Cell structure

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Cell Structure PowerPoint

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  • Hooke – cork 1665
    Van Leeuwenhoek – 1675 animalcules In water
    Schleiden – 1838 - plants are made of cells
    Schwann – 1839 – animals are made of cells
    Virchow – 1858 – cells come from other cells
  • What do each of these do?
  • Cell structure

    1. 1. Chp 2-1 The Discovery of Cells • Why weren’t cells discovered until the 1600’s? • Describe the contribution of – Robert Hooke – Anton van Leeuwenhoek – Matthias Schleiden – Theodor Schwann – Rudolph Virchow For each, include what year their discovery was made 1
    2. 2. Cell Theory • Schleiden, Schwann, and Virchow’s discoveries led to the formation of the CELL THEORY: 1. All living things are composed of one or more cells. 2. In organisms, cells are the basic units of structure and function. 3. Cells are produced only from existing cells. 2
    3. 3. All Cells have: 1. A cell membrane (a.k.a. “plasma membrane” 2. Ribosomes 3. Genes (DNA) 4. Cytoplasm - cytoplasm is everything inside a cell - cytosol is cytoplasm that isn’t inside an organelle. 3
    4. 4. 4 Number of Cells Organisms may be: • Unicellular – composed of one cell • Multicellular- composed of many specialized cells • Colonial – groups of cells that lack specialization
    5. 5. 5 Types of CellsTypes of Cells Prokaryotes - Bacteria Eukaryotes – Animals, plants, fungi, and protists. Eukaryotic CellProkaryotic Cell
    6. 6. 6 Prokaryotes Nucleoid region contains the DNA The DNA is circular No membrane-bound organelles Very small: 1-15 μm in diameter
    7. 7. m?μ 7 The symbol “μ” (mu) stands for micron, or one-millionth of a meter. A human hair can vary from 20-180 μm Those  Are bacteria on a pin!
    8. 8. 8 Eukaryotic Cell Range from 2-1000 μm Contain membrane-bound organelles Why do you think eukaryotic cells can be so much larger than prokaryotic cells?
    9. 9. Why are cells so small? 9 Materials must be exchanged across the cell membrane and then distributed throughout the cell. An efficient cell has a large surface area to volume ratio. The larger the cell, the smaller the ratio (inverse relationship) Size  Ratio  Why are some cells bigger than others? How do they get around this ratio thing?
    10. 10. 10 Basic Structure of a Cell Is this a prokaryote or a eukaryote?
    11. 11. 11 Outermost part of animal cells Found just inside the cell wall of plant, fungi, and bacteria cells Cell membrane Surrounding all Cells:Surrounding all Cells:
    12. 12. 12 Controls the movement of materials into and out of the cell “Selectively permeable” Cell membrane
    13. 13. 13 Jelly-like substance enclosed by cell membrane Cytosol provides a medium for chemical reactions to take place Cytoplasm Cytoplasm of a CellCytoplasm of a Cell
    14. 14. 14 OrganellesOrganelles Have specific functions ex: mitochondria release stored energy in food ribosomes make proteins “membrane-bound” organelles are surrounded by membranes
    15. 15. Eukaryotic Cells Are not all the same! Plant cells have a cell wall made of cellulose Fungi have cell walls made of chitin Animal cells don’t even have a cell wall 15
    16. 16. 16 There are differentThere are different kinds of plant cellskinds of plant cells Onion Epidermal Cells Root Hair Cell root hair Guard Cells
    17. 17. 17 There are different kindsThere are different kinds of “animal” cellsof “animal” cells white blood cell red blood cell cheek cells sperm nerve cell muscle cell Amoeba Paramecium
    18. 18. 18 Similarities between plantSimilarities between plant cells and animal cellscells and animal cells Both have a cell membrane, ribosomes, cytoplasm, and DNA Both share many organelles, including mitochondria
    19. 19. 19 Differences between plantDifferences between plant cells and animal cellscells and animal cells Animal cells Plant cells Relatively smaller in size No chloroplasts No cell wall Relatively larger in size Chloroplasts Cell wall present
    20. 20. 20 Animal cells Plant cells Vacuoles small or absent Glycogen as food storage Nucleus at the center Large central vacuole Starch as food storage Nucleus near cell wall More Differences betweenMore Differences between Plant Cells and Animal CellsPlant Cells and Animal Cells
    21. 21. 21 Levels of organizationLevels of organization • Cells are grouped together and work as a whole to perform special functions
    22. 22. 22 TissueTissue • A group of similar cells to perform a particular function – Animals : epithelial tissue, muscular tissue, nervous tissue, and connective tissue
    23. 23. 23 OrganOrgan • Different tissues group together to carry out specialized functions – Heart : consists of muscles, nervous tissue and blood vessels – Leaf : consists of epidermis, mesophyll and vascular tissue
    24. 24. 24 Stoma Air Space Spongy Mesophyll Cell Chloroplast The Structures of a Leaf (Plant Organ) Palisade Mesophyll Cell
    25. 25. 25 SystemSystem • Several organs and tissues work together to carry out a particular set of functions in a co-ordinated way – Human : digestive, respiratory, excretory, circulatory and reproductive systems – Plant : root and shoot systems
    26. 26. 26 Human Body SystemsHuman Body Systems Examples of systems :  Digestive System  Respiratory System  Circulatory System  Nervous System  Reproductive System
    27. 27. 27 Example of a Human Body System
    28. 28. 28 Levels of OrganizationLevels of Organization CELLS (muscle cells,nerve cells) TISSUES (muscle, epithelium) ORGANS (heart, lungs, stomach) SYSTEMS (circulatory system) ORGANISM (human)

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