Organic molecules


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Organic molecules

  1. 1. Carbohydrates Monomer (building block) = mono saccharide
  2. 2. Monosaccharides <ul><li>Glucose the most important </li></ul><ul><li>source of energy for </li></ul><ul><li>cells. Most carbohydrates break down into some glucose. </li></ul><ul><li>Fructose – found in fruits, veggies, and honey </li></ul><ul><li>Galactose – found in dairy products and sugar beets usually as part of a disaccharide . </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Commonly called </li></ul><ul><li>table sugar, it is </li></ul><ul><li>made by </li></ul><ul><li>many plants </li></ul><ul><li>like sugar beets </li></ul><ul><li>and sugar cane </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>“ Milk sugar”, it is obviously found in dairy products </li></ul>
  5. 5. “ Lactose Intolerance” <ul><li>Can’t break lactose down into glucose and galactose </li></ul><ul><li>Disaccharides can’t be absorbed by the small intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria ferment the lactose, which can cause bloating, gas, cramps, and diarrhea. </li></ul><ul><li>Supplements containing the enzyme (lactase) used to break down lactose can help reduce symptoms. </li></ul>
  6. 6. How common is lactose intolerance? Least common in northern Europeans (5%), most common in Asians and Africans (90%)
  7. 7. Polysaccharides <ul><li>Glycogen – How animals store </li></ul><ul><li>a lot of glucose molecules together </li></ul><ul><li>as one molecule. </li></ul><ul><li>Starch – how plants store </li></ul><ul><li>glucose for energy </li></ul><ul><li>Cellulose – important </li></ul><ul><li>for plant cell walls </li></ul>
  8. 8. Proteins <ul><li>The monomer of a protein is an amino acid. Here are two examples: </li></ul>
  9. 9. There are 20 amino acids that humans need to make the proteins in the body. <ul><li>Eight are called “ essential ” in your diet because YOU cannot make them, so you have to get them in your food. </li></ul><ul><li>A food that contains all of the essential amino acids (in the correct proportions for your dietary needs) is called a “ complete protein ” </li></ul>
  10. 10. Some examples of complete proteins: <ul><li>Meats, including fish </li></ul><ul><li>Cheese </li></ul><ul><li>Eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Milk </li></ul><ul><li>Soybeans (soy, tofu) are the closest plant source of a complete protein for humans. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Combining foods in two or more of the following columns can create a “complete protein” meal without using meat or animal products: <ul><li>Grains Legumes Nuts/Seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Rice Beans Sesame seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Pasta Peas Sunflower seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Wheat Peanuts Walnuts </li></ul><ul><li>Rye Chick peas Cashews </li></ul><ul><li>Cornmeal *Soy Pumpkin seeds </li></ul>
  12. 12. Polypeptides & Proteins <ul><li>A long chain of amino acids is a poly peptide . </li></ul><ul><li>It won’t be considered a protein until it is functional, which many polypeptides aren’t. </li></ul><ul><li>Many proteins are made up of 2-4 polypeptides. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Structural Proteins Are proteins used for…. structure . <ul><li> Keratin </li></ul><ul><li>is in hair, </li></ul><ul><li>skin, and nails </li></ul><ul><li> Collagen is in skin and connective tissue </li></ul><ul><li> Elastin is in skin, arteries, and lungs </li></ul><ul><li> Actin is a major component </li></ul><ul><li>of muscles </li></ul>
  14. 14. Functional Proteins do stuff. Not just for putting you together. <ul><li>Enzymes (help catalyze chemical reactions) </li></ul><ul><li>Hemoglobin (help carry oxygen in the blood) </li></ul><ul><li>Antibodies (help fight off diseases) </li></ul><ul><li>Many hormones, such as growth hormone </li></ul>
  15. 15. Structural Functional Collagen Hemoglobin The colors represent different polypeptides. How many can you see?
  16. 16. Lipids <ul><li>Are a macromolecule, but do not have a monomer. </li></ul><ul><li>What groups them together is that none of them are soluble in water. </li></ul><ul><li>Lipids are important for long-term storage of energy. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Triglycerides <ul><li>Fats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Come from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>animal products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are generally solid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>at room temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Come from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are generally liquid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>at room temperature </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Other Lipids: <ul><li>Phospholipids are needed for making cell membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Waxes </li></ul><ul><li>Steroids/sterols – which includes some hormones, but also cholesterol and corticosteroids </li></ul>
  19. 19. Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fatty Acids Saturated fatty acids have all single Unsaturated fatty acids have bonds. No more hydrogens can get in. some double bonds, leaving room for more hydrogens (if bonds are broken
  20. 20. Nucleic Acids <ul><li>DNA : Stores hereditary information’ </li></ul><ul><li>RNA : Helps send and “read” hereditary </li></ul><ul><li>information from the DNA </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>The monomer is a nucleotide, which looks like this: </li></ul>
  22. 22. How many nucleotides are there?