cells. Most carbohydrates break down into some glucose.
Fructose – found in fruits, veggies, and honey
Galactose – found in dairy products and sugar beets usually as part of a disaccharide .
table sugar, it is
like sugar beets
and sugar cane
“ Milk sugar”, it is obviously found in dairy products
“ Lactose Intolerance”
Can’t break lactose down into glucose and galactose
Disaccharides can’t be absorbed by the small intestine
Bacteria ferment the lactose, which can cause bloating, gas, cramps, and diarrhea.
Supplements containing the enzyme (lactase) used to break down lactose can help reduce symptoms.
How common is lactose intolerance? Least common in northern Europeans (5%), most common in Asians and Africans (90%)
Glycogen – How animals store
a lot of glucose molecules together
as one molecule.
Starch – how plants store
glucose for energy
Cellulose – important
for plant cell walls
The monomer of a protein is an amino acid. Here are two examples:
There are 20 amino acids that humans need to make the proteins in the body.
Eight are called “ essential ” in your diet because YOU cannot make them, so you have to get them in your food.
A food that contains all of the essential amino acids (in the correct proportions for your dietary needs) is called a “ complete protein ”
Some examples of complete proteins:
Meats, including fish
Soybeans (soy, tofu) are the closest plant source of a complete protein for humans.
Combining foods in two or more of the following columns can create a “complete protein” meal without using meat or animal products:
Grains Legumes Nuts/Seeds
Rice Beans Sesame seeds
Pasta Peas Sunflower seeds
Wheat Peanuts Walnuts
Rye Chick peas Cashews
Cornmeal *Soy Pumpkin seeds
Polypeptides & Proteins
A long chain of amino acids is a poly peptide .
It won’t be considered a protein until it is functional, which many polypeptides aren’t.
Many proteins are made up of 2-4 polypeptides.
Structural Proteins Are proteins used for…. structure .
is in hair,
skin, and nails
Collagen is in skin and connective tissue
Elastin is in skin, arteries, and lungs
Actin is a major component
Functional Proteins do stuff. Not just for putting you together.
Enzymes (help catalyze chemical reactions)
Hemoglobin (help carry oxygen in the blood)
Antibodies (help fight off diseases)
Many hormones, such as growth hormone
Structural Functional Collagen Hemoglobin The colors represent different polypeptides. How many can you see?
Are a macromolecule, but do not have a monomer.
What groups them together is that none of them are soluble in water.
Lipids are important for long-term storage of energy.
Are generally solid
at room temperature
Are generally liquid
at room temperature
Phospholipids are needed for making cell membranes
Steroids/sterols – which includes some hormones, but also cholesterol and corticosteroids
Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fatty Acids Saturated fatty acids have all single Unsaturated fatty acids have bonds. No more hydrogens can get in. some double bonds, leaving room for more hydrogens (if bonds are broken
DNA : Stores hereditary information’
RNA : Helps send and “read” hereditary
information from the DNA
The monomer is a nucleotide, which looks like this: