Demography pres 333

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  • 1.  Demography is scientific study of human population. & Changes within them
  • 2. OR in Population Size & its Composition in response to: Birth Aging Death Migration
  • 3. i Population size (# of persons in pop:)rapid growth, slow growth, population declineii Population Structure: / Composition: (Division according to characteristic) (E.g:- Sex structure, Age structure)ethnic, age, sex (also, how many are non-citizens)iii Population distribution% rural, % urban, % suburban. Also, how many citizens live overseas Important ‘demographic processes’ include: fertility, mortality, marriage, education & social mobility.
  • 4. 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000US 179,323,175 203,211,926 226,545,805 248,709,873 281,421,906Fl 4,951,560 6,789,443 9,746,324 12,937,926 15,982,378Ln 74,225 103,047 148,665 192,493 239,452
  • 5. Population Structure: / Composition: (Division according to characteristic) (E.g:- Sex structure, Age structure)ethnic, age, sex (also, how many are non-citizens) Males Females
  • 6. Population distribution% rural, % urban, % suburban. Also, how many citizens live overseas
  • 7.  No: of Live Births (B) No: of Deaths (D) No: of Immigration / In Migration (IM) No: of Emigration / Out Migration (OM)
  • 8. Components of Population Change (Population Dynamics)• Demographers rely upon the “Demographic Balancing Equation” to very simply and elegantly summarize population change: Pop2 = Pop1 + B – D + IM – OM, where Pop2 = Population at a later time period Pop1 = Population at an earlier time period B = Births D = Deaths Migration Mortality IM = In-Migration Fertility OM = Out-Migration• The nature of population change is simple… changes can only occur through: 1) Births, 2) Deaths, or 3) Migration
  • 9. PUSH FACTORS: PULL FACTORS:Unemployment Attracts the Migrants Booming economyFamine Favorable ImmigrationWar laws.Political or Free Agricultural LandReligious harassment
  • 10. NI(B-D)+Net Migration(IM-OM)Natural Increase:Surplus or deficit of births over deathNet Migration:Net effect of immigration & emigration ( or )
  • 11.  Population is increased at a given period of time. Effect of natural increase & net migration. Expressed in % per year. Rapid PGR link to following many problems in less developed countries.Hunger inadequacies in social / Health servicesPoverty i,e Transportation & communicationHigh IMR
  • 12. • Number of years it will take for population to double at current growth rate 70 ÷ Growth Rate = Doubling Time Growth Rate Doubling TimeUganda 3.6% 19 yearsAfghanistan 2.5% 28 yearsIndia 1.3% 54 yearsUnited States .5% 140 yearsDenmark 0.0% --Russia -0.5% 140 years* (1/2)
  • 13. 1. Census2. National Survey3. Registration of vital events (Births, Deaths ,Marriages , Adoptions, Divorces & separations)4. Demographic Studies
  • 14. END