Designing courses for significant learning
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Presentation by Stewart Ross, Minnesota State University Mankato, introducing Dee Fink’s taxonomy of significant learning at Minnesota Campus Compact's, Designing Community-Engaged Courses and......

Presentation by Stewart Ross, Minnesota State University Mankato, introducing Dee Fink’s taxonomy of significant learning at Minnesota Campus Compact's, Designing Community-Engaged Courses and Assessment event,October 7, 2011.

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  • 1. DESIGNING COURSES for SIGNIFICANT LEARNING
    A Workshop Offered by:
    • Stewart Ross, Ph.D. Dee Fink & Associates
    University of Minnesota
    October 7, 2011
  • 2.
  • 3. SPECIFIC GOALS for This Workshop
     
    FOUNDATION KNOWLEDGE: Understand the basic terms and concepts
    APPLICATION: Be able to use the model of Integrated Course Design (ICD)
    INTEGRATION: Identify the relationship between what you are doing now as a teacher and the ideas of ICD
  • 4. SPECIFIC GOALS for This Workshop(cont.)
    HUMAN DIMENSION:
    • SELF: Be more confident that you can do this
    • 5. OTHERS: Work with others to create more powerful designs
    CARING: Identify the value of course design in teaching
    LEARNING HOW TO LEARN: Know what else you want to learn about course design – and how to learn that.
  • 6. Agenda for Workshop
    Big Picture of Teaching—Place of Course Design
    Readiness Assessment Test
    Integrated Course Design:
    -Situational Factors
    -Learning Goals
    -Feedback & Assessment
    -Teaching/Learning Activities
    -Making your course integrated
    Does it work?
  • 7. PARADIGM SHIFT IN COLLEGE TEACHING
    From: “TEACHING”
    To: “LEARNING”
    • What is the difference?
    • 8. Leads to new questions about our work as teachers.
  • PARADIGM SHIFT IN COLLEGE TEACHING
    From: “TEACHING”
    To: “LEARNING”
    • What is the difference?
  • HOW DO PEOPLE LEARN?
    Transmit Knowledge?
  • 9. Transmission
    Of
    Knowledge
  • 10. Transmitting Knowledge?
  • 11. HOW DO PEOPLE LEARN?
    Transmit Knowledge?
    Constructivism
  • 12. HOW DO PEOPLE LEARN?
    Transmit Knowledge?
    Constructivism
    • Social Constructivism
  • Social Constructivism:
    • We can construct our understanding of anything by ourselves, but...
    • 13. it usually works much better to collaborate and dialogue with others
  • End of course
    During Course/College:
    After College:
    3 FEATURES OF A HIGH QUALITY LEARNING EXPERIENCE
    3. The learning: ADDS VALUE
    1. Students are: ENGAGED
    2. Student effort results in: SIGNIFICANT & LASTING LEARNING
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16. Interacting with Students
    Knowledge of the Subject Matter
    Designing Learning Experiences
    Managing the Course
    FUNDAMENTAL TASKS OF TEACHING
    Beginning of the Course
  • 17. 3 Ways of Designing Courses:
    “List of Topics”
    “List of Activities”
    Need a way of designing courses that is:
  • Readiness Assessment Test
    www.epsteineducation.com
  • 20. # of SCRATCHES: # of POINTS:
    1 - - - - 4
    2 - - - - 2
    3 - - - - 1
    4 - - - - 0
  • 21. Integrated Course Design:
    OVERVIEW
  • 22. Teaching &
    Learning
    Activities
    Feedback & Assessment
    INTEGRATED COURSE DESIGN:
    Key Components
    Learning Goals
    S i t u a t i o n a l F a c t o r s
  • 23. Learning Goals
    Teaching and
    Learning
    Activities
    Feedback &
    Assessment
    Criteria of “GOOD” Course Design
    Significant
    Learning
    Integration
    Educative
    Assessment
    Active
    Learning
    S I T U A T I O N A L F A C T O R S
    In-Depth Situational Analysis
  • 24. Integrated Course Design:
    SITUATIONAL FACTORS
  • 25. Learning Goals
    Teaching and
    Learning
    Activities
    Feedback &
    Assessment
    Criteria of “GOOD” Course Design
    Significant
    Learning
    Integration
    Educative
    Assessment
    Active
    Learning
    S I T U A T I O N A L F A C T O R S
    In-Depth Situational Analysis
  • 26. Situational Factors:
    Collecting information about…
    • Specific Context
    • 27. Expectations by people outside the course
    • 28. Nature of the Subject
    • 29. Nature of Students
    • 30. Nature of Teacher
  • Situational Factors
    Specific Context of the Teaching/Learning Situation
    Number of students
    Level of course
    Time structure
    Delivery: Live – Hybrid – Online
    Expectations of Others:
    What expectations are placed on this course or curriculum by:
    Society?
    The University, College and/or the Department?
    The Profession?
  • 31. Nature of the Subject
    Primarily theoretical, practical, or some combination?
    Convergent or divergent?
    Important changes or controversies occurring?
    Characteristics of the Learners
    Their life situation (e.g., working, family, professional goals)?
    Their prior knowledge, experiences, and initial feelings?
    Their learning goals, expectations, and preferred learning styles?
  • 32. Characteristics of the Teacher(s)
    My beliefs and values about teaching and learning?
    My attitude toward: the subject, students?
    My teaching skills?
    My level of knowledge or familiarity with this subject?
  • 33. SPECIAL PEDAGOGICAL CHALLENGE
    Premise:
    • Every course has a special pedagogical challenge.
    • 34. The teacher needs to do something about that challenge in the first week (maybe the first day) of class.
  • 35. What is YOUR special pedagogical challenge in teaching YOUR course?
  • 36. Learning Goals
    Teaching and
    Learning
    Activities
    Feedback &
    Assessment
    Criteria of “GOOD” Course Design
    Significant
    Learning
    Integration
    Educative
    Assessment
    Active
    Learning
    S I T U A T I O N A L F A C T O R S
    In-Depth Situational Analysis
  • 37. Integrated Course Design:
    LEARNING GOALS
  • 38. Learning Goals
    Teaching and
    Learning
    Activities
    Feedback &
    Assessment
    Criteria of “GOOD” Course Design
    Significant
    Learning
    Integration
    Educative
    Assessment
    Active
    Learning
    S I T U A T I O N A L F A C T O R S
    In-Depth Situational Analysis
  • 39. FACULTY DREAMS
    If you had a class that could and would learn anything and everything you wanted them to learn:
    What is it that you would really like them to learn?
    Write a paragraph or two that explains your dream. Share with others.
  • 40. Learning HOW to Learn
    • Becoming a better student
    • 41. Inquiring about a subject
    • 42. Self-directing learners
    Foundational Knowledge
    Understanding and
    remembering:
    Application
    • Skills
    • 44. Thinking: Critical, Creative, & Practical
    • 45. Managing projects
    Caring
    Developing new…
    Integration
    Connecting:
    Human Dimensions
    Learning about:
    Taxonomy of Significant Learning
  • 51. Formulating Significant Learning Goals:FOUNDATIONAL KNOWLEDGE
    What key information (facts, terms, formula, concepts, relationships) is important for students to understand and remember in the future?
    What key ideas or perspectives are important for students to understand in this course?
  • 52. Learning HOW to Learn
    • Becoming a better student
    • 53. Inquiring about a subject
    • 54. Self-directing learners
    Foundational Knowledge
    Understanding and
    remembering:
    APPLICATION
    • Skills
    • 56. Thinking: Critical, Creative, & Practical
    • 57. Managing projects
    Caring
    Developing new…
    Integration
    Connecting:
    Human Dimensions
    Learning about:
    Taxonomy of Significant Learning
  • 63. Formulating Significant Learning Goals:APPLICATION
    What kinds of thinking are important for students to learn in this course? Critical thinking? Creative thinking? Practical thinking?
    What important skills do students need to learn? (e.g., physical, communication, “people” skills)
    What complex projects do students need to learn now to manage?
  • 64. Learning HOW to Learn
    • Becoming a better student
    • 65. Inquiring about a subject
    • 66. Self-directing learners
    Foundational Knowledge
    Understanding and
    remembering:
    Application
    • Skills
    • 68. Thinking: Critical, Creative, & Practical
    • 69. Managing projects
    Caring
    Developing new…
    INTEGRATION
    Connecting:
    Human Dimensions
    Learning about:
    Taxonomy of Significant Learning
  • 75. Formulating Significant Learning Goals:INTEGRATION
    What connections (similarities and interactions) should students recognize and make
    --Among ideas within the course?
    --Between the information, ideas & perspectives in this course and those in other courses or areas?
    --Between material in this course and the students’ own personal, social and work life?
  • 76. Learning HOW to Learn
    • Becoming a better student
    • 77. Inquiring about a subject
    • 78. Self-directing learners
    Foundational Knowledge
    Understanding and
    remembering:
    Application
    • Skills
    • 80. Thinking: Critical, Creative, & Practical
    • 81. Managing projects
    Caring
    Developing new…
    Integration
    Connecting:
    HUMAN DIMENSION
    Learning about:
    Taxonomy of Significant Learning
  • 87. Formulating Significant Learning Goals:HUMAN DIMENSION
    What can or should students learn about themselves?
    What can or should students learn about understanding
    and interacting
    with others?
  • 88. Learning HOW to Learn
    • Becoming a better student
    • 89. Inquiring about a subject
    • 90. Self-directing learners
    Foundational Knowledge
    Understanding and
    remembering:
    Application
    • Skills
    • 92. Thinking: Critical, Creative, & Practical
    • 93. Managing projects
    CARING
    Developing new…
    Integration
    Connecting:
    Human Dimensions
    Learning about:
    Taxonomy of Significant Learning
  • 99. Formulating Significant Learning Goals:CARING
    What changes would you like to see in what students care about, i.e., feelings, interests, values?
  • 100. LEARNING HOW TO LEARN
    • Becoming a better student
    • 101. Inquiring about a subject
    • 102. Self-directing learners
    Foundational Knowledge
    Understanding and
    remembering:
    Application
    • Skills
    • 104. Thinking: Critical, Creative, & Practical
    • 105. Managing projects
    Caring
    Developing new…
    Integration
    Connecting:
    Human Dimensions
    Learning about:
    Taxonomy of Significant Learning
  • 111. Formulating Significant Learning Goals:LEARNING HOW TO LEARN
    What would you like for students to learn about…
    --How to be a good student in a course like this?
    --How to engage in inquiry and construct knowledge with this subject matter?
    --How to become a self-directed learner relative to this subject?
  • 112. Taxonomy of Significant Learning
  • 113. In a course with significant learning, students will:
    Understand and remember the key concepts, terms, relationship, etc.
    Know how to use the content.
    Be able to relate this subject to other subjects.
    Identify the personal and social implications of knowing about this subject.
    Value this subject and further learning about it.
    Know HOW to keep on learning about this subject, after the course is over.
  • 114. Writing Significant Learning Goals for Your Course
    For one of your own courses:
    Write learning goals for 3 categories in the Taxonomy of Significant Learning.
    Preface: “By the end of the course, my hope is that students will be able to….”
    Suggestions:
    • Pay close attention to your VERBS
    • 115. High “Visibility” Index
  • Learning Goals
    Teaching and
    Learning
    Activities
    Feedback &
    Assessment
    Criteria of “GOOD” Course Design
    Significant
    Learning
    Integration
    Educative
    Assessment
    Active
    Learning
    S I T U A T I O N A L F A C T O R S
    In-Depth Situational Analysis
  • 116. Integrated Course Design:
    FEEDBACK &ASSESSMENT
  • 117. Learning Goals
    Teaching and
    Learning
    Activities
    Feedback &
    Assessment
    Criteria of “GOOD” Course Design
    Significant
    Learning
    Integration
    Educative
    Assessment
    Active
    Learning
    S I T U A T I O N A L F A C T O R S
    In-Depth Situational Analysis
  • 118. Forward-Looking Assessment
    Feedback and Assessment:“EDUCATIVE ASSESSMENT”
    Self-Assessment
    Criteria and Standards
    “FIDeLity” Feedback
  • 119. Criteria and Standards
    Self-Assessment
    Feedback
    Feedback and Assessment:“EDUCATIVE ASSESSMENT”
    Forward-Looking Assessment Task
  • 120. Educative Assessment:
    EXERCISES
    Forward-Looking Assessment Activities
    Building a Rubric
    Self-Assessment
    Feedback
  • 121. Educative Assessment:
    EXERCISES
    Forward-Looking Assessment Activities
    Building a Rubric
    Self-Assessment
    Feedback
  • 122. Forward Looking Assessment:WHAT IS IT?
    Identify AUTHENTIC situations where students might actually use their knowledge
    Create assignments and tests that require…
    • judgment/exploration rather than reciting or restating facts.
    • 123. integrated use of skills.
  • Educative Assessment:
    EXERCISES
    Forward-Looking Assessment Activities
    Building a Rubric
    Self-Assessment
    Feedback
  • 124. Criteria and Standards
    All major tasks should have:
    2-5 CRITERIA (“yardsticks) that identify dimensions of high quality work.
    Each Criteria should have STANDARDS (“markers” on the yardstick) that identify levels of quality.
    • Start by describing really good work and really poor work (= 2 standards).
  • Educative Assessment:
    EXERCISES
    Forward-Looking Assessment Activities
    Building a Rubric
    Self-Assessment
    Feedback
  • 125. Self Assessment
    • How can you create opportunities for students to assess their own work?
  • Self Assessment
    Create multiple opportunities for students to engage in self-assessment of their performance.
    Students need to identify relevant criteria for assessing their work and the work of others.
    Students need to practice using the criteria for quality on their own work.
  • 126. Educative Assessment:
    EXERCISES
    Forward-Looking Assessment Activities
    Building a Rubric
    Self-Assessment
    Feedback
  • 127. Feedback
    “Classroom Assessment Techniques” by Angelo and Cross
    Examples:
    Muddiest Point—students write down what was least clear to them
    Minute Paper—helps both students and professor
    3. Background Knowledge Probes
  • 128. “FIDeLity Feedback”
    Frequent
    Immediate
    Discriminating (based on criteria and standards)
    Lovingly or supportive approach used
  • 129. Integrated Course Design:
    LEARNING ACTIVITIES
  • 130. Learning Goals
    Teaching and
    Learning
    Activities
    Feedback &
    Assessment
    Criteria of “GOOD” Course Design
    Significant
    Learning
    Integration
    Educative
    Assessment
    Active
    Learning
    S I T U A T I O N A L F A C T O R S
    In-Depth Situational Analysis
  • 131. Holistic Active Learning
    Experience
    • Doing, Observing
    • 132. Actual, Simulated
    • 133. “Rich Learning Experiences”
    Reflection
    Information & Ideas
    • Primary/Secondary
    • 137. In-class, out-of-class, online
  • EXPERIENCE
    REFLECTIVE DIALOGUE,
    GETTING
    INFORMATION
    with:
    & IDEAS
    "Doing"
    "Observing"
    Self
    Others
    ·
    Original
    ·
    Real
    ·
    ·
    Reflective
    ·
    Direct
    Live
    observation
    dialogue
    data
    Doing, in
    thinking
    DIRECT
    of
    authentic
    (in or out
    ·
    Original
    ·
    Journaling
    phenomena
    settings
    of class)
    sources
    ·
    Secondary
    data and
    INDIRECT,
    sources
    VICARIOUS
    ·
    Multiple Activities that Promote ACTIVE LEARNING
    ·
    Case
    ·
    Stories
    studies
    (can be
    ·
    accessed
    Gaming,
    via: film,
    Simulations
    Lectures,
    literature,
    ·
    Role play
    textbooks
    oral history)
    ·
    Course
    ·
    ·
    Students can reflect,
    Teacher can assign
    students
    website
    and then engage in
    to "directly experience" …
    ONLINE
    various kinds of
    ·
    ·
    Internet
    Students can engage in
    dialogue online.
    "indirect" kinds of experience
    online
  • 138. RICH LEARNING EXPERIENCES
    WHAT ARE THEY?
    • Learning experiences in which students are able to simultaneously acquire multiple kinds of higher level learning.
    WHAT ARE SOME EXAMPLES?
    In-Class:
    Out-of-Class:
    • Service learning
    • 142. Situational observations
    • 143. Authentic projects
  • IN-DEPTH REFLECTIVE DIALOGUE
    With Whom?
    • Oneself (journaling, learning portfolios)
    • 144. Others (teacher, other students, people outside class)
    About What?
    • Subject of the Course:
    • 145. Learning Process:
    • 146. WHAT am I learning?
    • 147. HOW do I learn: best, most comfortably, with difficulty, etc.?
    • 148. What is the VALUE of what I am learning?
    • 149. WHAT ELSE do I need or want to learn?
    Written Forms?
    • One-minute papers
    • 150. Weekly journal writing
    • 151. Learning portfolios (end-of-course, end-of-program)
  • The Learning Portfolio: What Is It?
    A flexible, evidence-based process that combines reflection and documentation.
    A way of engaging students in ongoing, reflective, and collaborative analysis of learning.
    A means of focusing on purposeful, selective outcomes for both improving and assessing learning.
    -Adapted from The Learning Portfolio (Anker, 2004) by John Zubizarreta
  • 152. LEARNING PORTFOLIOS:
    Key Questions:
    WHAT Did You Learn in this course?
    • Use the taxonomy as an organizer: What Foundational Knowledge did you learn? Applications? Integration? Etc.
    HOW did you learn?
    • What helped you learn? What didn’t?
    • 153. What does this tell you about yourself as a learner?
    What is the VALUE to you, of what you learned?
    • For your - Personal life? Social/Civic life? Professional life?
    What is your PLAN for FUTURE LEARNING?
    • WHAT ELSE do you want to learn?
    • 154. HOW would you learn THAT?
  • The Integrative Function of
    LEARNING PORTFOLIOS
    LEARNING PORTFOLIOS
  • 155. Learning Goals
    Teaching and
    Learning
    Activities
    Feedback &
    Assessment
    Criteria of “GOOD” Course Design
    Significant
    Learning
    Integration
    Educative
    Assessment
    Active
    Learning
    S I T U A T I O N A L F A C T O R S
    In-Depth Situational Analysis
  • 156. Integrated Course Design:
    INTEGRATION
  • 157. Learning Goals
    Teaching and
    Learning
    Activities
    Feedback &
    Assessment
    Criteria of “GOOD” Course Design
    Significant
    Learning
    Integration
    Educative
    Assessment
    Active
    Learning
    S I T U A T I O N A L F A C T O R S
    In-Depth Situational Analysis
  • 158. INTEGRATING THE COURSE
    3-Column Table
    Weekly Schedule
    Teaching Strategy
    String of Activities
  • 159. INTEGRATING THE COURSE
    3-Column Table
    Weekly Schedule
    Teaching Strategy
    String of Activities
  • 160. 3-COLUMN TABLE:
    Learning Goals: Assessment Activities: Learning Activities:
  • 161. Three Column Table Examples
    Look at handout
  • 162. INTEGRATING THE COURSE
    3-Column Table
    Weekly Schedule
    Teaching Strategy
    String of Activities
  • 163. Week #: Mon Wed Fri
  • 164. INTEGRATING THE COURSE
    3-Column Table
    Weekly Schedule
    Teaching Strategy
    String of Activities
  • 165. TEACHING STRATEGY:
    • A particular COMBINATION of learning activities…
    • 166. arranged in a particular SEQUENCE
    Two Examples:
    • Problem-based learning
    • 167. Team-based learning
  • “CASTLE-TOP” DIAGRAM:
    A Tool for Identifying Your
    TEACHINGSTRATEGY
    Mon Wed Fri Mon Wed Fri
  • 168. TEACHING STRATEGIES
    QUESTION:
    This strategy creates a high likelihood that most students will…
    Be exposed to the content.
    Understand the content.
    Be able to use the content.
    Value the content.
  • 169. TEACHING STRATEGIES
    QUESTION:
    This strategy creates a high likelihood that most students will…
    Be exposed to the content.
    Understand the content.
    Be able to use the content.
    Value the content.
  • 170. INTEGRATING THE COURSE
    3-Column Table
    Weekly Schedule
    Teaching Strategy
    String of Activities
  • 171. X
    X
    X
    X
    X
    X
    X
    X
  • 172. Learning Goals
    Teaching and
    Learning
    Activities
    Feedback &
    Assessment
    Criteria of “GOOD” Course Design
    Significant
    Learning
    Integration
    Educative
    Assessment
    Active
    Learning
    S I T U A T I O N A L F A C T O R S
    In-Depth Situational Analysis
  • 173. Integrated Course Design:
    DOES IT WORK?
  • 174. Does It Make a Difference?
    • Bill Weeks, University of Missouri at Rolla
    • 175. Course: Coding in Computer Science
    • 176. Small class (18 students), traditional time structure (M-W-F)
    • 177. Initially: Lecture + homework
    • 178. Results: Students overwhelmed by complexity – frustration – apathy – low course evaluations
  • Changes Made:
    1. Completely re-wrote his learning goals: (examples)
    • For a given communication channel, students will be able to compute the maximum rate of reliable transmission
    • 179. Students will learn how to work effectively in a group setting.
    • 180. Students will be able to direct their own learning in relation to understanding, designing, and evaluating new codes.
    2. New teaching strategy: Used TBL
    3. Used reflective writing: Learning portfolios
    4. Oral presentations
    5. Had students re-submit their homework
  • 181. RESULTS:
    • Students did the readings, and did as well as before on exams of Foundational Knowledge.
    • 182. TEACHER: “…drastic improvement in student morale…They worked harder – and reported enjoying it more.”
    • 183. STUDENTS:
    • 184. …an interesting learning experience I will never forget…provided me with knowledge to carry out independent study.
    • 185. I enjoyed this course to the fullest…course was entertaining and at the same time enlightening.
  • TEACHER’S REACTION:
    • “Teaching such an excited group of students was an unforgettable experience.
    • 186. It made my job seem worthwhile and very fulfilling.
    • 187. I will be feeding off that student excitement for years.”
  • RESOURCES FOR FURTHER LEARNING:
  • THE END!
    Higher Education:
    Let’s make it all that it can be and needs to be!
  • 190. THE END!
    ??
    Higher Education:
    Let’s make it all that it can be and needs to be!
  • 191. OR, A NEW START?
    Teaching for the 21st Century . . .
  • 192. Please contact me at:stewart.ross@mnsu.edu507-389-1098