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  • 1. Turning Trash intoRenewable Energy TreasureSteve GoffCovanta EnergyJohn NortonNorton Engineering LLCMay 30, 2013Dr. Marco CastaldiThe City University of New York (CUNY)
  • 2. Today’s Presentations2Gasification of Municipal Solid WasteSteve GoffVice President of Research & DevelopmentCovanta Energy CorporationThermal Conversion of Waste to Energy and ProductsDr. Marco CastaldiAssociate Professor, Chemical Engineering DepartmentThe City University of New York (CUNY)Solid Waste Management AlternativesJohn NortonOwnerNorton Engineering LLC
  • 3. About the ASME Energy Forum3The ASME Energy Forum is a new, year-longmultimedia series that explores the technical aspects and workingsof a broad range of energy sources and related technologies.From solar power and hydrokinetics, to fuel cell vehicles and windpower, youll get leading expert perspectives on how these energysources and technologies work, the issues and challenges, and theeconomic implications for businesses.Learn more about the ASME Energy Forum and upcoming webinartopics at:
  • 4. About ASME4ASME is a not-for-profit membership organization that enablescollaboration, knowledge sharing, career enrichment, and skillsdevelopment across all engineering disciplines, toward a goal ofhelping the global engineering community develop solutions tobenefit lives and livelihoods. Founded in 1880 by a small group ofleading industrialists, ASME has grown through the decades toinclude more than 120,000 members in over 150 countriesworldwide.
  • 5. During the Webinar5• Please type all questions in the box at the bottomof your screen.• We will answer as many questions as possibleduring the event.• Speakers will answer as many questions as theycan via e-mail.
  • 6. Solid Waste ManagementAlternativesJohn W. Norton, PE, BCEE
  • 7. Overview Definition & Statistics Environmental Considerations Incinerator Plant Tour Ash Recovery/ Management Disposal & Trucking Challenges with Implementing WTE Good News about WTE
  • 8. DefinitionMunicipal solid waste (MSW), commonlyknown as trash or garbage consisting ofeveryday items discarded by the publicfrom homes and similar wastes fromindustries. It includes food wastes, yardwastes, “empty” containers, productpackaging, and other similar wastes.
  • 9. Reference:USEPAwebsite
  • 10. Reference:USEPAwebsite
  • 11. US Composting, Recycling, Combustion, and Landfilling(Most recent graph from USEPA website – 1960 to 2006)1960 - 2005RecycledCombustionLandfilledComposted
  • 12. US Disposal Practices90% Trucked to LandfillsSan Francisco -after all possiblerecycling hasbeen done!And it’s 70 milesto the nearestlandfill….
  • 13. US Disposal PracticesTypical trucks get about 3 MPGExpandedmetal screenon the backdoor…
  • 14. Solid Waste Disposal:Environmental Considerations Air Water Energy Land Use
  • 15. USEPA Recommended Alternatives
  • 16. USEPA on Waste-To-Energy(WTE)• 2002: Best environmental solution forsolid waste management• 2003: Modern Incineration with energyrecovery is among the cleanest sources ofnew electricity (next to wind turbines)
  • 17. Incinerator Plant Tour!Dayton’s newly builtNorth Plant back in 1992Weighing in thetrash
  • 18. Trucks unload tostorage pitCranes feed grapples intoeach of 3 incinerators
  • 19. Trucks unload to storage pitCranes feed grapples into each of 3 incinerators.Note smoke back on near hopper entrance.
  • 20. Typical Cross Section of theCombustion Box and Kiln
  • 21. Bottom of the EntranceHopper Chute,Beginning of theCombustion BoxLooking down on theGrates. Air comesfrom below.
  • 22. Inspecting the wearbetween theCombustion Box andKilnRepairing the RotaryKiln
  • 23. Note the white hot fire;this is just the garbageburning - no auxiliaryfuel !A smoky view up the kiln
  • 24. U.S. GarbageNote the plastics….and the cardboard and woodA look into an American Waste Storage Pit
  • 25. Note the small amount ofvegetable matter: peels,pits, bad food, etc.Typical percentages ofvarious materials in theAmerican trash.U.S. Garbage
  • 26. Back to the Incinerator…This is the drag conveyor thatpulls it out of the water.Note the acetylene bottle,these units are tough!This is where the ash material fallsout.The red bits are molten glass andsteel bits like nails, screws, nuts,bolts, etc.
  • 27. Incinerator Ash ManagementIn the U.S, the primary benefit from incineration isreduced volume.But the ash material can be recovered too!
  • 28. Ash Recovery -Steel first, then all the other metalsAfter the steel has been removed, all the Brass, Aluminum, Copper,and Tin can all be removed by passing the relatively uniform ashresidue across a spinning magnet which causes any metal in itsmagnetic field to jump off the conveyor.
  • 29. This is where the metal hadfirst been removed; we allowedpeople to come in and just pickit out for sale. They paid usabout $1 per ton just so wecould keep track of how muchthere was.Unfortunately these menmissed a lot of it and theywould occasionally get intofights about whose pilebelonged to who.Reclaiming Steel…
  • 30. Reclaiming Steel…Eventually we selected a bigmetal firm to set up their ownequipment and recover almostall of the metal. Iron first...Mostly is it removed by sizeselection and magnetics.Several passes, perhaps.
  • 31. Here is a view of therecovered iron and steelmaterial.Reclaiming Steel…An even closer view.On closer inspection,you can find not onlypaper clips, butstaples from thepaper documents aswell, essentially 100%
  • 32. Ash Recovery: Building BlocksWith all the metals removed the remaining material(glass cullet, crockery particles, rocks and sand) canbe used to make Building Blocks.
  • 33. Ash Blocks used to buildthese buildings in Dayton…Building used for tractor maintenance
  • 34. US Disposal Practices 90% Trucked to Landfills 10% Incinerated via WTE EU policy: nothing to be buried withmore than 2% combustible content. Results in a higher % of combustion andenergy recoveryEU Disposal Practices
  • 35. Challenges Implementing WTE Costly Financing is impossible without“Flow Control”
  • 36. “Flow Control”• Supreme Court ruling in 1994 appeared toeliminate “flow control” [for the waste to bedirected into the new large, expensive plants toburn]• Supreme Court ruling in 2007 now clarifies thatflow control for this purpose is legal.• Very tight air pollution control restriction in the1999 CAAA: MACT vs BACTo Maximum vs Best Available Air Controltechnology; MACT includes not pricingconsideration
  • 37. Good News about WTE• 86 large operating WTE incinerator plants inthis country.o Non compliance measured in minutes overa 15 year period of intense scrutiny.• Roughly 10 WTE incinerators areundergoing popular expansions at thispoint.• Some new plants under consideration• WTE lowers the Carbon Footprint
  • 38. 38Steve GoffCovanta Energy CorporationMay 2013Gasification ofMunicipal Solid Waste
  • 39. 1. Gasification Basics2. Challenges with MSW3. Commercial Demonstration4. Covanta CLEERGAS® System39Agenda
  • 40. PYROLYSIS GASIFICATION COMBUSTIONHCs, Tars, Char H2 / CO CO2, H2O(No air) (Partial air) (Excess air)Very Endothermic Exothermic / Endothermic Very ExothermicBalanceGasificationGasification is the partial oxidation of the organic content of a feedstock toproduce a H2 / CO containing syngas• Market perception that gasification is a superior process• Potential benefits of reduced air requirement and lower emissions
  • 41. 41Gasification Reactions OXIDATION REACTION:• Partial Oxidation: CxHy + O2 CO2 + H2O GASIFICATION REACTIONS:• Steam Reforming: CxHy + H2O CO + H2• CO2 Reforming: CxHy + CO2 CO + y/2 H2• Pyrolysis: CxHy CH4 + (x-y/4) C EQUILIBRIUM REACTIONS:• Water Gas Shift: CO + H2O CO2 + H2• Boudouard: 2CO CO2 + C
  • 42. • Heterogeneous nature of MSW complicates equipment design, processdesign and process control– Broad range of physical and chemical properties– Heating value variability• Gasification processes developed for coal or biomass require significantpre-processing of MSW – high cost– Moving bed, fluidized bed, entrained flow reactor types• Syngas quality and heating value dependent on many parameters– Gasification temperature, air vs. oxygen, other reactants (steam, CO2),other energy inputs (plasma), gasifier design, control system42Challenges With MSWGasification of MSW is technically and economically challenging
  • 43. 0204060801001201400500100015002000250030003500400045000.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9SyngasHHV(BTU/SCF)GasificationAdiabaticTemp(F)Stoichiometric Air RatioMSW GasificationEnergy Balance Considerations
  • 44. GASIFICATION / SYNGAS COMBUSTION - Goal of improved emissions & energy efficiencyGASIFICATION / SYNGAS RECOVERY - Goal of combined cycle power or high value productsSyngasCombustionMSW GasificationConventionalBoiler, APC,Power GenAirLow QualitySyngasReduced NOx ,CO & gas flowGasificationMSWHydrogenProductionCombinedCycle PowerSyngasCleaningLiquid FuelsProductionAir / O2High QualitySyngasSyngasUpgradingTypes of MSW Gasification Processes
  • 45. MSW GasificationImpact of Oxygen Enrichment0204060801001201401601802000500100015002000250030003500400045000.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9SyngasHHV(BTU/SCF)GasificationAdiabaticTemp(F)Stoichiometric Air RatioAirAir50% O250% O2Cost of O2 enrichment determined to not justified for power generation processes
  • 46. • Comprehensive study on hundreds of advanced thermaltechnologies• 5 TPD gasification / syngas combustion pilot program• 5 TPD gasification / syngas recovery pilot program• 350 TPD commercial gasification / syngas combustion unit• Engineered commercial 300 TPD modular system• Continuing R&D on gasification / syngas recovery– 2006– 2009– 2010– 2011– 2012– 2013Covanta Research & DevelopmentOngoing Investment in Development of MSW Gasification
  • 47. • System designed for unprocessed, post-recycling MSW– Handling, shredding, processing, storing waste = high costs• Employ reliable solid handling equipment for feed system, gasifier,and ash removal– Analogous to conventional EfW• No additional sources of energy input to the process– No electric power, plasma, coal or coke• Air based – no oxygen enrichment– Oxygen aids process, but cost is not recovered in product value47MSW GasificationKey Components for Commercial ViabilityCommercial success very dependent on the process and equipment.
  • 48. • Refurbishment of existing 350 TPD EfWwaterwall boiler – Tulsa, OK• No preprocessing of MSW• Covanta designed reciprocating platform• Extensive air distribution system• Covanta designed control system– Superior system stability• Operating reliably since July 2011– 94% availability• Low emissions: NOx at 40 – 60 ppm• Reduced particulate resulting in lessboiler fouling and corrosionCovantaReciprocatingPlatformSyngasSamplingSyngasCombustion AirDistributionGasificationChamber RoofBullnoseGasificationPrimary AirDistributionGasificationChamberSyngasCombustionChamberSNCRAmmoniaInjectionCommercial DemonstrationMSW Gasification with Syngas Combustion
  • 49. 4500 Btu/lb MSW5000 Btu/lb MSW5500 Btu/lb MSW1020304050607080901001100.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1SyngasHeatingValue,Btu/SCFStoichiometric ratioSyngas Sampling and AnalysisSyngas heating value from Tulsa demonstration limited by retrofit of waterwall furnace
  • 50. Covanta CLEERGAS® GasifierProcess Improvements from Tulsa Refurbishment• Separation of gasification zone from carbonburnout zone in gasifier reactor• Burnout zone energy recovered to drivegasification process – reduces stoichiometricratio and increases syngas heating value• Refractory-lined gasifier to minimize energyloss – simpler design than waterwall furnace• Cylindrical waterwall syngas combustor withstaged air injection – reduces air requirementand NOx formation• Optimal SNCR performance in turbulentsyngas combustor• Advanced control system developed fromTulsa demonstration
  • 51. 4500 Btu/lb MSW5000 Btu/lb MSW5500 Btu/lb MSW1020304050607080901001100.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1SyngasHeatingValue,Btu/SCFStoichiometric ratioCLEERGAS® – Higher Syngas Quality
  • 52. • Commercialization of MSW gasification with syngas combustion– Lower emissions– Higher boiler efficiency– Reduced boiler fouling and corrosion– Lower capital cost – modularization– Developing projects around the world• Ongoing development of gasification with syngas recovery– Syngas tars conversion and clean-up difficult– Main driver remains reduced emissions potential– Minimal energy efficiency benefit potential with gas engines & turbines– Conversion to liquids challenged by syngas quality and economicsCovanta CLEERGAS®
  • 53. Thank You
  • 54. Thermal Conversion of Waste toEnergy and ProductsAmerican Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)Webinar: Turning Trash Into Renewable Energy TreasureThursday, May 30, 20132:00PM –3:00PM ET,New York U.S.Marco J. CastaldiAssociate ProfessorChemical Engineering DepartmentThe City College of New YorkCity University of New York
  • 55. Waste-to-Energy (WTE) FacilityIN100 cubic yardsof wasteOUT10 cubic yardsof (inert) ash90% volumereductionReducing the Volume of Waste & Generating Energy13,000 KWhgeneratedE = M x C2Energy is mass times a constant(from the mass recover energy)
  • 56. Waste Management Options249 Million tonsof trash (MSW)goes tolandfillsUp to 100 kilowatt hours ofelectricity per ton of wasteRenewable Energy Generatedfrom Landfills - 5 billion kWh29 Million tonsof trash goes toEfWRenewable energy generated fromWTE Facilities - 15 billion kWhUp to 700 kilowatt hours ofelectricity per ton of wasteWaste to EnergyLandfillsThese two options must co-exist for the foreseeable future
  • 57. WTE is Increasing• In 2011 the world MSW generated ±2 billion tons• Currently ~800 thermal WTE plants– Operating in nearly 40 countries– This is 11% vs. 70% landfilled• WTE expected to increase– From 221 terawatt hours in 2010 to 283 tW-hrs by 2022– Global market for WTE technologies $6.2 billion in 2012and expected to grow to $29.2 billion by 2022.Source: Pike Research
  • 58. • WTE conserves fossil fuels by generating electricity. (Energy)– 1 ton of waste combusted = 45 gallons of oil or 0.28 tons of coal– Most WTE facilities in U.S. process between 500 and 3,000 tons of waste per day– Electricity for 2.8 million homes• WTE facilities process 14% of the MSW in the United States. (Health)– Trash-disposal needs about than 37 million people• WTE facilities meet some of the worlds most stringent standards. (Environmental, local)– Achieved compliance with new Clean Air Act pollution control standards in 2000– EPA data :dioxin emissions now account for less than 0.5% of dioxin emissions• WTE facilities reduce greenhouse gas emissions. (Climate, global)– EPA estimates: WTE facilities prevent 33 million metric tons of CO2 per year avoided• WTE facilities save real estate. (Land)– They reduce the space required for landfills by about 90%• WTE is compatible with recycling. (Resource Minimization)– WTE Communities recycle 35% of their trash, compared to 30% for the general population.– Annually removes more than 700,000 tons of ferrous materials– 3 million tons of WTE ash reused as landfill cover, roadbed, or building material.• WTE facilities provide economic benefits. (Economic)– WTE is a $10 billion industry employs ~ 6,000 American workers annual wages ~ $400 millionWTE cuts across many sustainable fronts
  • 59. A Renewable Resource• ASTM D8666 testing standard using 14C• Biomass content; 3 WTE flue gas samples• 66%, 68% and 66%•10% - 36% reduction of CO2 emissions compared to landfill
  • 60. LadderWTE andrecycling arecomplementaryWhy?A complete lookat wastemanagementincludes ALLoptions
  • 61. Representative Emissions for U.S. WTE Operational Facilities(meeting strict EU standards which are lower than US standards)
  • 62. Dioxins Reality11.0051.014 6 8 10background199020002009Relative concentrations of dioxinsBackground1990000.0E+0 100.0E+6 200.0E+6 300.0E+6 400.0E+6 500.0E+6 600.0E+6 700.0E+61Dioxin emissions to atmosphere for100 years of WTE plant operationequals 15 minutes of fireworksBar = timescale of WTERed line = timescale of fireworks
  • 63. Technology
  • 64. Pyrolysis, Gasification or Combustion• Sub stoichiometric air• Lower total volumetricflow• Lower fly ash carry over• Pollutants in reduced form(H2S, COS)• Char @ Low T• Vitrified Slag @ high T• Scale: ~ 100 tons/day• Excess air• Higher volumetric flowrate• Fly ash carry over• Pollutants in oxidized form(SOx, NOx, etc)• Bottom ash• Scale: ~ 1500 tons/day• Normally no air• Only heat (external orinternal)• Want liquid, Gasesnot desired• Pollutants in reducedform (H2S, COS)• High Char• Scale: ~ 10 tons/dayNo additional Oxygen(only heat)Unconverted solid willremain!Some additionalOxygen (or air)Heat added orcomes fromreactionsMuch additionalOxygen (or air)Heat comes fromreactions
  • 65. Combustion Option1) C + O2  CO2 + Heat2) H2 + 1/2O2  H2O + Heat3) Char + Heat  Slag• A heat engine converts heat into work.efficiency is given by  = |w| / qh  = 1 - |qc| / qh  = 1 - |Tc| / ThThTcEngineqhqcwPrimarily generate heatCombustion systems are constrained by Carnotcycle to extract work (i.e. electricity, power)
  • 66. Gasification OptionWork needs to be done hereGasification(and pyrolysis)have option tomake otherproducts, notonly heat andwork
  • 67. Gasification status• 163 commercial gasification projects worldwideconsisting of a total of 468 gasifiers. DOE survey• ~ 120 plants began operations between 1960 and 2000– majority (more than 72 plants) commissioned after1980. Currently ~34 new plants are at various stages ofplanning and construction.• The majority of the existing plants were designed andconstructed to produce a synthetic gas, consistingprimarily of H2 and CO• Ethanol – EnerChem/City of Edmonton – 2013 Pilot• Energos (Sweden, UK) building plants @ <150,000 tpyTotaling ~ 35 million tpy (metric)
  • 68. Combustion Status(metric tons)• Number of nations using WTE: 35• Total number of WTE plants > 600• Estimated global WTE: 170 million tpy• U.S. WTE: 26 million tpy• Urban global landfilling: 830 million tpy• U.S. landfilling: 225 million tpy• Recent expansions of ~800,000 tpy• New US Facility ~ 1 million tpy (2015)
  • 69. Worldwide Installations of Units (i.e. boiler, gasifier, etc)NumberofUnits(logarithmic)
  • 70. EnvironmentalManagementSystemContinuous EmissionMonitoring System (CEMS)Odors Burned in BoilersAsh WettedHigh-temperatureCombustionAcid Gas ScrubbersBaghouseor ESPCarbonInjection*TallStackManualStackTestsTypical Waste-to-Energy PlantEnclosedUnloading andStorage AreasUrea Injection*Thermal Treatment
  • 71. THERMOSELECTPROCESS OVERVIEWZinc ConcentrateSaltClean waterSulfurSynthesis GasProduction ofHydrogenMethanolAmmonia orPower generationO2PressDegassing ChannelOxygen facilityHomogenization reactorQuenchHigh TemperatureChamberWaste of all kindsProcess water treatmentSynthesis gas scrubbingMetals andMinerals1600°C2000°C1200°CScrubberH2, CO, CO2, H2OThe Thermoselect Process (Interstate WasteTechnologies, U.S.)Thermal Treatment
  • 72. Process FlowsheetOverhead CraneWaste PitWasteHopperShredderWasteFeederGasifier*1NoncombustibleDischargeConveyorSand ScreenMagneticSeparatorIronInertmaterialsAluminum SlagAsh-meltingFurnaceQuenching PitAluminumSeparatorWaste HeatBoilerEconomizerNo. 1 AshTreatmentFacilityTreatedAPC AshOther reagentsTreatedFlue GasBagFilterInducedDraft FanFlue GasReheaterCatalyticReactorAmmoniaStackCoolingWaterAsh TreatmentAgentFlueGasCoolerCaustic SodaLiquid ChelateGasScrubberCirculatingFanWasteWaterFlue Gas Treatment (Air Pollution Control)Thermal TreatmentStorage and FeedingConventional technologyConventional technologyEbara Fluidized-bed TwinRec/TIFG Technology
  • 73. The Nippon Steel WTE ProcessBagThermal Treatment
  • 74. Comparison Summary for Plasma SystemsTechnology Energy (kWh/ton) Capital Costs ($/ton)InEnTec 530 ~77 (est)Alter NRG 617 81Europlasma 605 86Plasco 530 86Newer WTE 650 74Grate WTE (US avg) 550 60Efficiency comes at a cost
  • 75. History of MSW Thermal Treatment 1900 - 20001896 1970
  • 76. Combustion (WTE) Facilities Today
  • 77. What’s Next• Next generation combustors – higher energy density– Low NOx operation– Approach 3+ MW m-2– Injection of halogen scavengers• Liquefaction of wastes (T ~ 300 – 500 ºC)– Removal of O2• Gasification to fuels and chemicals– Enerkem– Solena Group Inc• Novel uses of ash – catalytic and property adjustment• LFGTE Applications and LFG to fuels
  • 78. City College of New York (CCNY) Columbia University WTERT, U.S. (2002) SYNERGIA, Greece (2007) WTERT, China (2008) CEFWC, Canada (2008) WERT, Germany (2009) WTERT, Japan (2010) WTERT-Brasil, Brazil (2010) Under formation: France, U.K., India, Argentina, Mexico, Thailand, Italy,Czech RepublicA truly international organization: Sister organizations in many nations
  • 79. Beginning in 2013, the IT3/HWC conference will be organized in odd years in partnershipwith the Waste-to-Energy Research and Technology Council (WTERT) and the Materialsand Energy Recovery Division (MER) of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers(ASME). These groups will be involved in the conference planning and development oftechnical sessionsChemical EngineeringDepartmentEarth Engineering CenterColumbia University and City College of New York
  • 80. AcknowledgementsChemical Engineering DepartmentEarth Engineering CenterColumbia University and City College of New YorkSustainability in Urban Environment– Capstone project (Engineering, Science& Architecture)“An Integrated Waste-to-Energy Plan for New York City”You, The Audience for Attention
  • 81. 82Questions?
  • 82. Thank you for attending!Continue the conversation aboutWTE technologies on the [insertgroup page name] on us for the next webinar inJuly 2013 on the topic ofWind more:
  • 83. 84Appendix
  • 84. 85About the PresentersSteve GoffCovanta EnergySteve Goff is Vice President of Research & Development for CovantaEnergy Corporation, where he is responsible for leading Covanta’sresearch and technology development efforts. Key areas under hisresponsibility include the evaluation and development of new thermalconversion technologies, including combustion and gasification, formunicipal solid waste and other renewable solid fuels, boiler and powergeneration technologies, emissions control technologies, and ashtreatment and reuse methods.Mr. Goff joined Covanta in 2005 with the acquisition of American Ref-FuelCompany, where he had worked since the formation of the company in1985. Mr. Goff has over 30 years of industrial experience in Energy fromWaste and other environmental and high-temperature process industries.He earned his B.S. in Chemical Engineering from Villanova University, andhis M.S. in Chemical Engineering from Lehigh University.
  • 85. 86About the PresentersJohn NortonNorton Engineering LLCJohn Norton operated two Solid Waste Combustion Plants (each with a 750TPD capacity) as the former Director of the Dayton, Ohio Solid WasteManagement Department. He is a Registered Professional Engineer and isa Board Certified Solid Waste Expert by The American Academy ofEnvironmental Engineers (BCEE).Since 1976, Mr. Norton has provided consulting services in civil, mechanical,and electrical engineering and environmental matters: Solid wastemanagement plans, designs, construction, operation, and troubleshooting, aswell as stormwater systems modeling, design, and monitoring, and analysis.
  • 86. 87About the PresentersDr. Marco CastaldiThe City College of The City University of New York (CUNY)Marco Castaldi was born in New York City and received his B.S. Ch.E.(Magna cum Laude) from Manhattan College. His Ph.D. is in ChemicalEngineering from UCLA and he has minors in Advanced TheoreticalPhysics and Astrophysics. Prior to joining CCNY he was AssociateProfessor at Columbia University’s Earth & Environmental EngineeringDepartment. Professor Castaldi has approximately 50 peer-reviewedresearch articles, 32 peer-reviewed conference papers, 3 book chaptersand 11 patents in the fields of catalysis, combustion and gasification.Some of his research findings have been covered by The New YorkTimes, The Observer, CNN, and other trade publications. In addition, heis the Editor of the North American Waste to Energy Conference(NAWTEC) Series (ISBN: 978-0-7918-4393-2), Editor of the Waste toEnergy text published by Woodhead Publishing, Editorial Board Memberof Waste and Biomass Valorization published through Springer (ISSN:1877-2641) and Catalysts (ISSN 2073-4344).