Blumer says we cannot understand media without interaction and we cannot study media effects without-strength/immediacy/number of sources declining for print media-increasing for SNS
Online News on SocialNetworking Sites: The Affect of SNS on Effortful ThinkingMonica Noriega – Santa Clara University
How are social networks changing news content?Research Questions:o Does the shift from print to online media value quantity over quality news content?o Does access to more sources of information make us more informed? o Are habitual users of SNS more knowledgeable and engaged than those who do not use SNS?o Which groups are more affected most by this shift? o Disadvantaged youth o Does the immediate availability of information on SNS transcend social boundaries and digital inequalities?
Orienting Pointso 24 out of the 25 largest newspapers are experiencing declines in circulation.o 46% of Americans now have a smart phone o Smart phone owners outnumber users of more basic phoneso 93% of Teens use the internet o 80% of time is spent on SNS
Trends in Literatureo Benson, Rodney. Bringing the Sociology of Media Back In. Political Communication, 2004.o Kirchoff, Suzanne. The U.S. Newspaper Industry in Transition. Journal of Current Issues in Media & Telecommunications. 2010.o Tsfati, Yarviv. Online news exposure and trust in the mainstream media: exploring possible associations. American Behavioral Scientists. 2010.
Main Ideaso The race to be the first to report breaking news on SNS has resulted in disparities between print and online media.o Research on local newspapers in the U.S. suggests that increased competition leads to more sensationalized, superficial news coverage.o Habitual users of SNS internalize the views of the social and political world presented by SNS
Data Collectiono Wall Street Journal Archival Datao 18 February 2012 – 12 March 2012 o Total: 24 dayso Wall Street Journal print headlines.o WSJ main Twitter page (@WSJ)
Sociological Theoryo Social impact theory: social influence depends on: o Strength– The stronger the source, the greater the influence. o When other people view the other members of that group as competent, they are more likely to conform to their judgments. o Immediacy– The closer the source, the greater the impact o As the number of sources increases, so does their influence– up to a point.
My Contributiono Social Impact Theory: o There should be a less impact on a target who is strong and far from the source than one who is weak and close to the source. o Non-users of SNS = strong and far o Habitual users of SNS = weak and close
Sociological Theoryo Evolutionary Theory of Stratification o When no single individual can master all aspects of a culture, specialization must occur. o Individuals will master parts of their culture and enter into exchanges with others who have mastered other parts. o Some aspects of a culture are more valued than others.
My Contributiono No individual can master all aspects of SNS culture. o How do SNS users enter into exchanges with others? o 160 characters or less o Posts/Tweets o What is valued in SNS culture? o Immediacy vs. Accuracy o Quantity vs. Quality
Study PopulationOne-on-oneInterviews with SCUstudents FacebookAge 80% Active Users18-22 years TwitterGender 50% Active UsersMale 48%Female 52%
Overview of Interview Questionso What do you know about _____ ? o Not aware o Aware o Knowledgeableo Where did you hear about it? o SNS (Facebook/Twitter) o Word of mouth o Official online news sourceo How strongly do you feel about this topic? o Strongly for o Strongly against o Indifferent
―I watched the#KONY2012 video on YouTube, let‘s makekony famous! Obama needs to step up.‖
Joseph Konyis a Ugandan warlordconscripting child soldiers. I heard about theInvisible Children Campaign a couple years ago. The #KONY2012 campaign is misguidedbecause its more about marketing image than actual activism. A Facebook ‗like‘and buying a wristband isn‘t going to stop someone across the world.
―U.S. Warns Apple, Publishers—Justice ―Afghan AirDepartment Threatens Force Lawsuits, Alleging Probed InCollusion Over E-Book Drug Pricing‖ Running‖Thursday08 March 2012
“Do you know who Joseph Kony is? “The #Kony 2012 More on the viralvideo has @rihanna, video that has @alecbaldwin, generated 40m+ @justinbeiber& the views sinceWhite House talking. appearing on How it caught fire: YouTube. on.wsj.com/yftxgf” On.wsj.com/yfb6nf”Thursday08 March 2012
―Shootings Fray “The Hunger Afghan Ties—U.S. Games’ held Army Soldier its premiere Allegedly Targeted in Los Civilians in Their Angeles Homes; ‗Beyond Explanation‘ tonight. We have photos on.wsj.com”Monday12 March 2012
―The reliability of information on social networks is never questioned. Peoplepost things on Facebook and Twitter thatare popular and catch peoples attention. The attention span of our generation is so short that people don’treally care if its true, they just keep on scrolling.‖
Digital Divideo In earlier eras, youth would have to be privileged to have access to the content of adult oriented news media.o Electronic media and SNS has transcended many social boundaries, but digital inequalities still exist.
Amanda Lenhart, Pew Research Center‘s Internet & American LifeProject. http:/www.pewinternet.org April 13, 2012 at The AnnenbergPublic Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania
Conclusionso People who were more likelyto engage in effortful thinking used SNS less often.o We have put a premium on a new set of skills– skimming and mimicking, rather than understanding and reflectingo The ability to concentrate, think seriously, read deeply are not innate, they must be taught by engaging with complex ideas and arguments.