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Cell structure

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Cell Structure PowerPoint

Cell Structure PowerPoint

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  • Hooke – cork 1665 Van Leeuwenhoek – 1675 animalcules In water Schleiden – 1838 - plants are made of cells Schwann – 1839 – animals are made of cells Virchow – 1858 – cells come from other cells
  • What do each of these do?

Cell structure Cell structure Presentation Transcript

  • Chp 2-1 The Discovery of Cells
    • Why weren’t cells discovered until the 1600’s?
    • Describe the contribution of
      • Robert Hooke
      • Anton van Leeuwenhoek
      • Matthias Schleiden
      • Theodor Schwann
      • Rudolph Virchow
      • For each, include what year their discovery
      • was made
  • Cell Theory
    • Schleiden, Schwann, and Virchow’s discoveries led to the formation of the CELL THEORY:
    • 1. All living things are composed of one or more cells.
    • 2. In organisms, cells are the basic units of structure and function.
    • 3. Cells are produced only from existing cells.
  • All Cells have:
    • A cell membrane
    • (a.k.a. “plasma membrane”
    • 2. Ribosomes
    • 3. Genes (DNA)
    • 4. Cytoplasm
    • - cytoplasm is everything inside a cell
    • - cytosol is cytoplasm that isn’t inside
    • an organelle.
  • Number of Cells
    • Organisms may be:
    • Unicellular – composed of one cell
    • Multicellular - composed of many specialized cells
    • Colonial – groups
    • of cells that lack
    • specialization
  • Types of Cells
    • Prokaryotes - Bacteria
    • Eukaryotes – Animals, plants, fungi, and
    • protists.
    Eukaryotic Cell Prokaryotic Cell
  • Prokaryotes Nucleoid region contains the DNA The DNA is circular No membrane-bound organelles Very small: 1-15 μ m in diameter
  • μm? The symbol “ μ ” (mu) stands for micron, or one-millionth of a meter. A human hair can vary from 20-180 μ m Those  Are bacteria on a pin!
  • Eukaryotic Cell
    • Range from 2-1000 μ m
    • Contain membrane-bound organelles
    • Why do you think eukaryotic cells can be so much larger than prokaryotic cells?
  • Why are cells so small? Materials must be exchanged across the cell membrane and then distributed throughout the cell. An efficient cell has a large surface area to volume ratio. The larger the cell, the smaller the ratio (inverse relationship) Size  Ratio  Why are some cells bigger than others? How do they get around this ratio thing?
  • Basic Structure of a Cell Is this a prokaryote or a eukaryote?
  • Surrounding all Cells:
      • Outermost part of animal cells
      • Found just inside the cell wall of plant, fungi, and bacteria cells
    Cell membrane
      • Controls the movement of materials into and out of the cell
      • “ Selectively permeable”
    Cell membrane
  • Cytoplasm of a Cell
      • Jelly-like substance enclosed by cell membrane
      • Cytosol provides a medium for chemical reactions to take place
    Cytoplasm
  • Organelles
    • Have specific functions
    • ex: mitochondria release stored energy in food
    • ribosomes make proteins
    • “ membrane-bound” organelles are surrounded by membranes
  • Eukaryotic Cells
    • Are not all the same!
    • Plant cells have a cell wall made of cellulose
    • Fungi have cell walls made of chitin
    • Animal cells don’t even have a cell wall
  • There are different kinds of plant cells Onion Epidermal Cells Root Hair Cell root hair Guard Cells
  • There are different kinds of “animal” cells white blood cell red blood cell cheek cells sperm nerve cell muscle cell Amoeba Paramecium
  • Similarities between plant cells and animal cells
    • Both have a cell membrane, ribosomes, cytoplasm, and DNA
    Both share many organelles, including mitochondria
  • Differences between plant cells and animal cells Animal cells Plant cells Relatively smaller in size No chloroplasts No cell wall Relatively larger in size Chloroplasts Cell wall present
  • More Differences between Plant Cells and Animal Cells Animal cells Plant cells Vacuoles small or absent Glycogen as food storage Nucleus at the center Large central vacuole Starch as food storage Nucleus near cell wall
  • Levels of organization
    • Cells are grouped together and work as a whole to perform special functions
  • Tissue
    • A group of similar cells to perform a particular function
      • Animals : epithelial tissue, muscular tissue, nervous tissue, and connective tissue
  • Organ
    • Different tissues group together to carry out specialized functions
      • Heart : consists of muscles, nervous tissue and blood vessels
      • Leaf : consists of epidermis, mesophyll and vascular tissue
  • The Structures of a Leaf (Plant Organ) Stoma Air Space Spongy Mesophyll Cell Chloroplast Palisade Mesophyll Cell
  • System
    • Several organs and tissues work together to carry out a particular set of functions in a co-ordinated way
      • Human : digestive, respiratory, excretory, circulatory and reproductive systems
      • Plant : root and shoot systems
  • Human Body Systems
    • Examples of systems :
    • Digestive System
    • Respiratory System
    • Circulatory System
    • Nervous System
    • Reproductive System
  • Example of a Human Body System
  • Levels of Organization
    • CELLS (muscle cells,nerve cells)
    • TISSUES (muscle, epithelium)
    • ORGANS (heart, lungs, stomach)
    • SYSTEMS (circulatory system)
    • ORGANISM (human)