tower) capable of accepting payments via Coins, Prepaid Cards and Mobile Phone Payment Systems. Al Madad Foundation (TECH Group CSR Wing) participated in “Madad Operation” of Pakistan Navy to provide shelter to flood victims across Sindh & provided SAFE Drinking Water through Space Standard Water Processing Equipment for more than 20,000 IDEs. 14. Teatro Marcello Manager: Teatro Marcello Energy Srl. Plant Location: Roma, EUR Quarter, on the road to Fiumicino Plant Type: 1 x ZE‐50‐ULH LT‐ORC Module Application: Waste heat recovery from wood‐pellet‐fueled Burkhardt gasifiers and from the cooling jacket and flue gases of the MAN engines fueled by the syngas produced by said gasifiers.
Proposal for treatment and reuse Treatment Solar Based directional solvent extraction. Very low temperature membrane‐free desalination by directional solvent extraction. Separation of salt from water with decanoic acid. Decanoic acid is a fatty acid and occurs naturally in many essential oils. We are sourcing from India. The process involves heating the solution to 40 to 90 degrees Celsius (104 to 190 degrees Fahrenheit) that separates highly concentrated brine from the water‐acid solution. As the solution is cooled, the pure water separates out and the solvent is reused. We are basically concentrating glycerol in water droplets. A better solvent will dissolve more water in it and therefore, the yield of water per volume of solvent is higher and requires less energy, allows for smaller systems and greater overall efficiency. Like dissolves like, but we are looking for pairs of materials with water which exhibit asymmetric solubility. So where we want the water to dissolve in our solvents, we don’t want the solvents to dissolve in our water. You just take a solvent. put the water in it, it dissolves out the water, contaminants are rejected, you remove that, cool the solvent back down, the water kind of precipitates out – like air is hot, it picks up water, when it cools the water drains out – and we collect that and reuse the solvent. The plant will use Concentrated Solar Power to Heat the Water to required temperature. Reuse The Water will be bottled and supplied to our network of Mineral Water Franchisees in UAE, Oman, Qatar, and Kuwait. We will use the water to generate electricity using solar and use it bottling the water. Bottling 1.5 liter PET fizzy or still mineral water. We have taken into account 1 million liter/month and 5 million liter/month capacity. It is one‐off investment cost. The calculation consists of the whole project which the bottling might start immediately with. The amount is made up of all kind of supplementary costs which is necessary to carry out the project. such as planning and designing, authorization, evaluation, building and mechanical construction, taxes and contributions. Capacity of planned bottling line is 10,000 PET/hr. implementing smaller production line is not expedient because it has the best exploitable cost performance ratio. Electricity for the bottling will be generated by wind, solar and Bio‐diesel based hybrid system at the site. The Salt and Chlorine produced will be packed in HDPE bags for supplying to India and Pakistan. The brine water will also used for generating electricity using organic rankine cycle by utilizing Geo Thermal Energy before being disposed in to deep well.
Description of plant and equipment Systems will be built inside intermodal dry cargo shipping containers that have been specifically modified for water treatment applications. This results in a fully self‐contained, fully functional desalination system that can be delivered to a site and put into operation with a minimum of site preparation. Container — The system is totally self‐contained inside a modified ISO dry cargo shipping container. Only new “One Trip” containers are used for our systems. This means the container has only been exposed to one ocean voyage before being modified for use in housing the treatment system. Now, all these machineries and equipment like evaporators, oil skimmers, effluent treatment systems, flue gas wet scrubbers, dust collection systems etc. are all designed and manufactured in – house by our various group firms. Construction — All of the Pure‐ systems are constructed of new, industrial quality materials. Container — The system is totally self‐contained inside a modified ISO dry cargo shipping container. Only new “One Trip” containers are used for our systems. This means the container has only been exposed to one ocean voyage before being modified for use in housing the treatment system. Construction — All of the systems are constructed of new, industrial quality materials. Piping, vessels, and other system components are supported inside the container with fiberglass structural members. Piping — All low pressure piping is Schedule 80 PVC or other non‐metallic materials. High pressure piping utilizes 316L and duplex stainless steel alloys. Welded joints are used wherever possible and threaded joints are avoided as much as possible to prevent leaks. All valves and fittings are of industrial quality. Pressure Vessels — Membrane pressure vessels are filament wound using fiberglass roving and sealed with an epoxy resin. This results in a corrosion‐proof vesel that will last for years with little or no maintenance. System is designed keeping in view a ZERO ‐ DISCHARGE EFFLUENT CONCEPT in view. The system involves a precisely designed evaporator, completely made of Stainless Steel, a set of condensers, body in SS and tubes in especial alloy. While receiving tank and residue holding tanks are shown in the scheme.
A solar photovoltaic (SPV) water pumping system consists of a PV array, a DC/AC surface mounted/ submersible/ floating motor pump set, electronics, if any, interconnect cables and an “On‐Off” switch. PV Array is mounted on a suitable structure with a provision of tracking. Electronics could include Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT), Inverter and Controls/Protections. Storage batteries will not constitute a part of the SPV Water Pumping System. Use of a tracking system to enhance the availability of solar radiation to lift desired quantity of water. PV ARRAY The SPV water pumping system would be operated with a PV array capacity in the range of 200 Watts peak to 5000 Watts peak, measured under Standard Test Conditions (STC). Sufficient number of modules in series and parallel will be used to obtain the required PV array power output. The power output of individual PV modules used in the PV array, under STC, will be a minimum of 74 Watts peak, with adequate provision for measurement tolerances. Use of PV modules with higher power output is preferred. Indigenously produced PV module (s) containing mono/ multi crystalline silicon solar cells with following features should be used in the PV array for the SPV Water Pumping systems: Modules supplied with the SPV water pumping systems will have certificate as per IEC 61215 specifications or equivalent National or International/ Standards. Modules must qualify to IEC 61730 Part I and II for safety qualification testing. The efficiency of the PV modules should be minimum 13% and fill factor should be more than 70%. The terminal box on the module should have a provision for “Opening” for replacing the cable, if required. Each PV module must use a RF identification tag (RFID), which must contain the following information: (i) Name of the manufacturer of PV Module (ii) Model or Type Number (iii) Serial Number (iv) Month and year of the manufacture (v) I‐V curve for the module (vi) Peak Wattage of the module at 16.4 volts (vii) Im, Vm and FF for the module (viii) Unique Serial No and Model No of the module A distinctive serial number starting with NSM will be engraved on the frame of the module or screen printed on the tedlar sheet of the module. III. MOTOR PUMP‐SET Following types of motor pump sets will be used in the SPV water pumping systems: I. Surface mounted DC motor pump‐set II. Submersible DC motor pump set III. Submersible AC motor pump set IV. Floating DC motor pump set V. Any other type of motor pump set after approval from Test Centers of the Ministry. The “Motor Pump Set” will have the following features: The mono block DC/ AC centrifugal motor pump set has its driving unit and impeller mounted on a common shaft, thereby giving it a perfect alignment. The pump should be provided with specially developed mechanical seals which ensure zero leakage. The motor is of 1‐5 HP having spring loaded carbon brushes in case of D.C. Motor Pump Sets. The suction and delivery head will depend on the site specific condition of the field. Submersible pumps could also be used according to the technical need of the particular case. .
The suction/ delivery pipe (GI/HDPE), electric cables, floating assembly, civil work and other fittings required to install the system. The following details will be marked indelibly on the motor pump set (a) Name of the Manufacturer or Distinctive Logo. (b) Model Number. (c) Serial Number. V. MOUNTING STRUCTURES and TRACKING SYSTEM To enhance the performance of SPV water pumping systems, it is desirable to use a tracking system. Manual, passive and auto tracking are permitted. The PV modules will be mounted on metallic structures of adequate strength and appropriate design, which can withstand load of modules and high wind velocities up to 150 km per hour. The support structure used in the pumping system will be hot dip galvanized iron (G.I). Facilities to be provided in the structure: Seasonal tilt angle adjustment and Three times manual tracking in a day The G.I. structures for mounting the Solar panels will be so designed, that these can be manually/ auto adjusted for optimal tilt throughout the year. A simple provision is to be provided so that the panel can be manually adjusted three times a day (East‐SouthWest) to face the sun optimally. This adjustment could be done in the early morning, noon time and afternoon to increase the total input solar radiation on the solar panel surface substantially. This provision helps the motor pump set to start early in the morning and function efficiently till late in the afternoon, thereby increasing the total output of the pumping system. The “Mounting Structure” should have the following features: The modules support structure shall be mild steel, hot dipped galvanized (120 micron) iron for holding the PV modules. The size of angle iron will not be less than 50x50x5 mm. Each panel frame structure shall be so fabricated as to be grouted on ground or roof on its legs. It will withstand severe cyclone/ storm with the speed of 150 Km/Hr. Each panel frame structure shall have provision to adjust its angle of inclination to the horizontal between 10 to 40 degrees with a step of 10 degree, so that the inclination can be adjusted at the specified tilt angle whenever required. Each panel frame shall be complete with a weatherproof junction box as per the relevant BIS specifications, where the module terminals shall be interconnected and output taken. All nuts and bolts should be made of very good quality and should be corrosion resistant. The structure should be designed to allow easy replacement of any module. The array structure shall be so designed that it will occupy minimum space without sacrificing the output from the SPV panels. VI. ELECTRONICS AND PROTECTIONS Use of Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT) is encouraged to optimally use the Solar panel and maximize the water discharge. Inverter could be used, if required, to operate an A.C. Pump. Adequate protections should be incorporated against dry operation of motor pump set, lightning, hails and storms. Full protection against open circuit, accidental short circuit and reverse polarity should be provided. VII. ON/OFF SWITCH A good reliable switch suitable for DC / AC use is to be provided with the motor pump set. Sufficient length of cable should be provided for inter‐connection between the PV array and the motor pump set. VIII. O/M MANUAL Concentrating solar technologies(CSTs) basically focus the sunlight at receiver to achieve higher temperatures for various applications in the range of 150‐450C. Since these technologies can focus the
direct radiation coming from the Sun, they need to be tracked alongwith the Sun. The technologies can be based on single axis (E‐W) tracking as well as dual axis ( E‐W & N‐S) tracking. Depending on their tracking arrangement, they can be put in the category of medium or high temperature applications Solar Steam generating Systems Two types of solar steam generating systems; one based on fixed receiver E‐W automatically tracked concentrating technology (Scheffler) and the other on fully tracked receiver on dish technology (Arun) Fixed receiver E‐W tracked technology A solar steam generating system based on this technology comprises elliptically shaped parabolic solar concentrators (each of 16 sq. m. size in general) arranged in pairs of sleeping and standing dishes in parallel modules, aligned in a perfect east – west direction. Receivers (heat exchangers painted black) are placed in the focus of each pair of dishes. Above the receiver is a header pipe half‐filled with water. Cold water enters the receiver through the inner pipe coming from header. Solar rays falling onto the dishes are reflected and concentrated onto the receivers. Due to the high temperatures achieved, the water within the receiver is converted into steam. The steam generated in the system is stored in the upper half (empty portion) of the header pipe and if the steam is not drawn, the pressure of steam keeps on increasing. Each set of dishes of the system is connected with a metal wire rope which is further connected to a winch having DC motor fixed with a timer mechanism. This mechanism keeps on moving the dishes in the direction of the sun. This type of tracking system is called central tracking. To ensure that steam is available even when sun is not there (at night and on cloudy days in monsoon) the Solar Steam Generating system is connected with a Fuel fired boiler which acts as a back‐up system. A solar steam system comprising of 96 sq.m of dish area of this technology (6 dishes each of 16 sq. m) may generate around 150 to 200 kg of steam in a day depending on location and various other features can save around 4,500 liters of diesel in a year. Fully automatically tracked large dish technology It is a Fresnel paraboloid reflecting concentrator (named Arun 160) mounted on a flat dish with downward facing cavity receiver at its focus designed to absorb the concentrated solar energy and to transfer it for useful application. The concentrator tracks the sun on two axes, continuously facing it to capture maximum amount of solar radiation over a day. The dish concentrator along with the receiver is mounted on a specially designed tower. The system is equipped with a heat retrieval mechanism (which may consist of piping and fittings, insulation, fluid circulating pump, etc.), and system controls related to tracking, thermal system and security/ emergency measures. The configuration of an industrial process heat solar system depends on the respective application. Broadly, it may consist of one (or more) number of solar dish, specially designed heat exchangers for transferring solar heat to the existing thermal system in the user industry, fluid pre‐treatment equipment and storage vessel (if required), apart from piping/ fittings, fluid circulating pump(s), insulation, control valves etc. on application side for delivery of heat as per the requirements. Each dish of this technology having a weight of around 20 tonne could generate around 600 to 700 of steam in a day depending on the solar insolation and steam pressure. More dishes could be installed for meeting the required steam in an establishment at desired temperature and pressure The solar steam/pressurized hot water/oil generating system will comprise of automatically tracked parabolic concentrators and balance of system (BOS) for conditioning and utilizing thermal energy in working fluid. The working fluid can be in the form of water, steam and organic or inorganic fluid. BOS may consist of solar thermal receivers, steam/ hot water/oil pipelines, feed water/oil pumps, tank assemblies, steel
structures and civil works, instrumentation like pressure gauges and temperature indicators etc. It will be hooked up with conventional system already in use for specific applications. In case of new systems, fossil fuel based boiler, vessels for cooking/ vapour absorption machine for cooling etc may be provided as the case may be. Minimum technical specifications of various components of the system will be as per below: Concentrators Shape & make of each concentrator Of any shape made of reflecting mirror(s) fixed to a supporting frame / structure Aperture area 10 sq. m minimum (for Scheffler dishes, it will be / 4 x lengths of major & minor axis of the ellipse) Reflecting mirrors i) Material* ii) Reflectivity iii) Mirror fixing i) High quality glass mirrors for outdoor use with protective layers of coating on back surface and sides to protect from exterior weathering effect or any other reflecting material of similar reflectivity and durability. Tracking Arrangement Any reliable automatic tracking mechanism with motorized reverse in evening & park at morning position including safe position in case of abnormal operating conditions. Made of standard components; to be protected from rain, dust & outside environment Tracking accuracy : +/‐ 0.5 degree (to be ensured using field‐calibrated inclinometer) Heat receivers, Headers and piping Tested working fluid pressure: 1.5 times of designed pressure Receivers : Of boiler/standard industry quality to sustain required temperature and pressure Header material and piping : Designed & manufactured as per IBR/ standard industry quality Insulation All working fluid piping to be insulated with minimum thickness of 50 mm of PUF or rock wool. Headers or water‐steam tank, insulated sides of receiver etc. to have minimum insulation of 75 mm. Insulation on receivers should withstand a minimum temperature of 600c. All insulated components to have Al sheet or powder coated steel sheet cladding as per industrial practices so as not to allow rain water to sip in the insulation. Frames & supporting structure Strong enough to avoid any deformation of the reflector dish during manhandling/ tracking/under wind pressure of 200 km per hour Of mild steel/ any other strong material with epoxy/anti‐rust coating Instrumentation & Controls Complete with all instrumentation such as pressure gauge, temperature indicator, fluid level indicators, safety valves, fluid meter etc. Data acquisition and control system with online monitoring to be installed for automatic monitoring, control and record of all important process parameters in installations above 500 sq. m. of dish area. Systems with Scheffler dishes having single axis automatic tracking arrangement will not be installed with more than 30 dishes at a place. For bigger systems, the dishes have to be of two axis automatic tracking mechanism. All parts/components will be of weather resistant design/specifications to withstand natural weathering outdoors under local climatic conditions, for a minimum period of 15 years.
Necessary spares will also be provided so that the user does not face any problem atleast during the warranty period. The steel structures provided to support various components of the system will be fabricated in such a way that they are able to take load (both wind load and static dead load) of the whole system. In case the terrace where the system is to be installed is not strong enough to bear the loads, these should be transferred into columns and beams and the proposed load arrangement must be discussed with the concerned civil engineering department and their approval obtained. Proper manuals will be prepared and provided to the user. Log book will also be supplied to the and user so that proper documentation is maintained. The other important features of system will be i) it will have easy access to the user and proper walkway and platforms will be supplied for easy operation and maintenance of the system wherever necessary ii) safety features such as safety valves etc will be incorporated in the system so that system does not explode under pressure and iii) proper instrumentation as mentioned above will be provided so that user could see the status of system and take precautions/corrective steps if the system does not behave as expected. Scheffler dishes are now being manufactured with 16sq. m. of aperture area. For bigger system, dishes will be added accordingly but will reduce proportionately due to lower heat losses.
Proposal for treatment and reuse The Water will be used to generate electricity by taking the brine water in to closed loop compactequipment for generating electricity using organic rankine cycle. The brine solution is than spread on the
land to generate salt and chlorine. The salt and chlorine is than packed in HDPE bags and transported forexport.Designed using the most advanced technologies, the ZE-50-ULH power generation module from ZuccatoEnergia is a compact solution for the exploitation of small, low-temperature heat sources. As such, it isideal to recover waste heat from engines and industrial processes as well as from geothermal or thermalsolar sources.The ZE-50-ULH energy production module is an ORC system working on hot water (T≥93°C) andcapable of outputting up to 50 kWE of electricity into the grid with a thermal power input of 500-600 kWT.Compact and efficient, it finds its ideal place in applications such as waste heat recovery from enginesand industrial processes, small-scale geothermal and solar thermal power generation.The ZE-150-LT energy production module from Zuccato Energia is an ORC system working onoverheated water (T≥155°C) and capable of up to 150 kWE output with a 1100 kWT thermal input.Compact and powerful, it represent the ideal solution for small scale or residential power plants (suchbiogas-fueled or biomass-fueled plants).
Waste specifications and disposal methodBrine disposal can be an environmental and economical issue in some areas where the faunaand flora are sensitive to local groundwater salinity increase. Brine disposal should be studiedand engineered case by case.We have designed a State – of – the Art Evaporator System for recovering costly chemicals aswell as precious water which is other-wise going to the waste stream. Our system is designedkeeping in view a ZERO - DISCHARGE EFFLUENT CONCEPT in view. Waste water stream, notonly causes environmental pollution to the ground water, river and field etc. but also carries with itcostly chemicals which could otherwise be recovered and re-processed for increasing therevenues.Basically, the system involves a precisely designed evaporator, completely made of StainlessSteel, a set of condensers, body in SS and tubes in especial alloy. While receiving tank andresidue holding tanks are shown in the scheme, the same are optional. Also, a reactor is notshown in this scheme, which may also be required in some cases, where there is a need toneutralize the chemicals before sending for evaporation.A detailed technical / encon / environmental audit for site and suggest a feasible solution toimplement the concept of ZERO DISCHARGE. We assure you that this measure shall go a longway for effective pollution control measure while increasing the revenues for the management.Material Balance SheetThe energy and mass balance equations, the numerical simulation results for the production rate,and the experimental laboratory water tests for a thermal desalination unit with a heat recoverysystem. The system components are a solar collector and a desalination tower, although thesystem can be operated with other energy sources. The desalination tower is made of six stagesand a water circulation system through the stages to avoid salt concentration. The numericalresults calculated using ambient data show that the production rate can reach 25 L/m2/d, which isby a factor of five times greater than the rate of a basin-type solar desalination unit. The water(polluted seawater and well water) laboratory tests results show that the desalination processeliminated the Coliform group bacteria and reduced the salt concentration to very low levels.
The solar desalination unit can reach very good thermal performance, as shown by the numericalsimulation, when well built. The results show that it can reach a water production rate of 25L/m2/d for a value of 4.8k Wh/m2/d of solar radiation. This represents a rate of 5.2 L/kWh m2 anda factor of five to six times greater than the tank-type distiller. The problem of salt concentrationhas been taken into consideration through the continuous water flow through the unit. Thelaboratory tests presented in Table 1 for very polluted seawater and for well water showSubscripts c circ e hx in k l leak o out r w — — — — — — — — — — — — ConvectionCirculation Evaporation Heat exchanger Inlet Conduction Loss Leakage Oil Outlet RadiationWaterSodium chloride < 450 mg/LSAR optimization minimizedCalcium, Magnesium Hardness 6-10oDMinimized pH 6.5-8.5Has a slightly acidic pH after Pass-1, a TDS of 70 to 350 mg/L, 2 to 6 mg/L of Ca+ Mg and Boronconcentration between 0.5-1.2 mg/L based on the raw water salinity and temperature.Drinking WaterSodium chloride and Boron can be reduced by adding a second pass RO, with either Brackishwater membranes or Seawater membranes. When water passes trough a second pass, residualcalcium and magnesium concentration are close to zero.Therefore 2nd-pass Ro permeate should be remineralized to achieve a residual typical hardnessof 8oD (100 mg/L CaCO3).This solution matches well drinking water requirements in low sodium, high calcium values.Irrigation waterIrrigation water is more complex, it relies on an equilibrium between sodium, calcium andmagnesium that ensure good infiltration in the soil. this equilibrium is measured by the SodiumAdsoprtion ratio (SAR) and the Electrical conductivity (EC):Boron should also be removed, as it represents a toxic poison for the plants.In order to keep a minimum EC of 0.3 dS/cm (~200 mg/L TDS), a sufficient calcium andmagnesium concentration, the second-pass RO should be avoided or largely by-passed.Therefore the ideal solution is to use a specific Boron removal ion exchange resin and then toremineralize.Process waterProcess water is a very generic term that includes all type of water that doesnt need to complywith the WHO guidelines for drinking water. Requirements are usually up to the water consumingapparatus manufacturers guidelines, like a heat exchanger, a boiler, dilution water, etc.. In
heating/cooling industries, process water should usually have a low mineralization to avoid scaledeposit in the pipes or chloride corrosion.Details of resources requiredEnergy - Energy is one of the largest cost factors inoperating a SOLAR DESALINATION unit. The R-TEN DLX unitsfrom R-TEN Systems are some of the most energyefficient desalination systems available. Energyconsumption for these units will vary from 3.0 to 4.5kWh per cubic meter of RO product depending uponthe system size.Labor - Even though the R-TEN units are highlyautomated, labor is still necessary for routineoperating and maintenance activities. Highly skilledlabor is not necessary since R-TEN Systems can trainany operator who meets basic qualifications. Ingeneral, the SOLAR DESALINATION lead operator should be wellversed in the operation of mechanical and electricalequipment. They should be capable of followinginstructions to perform simple troubleshooting tasks,routine test procedures, and periodic membranecleaning activities.Membrane Replacement - Modern RO membraneelements are designed for long life but they do needto be replaced periodically. Replacement interval ishighly variable depending upon local operatingconditions. Typical membrane life is three to fiveyears although there are documented cases ofmembranes lasting well over ten years.Consumables - Operation of the SOLAR DESALINATION requires theuse of certain consumable items including filter aidinjected into the feed stream to improve prefilterperformance, scale inhibitor to prevent fouling of theRO membrane, filter cartridges, and membranecleaning chemicals.Spare Parts - While R-TEN uses high qualitycomponents in constructing its R-TEN units,various parts of the SOLAR DESALINATION are apt to wear or failover time and spare replacement will be necessary.Capital Amortization - The final cost factor is theamortization of the capital investment. R-TEN’s
SOLAR DESALINATION systems have demonstrated lifetimes inexcess of ten years. Our first SOLAR DESALINATION is still operatingafter sixteen years of service.TYPICAL O&M ACTIVITIESThe tables on the following pages list the operationand maintenance activities for some of our mostpopular size plants.System Monitoring - Any SOLAR DESALINATION system requiresthe operator to check and record various criticaloperating parameters on a daily basis. This data isinvaluable when it becomes necessary to troubleshootsystem performance. The R-TEN DLX unitshave automatic data logging which minimizes thistask.Housekeeping - This covers the day-to-day tasksnecessary to keep the system clean and orderly thusprolonging the life of the system and facilitatingmaintenance activities.Filter Changes - The R-TEN systems haveseveral filtration steps utilizing disposable media(cartridges and bags). These need to be changedperiodically.Instrument Calibration - Successful operationrequires dependable data. Instruments on theR-TEN systems should be calibrated on amonthly basis.Surface and Tank Cleaning - The surface of the tankused in the R-TEN units will become fouled overtime with suspended solids, organic material, andbiofilm. The membrane is cleaned periodically witha chemical cleaning process. Actual cleaning intervalis a function of the feed water quality.Membrane Replacement - Typical membrane life isthree to five years.Component Repair - Man hours should be budgetedfor the non-scheduled repair or replacement of worncomponents.Important milestonesSTAGE Duration RemarksFEED Study 4‐WeeksEngineering and Design of Plant 8‐WeeksDetailed Engineering and Design of Equipment 12‐Weeks Can be parallel with Plant
Procurement and Fabrication 16‐Weeks .Commissioning and Erection of the Plant 8‐WeeksO&M 16‐Weeks Acknowledgement by Bidder for future We hereby reiterate and Acknowledge following: Ability to provide various commercial models such as DBO, DBOO, DBOT etc. of the plant/ facility for treatment Agree to bear CAPEX and OPEX, if required Agree to take responsibility of waste disposal