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# Energy 101

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### Energy 101

1. 1. ENERGY 101: kilo-what?Gustav Brändström Angela Vreeland
2. 2. Outline What is Energy? Where does Energy come from? Why is carbon bad?
3. 3. What is Energy?
4. 4. What is Energy? Def. the capacity of a system to do work. Potential Energy – Electricity and Heat Kinetic Energy – Moving mass
5. 5. Energy in Homes Sources  Electricity  Natural Gas / LPG  Fuel Oil  District Heating/Cooling  Biomass
6. 6. Energy in homes Energy use in homes www.eia.doe.gov
7. 7. Energy words Watt (W) [or Kilowatt (kW) = 1000 W]  Unit of power, rate of usage  Light bulbs, hairdryers and blenders Kilowatt Hour (kWh)  Unit of energy, amount of usage  Power over time  Seen on energy bills
8. 8. Energy words Btu  British Thermal Unit  Energy – amount of usage  Raise 1lb of water 1˚F  1 Btu = Burning a match  1,000 Btu ≈ 1 cubic foot of natural gas  100,000 Btu = 1 Therm
9. 9. A million different ratings… (S)EER – (Seasonal) Energy Efficiency Rating  (S)EER = # of Btu per Wh  SEER = EER ÷ 0.9 = COP x 3.792  Higher is better  SEER 13 is minimum for AC units from 2005 COP – Coefficient of Performance  COP = Work Output per Energy Input  Higher is better  Found on heat pumps
10. 10. A million different ratings… % Efficient  The ratio of the work done to the energy supplied to it  Most clear rating  A very general term (cars, motors, etc.) Efficacy  Amount of Lumens per Watt  Incandescent – 17 Lumens/Watt  Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL) – 70 Lum/W  CFLs have about 4X higher Efficacy (4X “more efficient”)
11. 11. Where does energy come from?
12. 12. Where does energy come from?Major Energy Sources: Electricity Petroleum Natural Gas Renewables  Solar, Wind, Hydro, Biomass, etc
13. 13. Where does energy comefrom? U.S. Energy Flow,  2006 (Quadrillion Btu) www.eia.doe.gov
14. 14. Where does energy come from?U.S. Energy Flow- Key Points 1/3 of our total energy supply is imported. 85% of the total energy we use is in the form of fossil fuels. The percent total energy use of each sector:  Residential- 21%  Commercial- 18%  Industrial- 32%  Transportation- 28%
15. 15. Where does energy come from?Electricity U.S. Electricity Flow, 2006 (Quadrillion Btu) www.eia.doe.gov
16. 16. Where does energy come from?Electricity Half of our electricity comes from coal. The rest is from natural gas, nuclear, and some renewables. Majority of energy used to make electricity is domestic. 65% of the energy is lost in conversion, transmission, and distribution!!!
17. 17. Where does energy come from?Electricity from coal or natural gas1. Fuel is burned to produce heat to boil water.2. The steam from the boiling water spins a large fan called a turbine.3. The turbine rotates a large magnet to create an electrical charge. www.oncor.com
18. 18. Where does energy come from?Electricity from nuclear1. Uranium atoms are split in a process called fission. Fission releases energy that can be used to make steam.2. The steam from the boiling water spins a large fan called a turbine.3. The turbine rotates a large magnet to create an electrical charge. www.inkycircus.com
19. 19. Where does energy come from?Electricity Multiple steps and associated efficiencies in converting chemical energy of a fuel to energy as visible light for illumination.
20. 20. Where does energy come from?Petroleum- The U.S. consumed 939 million tons in 2006 www.bp.com
21. 21. Where does energy come from?Petroleum Crude Oil Oil Sands (Tar Sands) Shale Oil
22. 22. Where does energy come from?Petroleum Crude Oil  Located in oil wells (Middle East)  Liquid form  Extraction and refinery is less harmful to the environment www.wikipedia.org
23. 23. Where does energy come from?Petroleum Oil Sands (Tar Sands)  Mix of clay, sand, water, and bitumen  Bitumen is a viscous, solid or semisolid form of oil  Usually mined through strip or open pit mining  Requires a large amount of water and energy to process  Most oil reserves in the world are oil sands, primarily located in Canada and Venezuela
24. 24. Where does energy come from?Petroleum Oil Sands (Tar Sands) climatechangeaction.blogspot.com
25. 25. Where does energy come from?Petroleum Shale Oil  Sedimentary rock that contains bitumen  Complicated and more expensive to convert to oil  Located worldwide, U.S. has 2/3 of total reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming www.dkimages.com
26. 26. Where does energy come from?Petroleum Products Made from a Barrel of Crude Oil (Gallons) www.eia.doe.gov
27. 27. Where does energy come from?Natural Gas- The U.S. consumed 620 billion cubic meters in 2006 www.bp.com
28. 28. Where does energy come from?Natural Gas Primarily composed of methane. Burns “clean”- emits lower levels of harmful byproducts than other gases. Found in underground reservoirs. LNG is Liquid Natural Gas, which must be kept at -260°F. LNG can be shipped and stored easier than in gaseous form- takes up 1/600th of the volume.
29. 29. Where does energy come from?Natural Gas www.eia.doe.gov
30. 30. Where does energy come from?Natural Gas Over half the homes in the U.S. use natural gas as their main heating fuel. www.eia.doe.gov
31. 31. Where does energy come from?Renewable Energy Electricity  Hydro  Burning wood or other biomass  Wind  Solar (photovoltaics) Heat  Burning wood or other biomass  Solar (solar thermal)  Geothermal Transportation Fuel  Biodiesel (soybeans, algae, etc)  Ethanol (corn, sugarcane, cellulose, etc)
32. 32. Where does energy come from?Renewable EnergyThe Role of Renewable Energy Consumption in the U.S. Energy Supply, 2005 www.eia.doe.gov
33. 33. Why is carbon bad?
34. 34. Why is carbon bad?Greenhouse Effect www.eere.energy.gov
35. 35. Why is carbon bad?Greenhouse Gases Emitted by U.S. www.eia.doe.gov
36. 36. Why is carbon bad? Annual production of different GHGs worldwide Annual Production of GHGs worldwide 6.01 6 5Billions Metric Tons of Gas 4 3 2 1 0.03 Less than 0.005 -- 0 Carbon Dioxide Methane Nitrous Oxides HFCs PFCs SF6 - - = Not applicable because these gases cannot be summed in native units. www.eia.doe.gov
37. 37. Why is carbon bad?How bad the different GHGs are for the environment, compared to CO2 The Global Warming Potential of GHGs, by type of Gas, 2005 100 100 90 80Potential compared to Carbon Dioxide 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 10 6 3 0 Carbon Dioxide Methane Nitrous Oxides HFCs PFCs SF6 www.eia.doe.gov
38. 38. Why is carbon bad?Carbon Cycle (Billion Metric Tons Carbon) www.eia.doe.gov
39. 39. Why is carbon bad?Carbon Dioxide (CO2)  Sources  Respiration  Volcanoes  Land-use Change (releasing carbon sinks)  Fossil Fuel Combustion  Lime and Cement Manufacturing  Biomass Burning
40. 40. Why is carbon bad?Carbon Dioxide (CO2)  Since the Industrial Revolution, the concentration has risen by about 25% in the Earth’s atmosphere. www.eoearth.org
41. 41. Why is carbon bad?Carbon Dioxide (CO2)  Will exceed 700 ppm by the end of this century.  According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, this could lead to global warming of between 1.5 and 10.4°F!  Frequent severe weather conditions  Damage to many natural ecosystems
42. 42. Why is carbon bad?Carbon Footprint  “A Carbon Footprint is a measure of the impact human activities have on the environment in terms of the amount of greenhouse gases produced, measured in units of carbon dioxide.”- carbonfootprint.com  Reduce Yours!  The average carbon footprint in the U.S. is 18.58 tons of CO2 per year!  Take the MN Energy Challenge
43. 43. Further Information
44. 44. Questions?