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Disaster Preparedness Questionnaire Design and Pretest
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  • 1.
    • Survey Method
    • A national, cross-sectional survey is being conducted using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI).
    • 3,300 45-min. interviews will be conducted in English or Spanish.
    • A $20 gift certificate incentive is provided.
    • Households are selected using Random Digit Dialing (RDD); the most recent birthday method is used to select respondents.
    • The sample will be:
      • Stratified into two “levels of visibility” or risk defined by geography: areas with “high” visibility (high profile areas with highly visible targets) and the rest of the continental U.S.
      • Weighted for analyses requiring national estimates.
    ABSTRACT Background A national household telephone survey on disaster experiences and preparedness is being conducted by Working Group #3 ( Societal Responses to Terrorist Threats and Attacks ) as part of the National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (NC START). This presentation will provide a description of the development and pretesting of the questionnaire. Method In total, 3,300 individuals will be interviewed using Random Digit Dialing (RDD) and Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI). Survey items were developed based on prior public education/risk communication, warning, and disaster literature and prior research. Pretest A total of 27 pretest interviews were completed; the instrument was substantially reduced and revised based on pretest experiences. Emerging Theoretical Model An emergent theoretical causal model explaining terrorism preparedness action has been developed based on the literature review, and will be tested using final survey data.
    • Questionnaire Development
    • Input The questionnaire was developed with input from:
    • Working Group #3 Investigators.
    • Review of the Public Education/Risk Communication, Warning, and Disaster literatures.
    • An emergent causal model developed based on prior research.
    • Previous measurement of key constructs
    • Funding Substantial delays in funding, through multiple funding entities, precluded initiating data collection until well into Year 02.
    • IRB The Award structure required submission to four Institutional Review Boards (UCLA, UMD, UCB, and ONR) for both the initial and final questionnaires, causing further delays.
    • Pretest
    • Initial Pretest ( n =7)
      • Telephone interviews
      • Conducted in English with survey staff acquaintances
      • Assessed interview length, understandability, and flow
      • Subsequent revisions included elimination of the following constructs:
        • Psychological vulnerability
        • Rules of reasoning
        • Normative information network
        • Disaster items 1
    • Formal Pretest ( n =20)
      • Paper and pencil telephone interviews
      • Pretested 3 iterations of the questionnaire
      • Participants drawn from high visibility stratum
      • $20 gift certificate incentive provided
      • Translated to Spanish following pretest completion
    Implementation Issues Sample Monitoring The sample is monitored weekly. Terrorism Fatigue Interviewers have reported and data confirms that potential participants are “fatigued” with the topic of terrorism. Refusal Avoidance Special scripts and measures have been implemented to minimize refusals; however, low participation rates continue to be problematic. Progress A total of 462 interviews have been completed as of 6/17/07.
    • Emerging Theoretical Framework
    • The emerging casual model summarizes existing theory and research findings that explain preparedness behavior (action).
    • Moving from left to right, each column of factors may influence any of the factors to the right, but not those in the same or prior columns.
    • The model will underlie the analysis of constructs measured in the questionnaire.
    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research was supported by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security through the National Center for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START) (#N00140510629), the National Science Foundation (#0000052171), and the National Science Foundation through the University of Colorado Boulder (#1543106). However, any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations presented are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect views of the sponsoring agencies. This project was supervised by Linda B. Bourque, Professor of Community Health Sciences at the UCLA School of Public Health, and D. Mileti of NC START Working Group #3. The author acknowledges the contributions of M. Kano of the UCLA Southern California Injury Prevention Research Center; and Tonya Hays and Eve Fielder of the UCLA Survey Research Center (SRC) in the Division of General Internal Medicine-Health Services Research in the Department of Medicine. ₪ Race/Ethnicity Breakdown Total Sample Proportion of Sample in High Visibility Cities and the Rest of the Continental U.S. Allocation by Ethnic Groups within Two Strata: Communities with High Visibility and the Rest of the Continental U.S. 1 A parallel set of disaster items had originally been included for all of the terrorism items, but these were deleted due to time constraints except in the case of the key constructs, “Experience” and “Action.” Race/Ethnicity Breakdown To Date Proportion of Sample in High Visibility Cities and the Rest of the Continental U.S. To Date Status Roles Experience Cues Terrorism Mindset Information Received Perceived Resilience Milling Factors Explaining Preparedness Action Information Belief Knowledge Perceived Risk Perceived Effectiveness Intention Action Exogenous Factors Endogenous Factor Predetermining Factors National Survey of Disaster Experiences and Preparedness: Questionnaire Design and Pretest Michele M. Wood, Ph.D.(c.), START Pre-Doctoral Fellow, 2006-2007 Southern California Injury Prevention Research Center, UCLA School of Public Health