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Additional notes parts & functions of a computer

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Transcript

  • 1. Parts & Functions of a Computer
  • 2. Functions of a Computer2
  • 3. Binary Communication Between Hardware and Software3
  • 4. PC Hardware Components• Outside computer case: input/output devices• Inside the case: processing and storage – CPU – most important component• Requirements of a hardware device – Method for CPU to communicate with it – Software to instruct and control it – Electricity to power it 4
  • 5. Hardware Used for Input and Output• Connects to computer case by ports (eg, serial, parallel, USB, game, keyboard, mouse)• Popular input devices: – Keyboard – Mouse• Popular output devices: – Monitor – Printer 5
  • 6. Ports Physical Interface between a computer and another computers or devices6
  • 7. Input Devices7
  • 8. Output Devices8
  • 9. Hardware Inside the Case9
  • 10. Motherboard Components• Processing • Communication with – CPU (most important) other devices – Chip set – Traces• Temporary storage – Expansion slots – RAM – System clock – Cache memory • Programming/setup• Electrical system data – Power supply – Flash ROM connections – CMOS setup chip10
  • 11. The Motherboard11
  • 12. The Motherboard (continued)12
  • 13. The CPU13
  • 14. The Chip Set• Controls most activities on the motherboard• Includes several device controllers – USB controller – Memory controller – IDE controller 14
  • 15. The Chip Set (continued)15
  • 16. Storage Devices• Temporary (primary storage, or memory) – Temporarily holds data and instructions while processing them – Faster to access than permanent storage• Permanent (secondary storage) – Data and instructions must be copied into primary storage (RAM) for processing16
  • 17. Primary and Secondary Storage17
  • 18. Primary Storage Devices• Memory, or RAM, located on motherboard and other circuit boards – Volatile versus nonvolatile (or ROM) memory• Types of boards that hold memory chips – SIMMs – DIMMs – RIMMs18
  • 19. RAM Chips19
  • 20. Types of RAM Modules20
  • 21. Secondary Storage Devices• Hard drives• CD-ROM drives• DVD drives• Zip drives• Floppy drives21
  • 22. Hard Drive22
  • 23. EIDE Technology• Used by most hard drives, CD-ROM drives, and DVD drives• Can accommodate up to four EIDE devices on one system 23
  • 24. IDE Connectors on a Motherboard24
  • 25. IDE Connectors on a Motherboard (continued)25
  • 26. IDE Connectors on a Motherboard26
  • 27. Hard Drive’s Power Supply27
  • 28. Floppy Drive Connection28
  • 29. Floppy Drive Connection (continued)29
  • 30. CD-ROM Drive Connection30
  • 31. Motherboard Components Used for Communication Among Devices• The data bus – bus is a subsystem that transfers data between computer components inside a computer or between computers31
  • 32. Data Bus32
  • 33. System Clock Closely related to system time is process time, which is a count of the total CPU time consumed by an executing process.33
  • 34. Clock Speed• Of motherboard – Measured in megahertz (MHz)• Of CPU – Measured in gigahertz (GHz)34
  • 35. Expansion Slots35
  • 36. Types of Expansion Slots36
  • 37. Interface (Expansion) Cards37
  • 38. Interface (Expansion) Cards (continued)38
  • 39. The Electrical System• Power supply – Most important component of computer’s electrical system – Converts/reduces electricity to voltage the computer can handle – Runs a fan directly from electrical output voltage to cool inside of computer case 39
  • 40. The Electrical System (continued)40
  • 41. The Electrical System (continued)41
  • 42. Instructions Stored on the Motherboard• ROM BIOS (most are flash ROM) – System BIOS – Startup BIOS – CMOS setup42
  • 43. ROM BIOS Chip43
  • 44. Motherboard Configuration Settings• CMOS chip – Stores setup (configuration) information – Powered by a battery on motherboard when power is off44
  • 45. Summary• Introduction to hardware components of a computer system• Initial insight into how hardware works45