Hacker Halted 2009 - Owning People through Technology
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  • The information security world exists on an incredibly short (20 year) timeframe - Even taking a *REALLY* long view, the entire Infosec industry extends only back as far as the mid-80s - AROUND 20 YEARS.Those were the daysSoftware Vulnerabilities weren’t significant - most based on configuration weaknessOnly a handful of people understood how to exploit technologiesSmall Target Surface - Few internet-connected computersFocus was on phone phreaking and academia Social Engineering reigned supremeMost successful attacks involved social engineeringUnsophisticated controls environmentsFew understood the jargonPolicies encouraged trust over security
  • Two Vital DatesOctober 13, 1994Mosaic Netscape 0.9 releasedThe web becomes easy to navigateAugust 24, 1995Windows 95 ReleasedHome computer use proliferates massivelyThe Internet Experiences exponential growthMoney starts to change handsInternet connected computers become a viable targetThis created a target rich environment...Phrack 49 - November 8, 1996.Aleph1 - Smashing the Stack for Fun and ProfitThe first real sophisticated vulnerabilities start to emergeA buffer overflow required knowledge of assembly and coding skillHackers now had to be more technicalReadily available exploit code actually makes breaking in to computers easierThe “golden age” of server hacking begins.1996-2003 - More of the sameMemory attacks become more sophisticatedPolymorphic shell-code designed to evade detective controlsMore advanced use of memory spaces (format strings, integer exploits) Windows XP Service Pack 2 AppearsMicrosoft finally hardens their operating systemsThe world changes overnightSecurity is now baked in to the computer.Server based vulnerabilities disappearAs massive server-based vulnerabilities disappear, client interaction becomes keyThe number of issues continues to increase, but the type of issues starts to change radicallySince 2005No major direct-exploitation worm outbreaksLess than a handful of “remote root” direct exploitation vulnerabilitiesMajor Classes of AttacksDrive-by DownloadExploitation through EmailExploitation through Social Networking SitesPhishing / Pharming / Spear-PhishingWhat’s the similarity?If you said “human interaction”, you get a gold star.
  • Two Vital DatesOctober 13, 1994Mosaic Netscape 0.9 releasedThe web becomes easy to navigateAugust 24, 1995Windows 95 ReleasedHome computer use proliferates massivelyThe Internet Experiences exponential growthMoney starts to change handsInternet connected computers become a viable targetThis created a target rich environment...Phrack 49 - November 8, 1996.Aleph1 - Smashing the Stack for Fun and ProfitThe first real sophisticated vulnerabilities start to emergeA buffer overflow required knowledge of assembly and coding skillHackers now had to be more technicalReadily available exploit code actually makes breaking in to computers easierThe “golden age” of server hacking begins.1996-2003 - More of the sameMemory attacks become more sophisticatedPolymorphic shell-code designed to evade detective controlsMore advanced use of memory spaces (format strings, integer exploits) Windows XP Service Pack 2 AppearsMicrosoft finally hardens their operating systemsThe world changes overnightSecurity is now baked in to the computer.Server based vulnerabilities disappearAs massive server-based vulnerabilities disappear, client interaction becomes keyThe number of issues continues to increase, but the type of issues starts to change radicallySince 2005No major direct-exploitation worm outbreaksLess than a handful of “remote root” direct exploitation vulnerabilitiesMajor Classes of AttacksDrive-by DownloadExploitation through EmailExploitation through Social Networking SitesPhishing / Pharming / Spear-PhishingWhat’s the similarity?If you said “human interaction”, you get a gold star.
  • Two Vital DatesOctober 13, 1994Mosaic Netscape 0.9 releasedThe web becomes easy to navigateAugust 24, 1995Windows 95 ReleasedHome computer use proliferates massivelyThe Internet Experiences exponential growthMoney starts to change handsInternet connected computers become a viable targetThis created a target rich environment...Phrack 49 - November 8, 1996.Aleph1 - Smashing the Stack for Fun and ProfitThe first real sophisticated vulnerabilities start to emergeA buffer overflow required knowledge of assembly and coding skillHackers now had to be more technicalReadily available exploit code actually makes breaking in to computers easierThe “golden age” of server hacking begins.1996-2003 - More of the sameMemory attacks become more sophisticatedPolymorphic shell-code designed to evade detective controlsMore advanced use of memory spaces (format strings, integer exploits) Windows XP Service Pack 2 AppearsMicrosoft finally hardens their operating systemsThe world changes overnightSecurity is now baked in to the computer.Server based vulnerabilities disappearAs massive server-based vulnerabilities disappear, client interaction becomes keyThe number of issues continues to increase, but the type of issues starts to change radicallySince 2005No major direct-exploitation worm outbreaksLess than a handful of “remote root” direct exploitation vulnerabilitiesMajor Classes of AttacksDrive-by DownloadExploitation through EmailExploitation through Social Networking SitesPhishing / Pharming / Spear-PhishingWhat’s the similarity?If you said “human interaction”, you get a gold star.
  • Watkins, EstabrooksEstabrooks: “I can hypnotize a man — without his knowledge or consent — into committing treason against the United States”
  • Confirmation – what lawyer would ever use that subject line?
  • Checks on your familyPut trust in you Requests your help

Transcript

  • 1.
  • 2. Pwning People through Technology
    Mike Murray
    Hacker Halted USA 2009
    9/24/09
  • 3. Mike Murray
    A decade of experience in penetration testing, vulnerability research and social engineering
    CISO of Foreground Security (ForegroundSecurity.com) - leads penetration tests and security services engagements
    Lead trainer and curriculum developer at Foreground’s training division The Hacker Academy (TheHackerAcademy.com)
    Managing partner of Michael Murray and Associates, where he directs diverse stealth-mode security industry projects.
    Security blogger (Episteme.ca), podcaster, and regular speaker on social engineering, vulnerability management and the human side of security.
    Founder of Information Security Leaders, the leading resource on information security careers (InfoSecLeaders.com)
    Certified Hypnotherapist and Master NLP Practitioner
    3
    3
  • 4. 4
    Only two things are infinite: the universe and human stupidity.
    And I'm not sure about the former.
    - Albert Einsten
  • 5. 5
    Social Engineering:The practice of obtaining confidential information by manipulating users.
    Source: Wikipedia
  • 6. Human Vulnerability
    Humans are social creatures
    Human nature makes us vulnerable to each other
    Social engineers exploit weaknesses in human nature to obtain information or access
    6
  • 7. 7
    That Sounds Familiar
  • 8. 8
    Mesmer
    Erickson
    Elman
    Brown
    Ponzi
    Angel
    Irving
    Abagnale
    Weill
    Houdini
    Jermay
    Con Men
    Magicians
    Hypnotists
  • 9. Why Now?
    9
  • 10. 1985
    1990
    1993
    10
  • 11. Vulnerability Environment:
    August 24, 1995
    November 8, 1996
    October 13, 1994
    1997
    1994
    11
  • 16. Major Vulnerabilities in:
    Major Worms:
    1998
    2000
    2003
    12
  • 30. 2003
    2006
    2009
    13
  • 31. 14
    Human /
    Organization
    Network
    Service /
    Server
    Client
    Application
    The Vulnerability Cycle
  • 32. Penetration Test Success
    We spend a huge amount of time on the exploit
    Books written on XSS, XSRF and buffer overflows
    Very little research on how to get people to exploit themselves
    Nearly all of our tests rely on that ability
    Successful ethical hacking is successful SE
    Far too little SE is discussed
    15
  • 33. The Critical Faculty
    The hypnotist’s term for the part of the mind that acts as the rational alert system
    Allows the human to act on largely unconscious process
    Things raise to conscious awareness based on CF activation
    This suggests that all SE success is CF-related
    Avoid activating critical-faculty
    We want the person to execute a task that is inappropriate, yet fail to raise the CF alert to conscious awareness
    16
  • 34. The Military Experiments
    Would Military officers disobey a direct order under hypnosis?
    17
  • 35. Rule #1 Create a context that ensures that the behavior we want is completely appropriate.
    18
  • 36. 19
    The Three Skills
    Critical Faculty is bypassed through three fundamental skills:
    Artful Communication and Use of Language
    Awareness of the Target
    Frame Control
    The skills are the same when online
    Language
    You must have structure your language to effect control of your target
    Awareness
    You must know how your target will interpret your communication
    Frame Control
    Your ability to control the context of your communication will be the largest component of suppressing the CF
  • 37. © 2008 – Foreground Security, Michael Murray & Associates, LLC. All rights reserved
    Communication
    The art of communication
    Language is the first skill of the social engineer
    Ability to craft words is first step in influence
    Language is not real
    Incomplete representation of reality
    Incompleteness creates opportunity
    Dual Purpose of Language
    Information Transfer
    Influence
  • 38. Precision
    Information Transfer is hindered by the incompleteness of language
    Deletion
    Distortion
    Generalization
    Presupposition
  • 39. Influence
    Influence is about maintaining agreement
    Avoiding CF activation
    This is about the amygdala
    The goal is to change representation without triggering disagreement
    Disagreement is the mind’s defense against inappropriate influence.
    This is not about rhetorical/logical disagreement
    Agreement allows
    The artful inversion of precision
    Use of deletion, distortion and generalization to maintain agreement
    Sometimes referred to as being “artfully vague”
  • 40. © 2008 – Foreground Security, Michael Murray & Associates, LLC. All rights reserved
    The Basics
    This is third grade English class:
    Spelling
    Grammar
    Punctuation
    Most CF-activation is here
    Taught as base of much Sec Awareness Training
  • 41.
  • 42. © 2008 – Foreground Security, Michael Murray & Associates, LLC. All rights reserved
    Awareness
    Words are meaningless without awareness of what is working
    Your awareness of others acts as a compass
    You need to see and hear the effect of your words
    Main components of awareness in face-to-face
    Body language
    Facial expressions
    Language Tone
    How do we do this in technological social engineering?
  • 43. © 2008 – Foreground Security, Michael Murray & Associates, LLC. All rights reserved
    Tone Analysis of Writing
    As native speakers of English, we infer auditory tone into written word.
    Two main components:
    Word choice
    Punctuation
    Simple example
  • 44. Due to the mystery surrounding social engineering many people are afraid of it, or they feel they will never be able to accomplish a successful social engineering test. However, every time you try to get someone to do something that is in your interest, you are engaging in social engineering. From children trying to get a toy from their parents to adults trying to land a job or score the big promotion, all of it is a form of social engineering.
    Introduction tohttp://www.social-engineer.org
  • 45. Many people are afraid of social engineering due to its mystery. Perhaps they feel they will never be able to accomplish a successful social engineering test. However, you are engaging in social engineering whenever you try to influence someone to act in your interest.
    All of these are forms of social engineering:
    • children trying to get a toy from their parents
    • 46. trying to land a job
    • 47. score the big promotion
    Paraphrased fromhttp://www.social-engineer.org
  • 48. Many people are afraid of social engineering. They fear they won’t succeed at a social engineering test. But you are engaging in social engineering whenever you try to influence someone to act in your interest. Examples:
    • children trying to get a toy from their parents
    • 49. trying to land a job
    • 50. score the big promotion
    Paraphrased fromhttp://www.social-engineer.org
  • 51. © 2008 – Foreground Security, Michael Murray & Associates, LLC. All rights reserved
    Tone in SE
    Back to the prime rule
    Tone needs to be natural and appropriate.
    Every situation has a tone and a fel for the writing that is unlikely to activate the CF.
  • 52.
  • 53. Actual Email from TD
    Hello Michael Murray,I appreciate your interest in viewing your TD Visa account informationusing EasyWeb. Thank you for taking the time to write.If you currently have an active EasyWeb profile but can not access your TDVisa, you may have 2 separate customer profiles set up with TD CanadaTrust.  For immediate assistance with correcting this situation, Iencourage you to call EasyLine toll free at 1-866-222-3456. A BankingSpecialist can combine your profiles if necessary, provided that thepersonal information on both profiles match. Representatives are available24 hours a day, 7 days a week. If you are not registered for EasyLine,kindly press 2 and then 0 to speak with a representative. The combiningprocess usually takes about two days to complete, and once it is finished,you should be able to view your entire personal portfolio via EasyWeb.
  • 54. © 2008 – Foreground Security, Michael Murray & Associates, LLC. All rights reserved
    Frame Control
    Cognitive Frames
    Wikipedia: ”the inevitable process of selective influence over the individual's perception of the meanings attributed to words or phrases. Framing defines the packaging of an element of rhetoric in such a way as to encourage certain interpretations and to discourage others”
    The frame is the context in which the content of an interaction occurs
    Physical Frame control
    Transformation
    Extension / Contraction
    Combination
    Amplification / Compression
  • 55. © 2008 – Foreground Security, Michael Murray & Associates, LLC. All rights reserved
    The Elements of Influence
    Cialdini and others have found that creating a frame with certain elements can enhance influence
    Reciprocity
    Authority
    Social Proof
    Confirmation
    Scarcity / Urgency
    Emotional / Amygdala hijack
    Confusion
    Inserting these elements within a frame can strengthen influence
    These are natural human responses
    We use these responses to create a context for influence
  • 56. Confirmation
    35
  • 57. © 2008 – Foreground Security, Michael Murray & Associates, LLC. All rights reserved
    Confirmation
    Confirmation Bias
    That which confirms what we already believe, we tend to believe.
    That which fails to confirm what we already believe, we tend to ignore.
    The brain LITERALLY turns off
    No CF activation
  • 58. During the run-up to the 2004 presidential election, while undergoing an fMRI bran scan, 30 men--half self-described as "strong" Republicans and half as "strong“ Democrats--were tasked with assessing statements by both George W. Bush and John Kerry in which the candidates clearly contradicted themselves. . Not surprisingly, in their assessments Republican subjects were as critical of Kerry as Democratic subjects were of Bush, yet both let their own candidate off the hook….
    The neuroimaging results, however, revealed that…
    "We did not see any increased activation of the parts of the brain normally engaged during reasoning"
    From: http://resonancetechnologies.com/press/articles/ThePoliticalBrain.pdf
  • 59. © 2008 – Foreground Security, Michael Murray & Associates, LLC. All rights reserved
    Confirmation in SE
    Signal Theory
    Branch of economics relating to the messages passed by inference
    E.g. A CEH is a signal that you have chosen the path of an EH
    We need to give appropriate signals
    Tone
    Language
    Appearance
  • 60. Back to TD
    Hello Michael Murray,I appreciate your interest in viewing your TD Visa account information using EasyWeb. Thank you for taking the time to write.If you currently have an activeEasyWebprofile but can not access your TD Visa, you may have 2 separate customer profiles set up with TD Canada Trust.  For immediate assistance with correcting this situation, I encourage you to call EasyLine toll free at 1-866-222-3456. A Banking Specialist can combine your profiles if necessary, provided that the personal information on both profiles match. Representatives are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. If you are not registered for EasyLine, kindly press 2 and then 0 to speak with a representative. The combining process usually takes about two days to complete, and once it is finished, you should be able to view your entire personal portfolio via EasyWeb.
    Best regards,Debra MatsumotoInternet Correspondence Representative________________________________________TD Canada Trust 1-866-222-3456http://www.tdcanadatrust.comEmail: customer.service@td.comTDD (Telephone Device for the Deaf) 1-800-361-1180This email is directed to, and intended for the exclusive use of, the addressee indicated above. TD Canada Trust endeavours to provide accurate and up-to-date information relating to its products and services. However, please note that rates, fees and information are subject to change.
  • 61.
  • 62.
  • 63. Reciprocity
    42
  • 64. 43
    We create relationships through trading value.
    Temporary inequality creates powerful bonds.
  • 65. Reciprocity == Investment
    The act of exchanging value
    I can do something for you
    You can do something for me.
    Both acts strengthen our bond.
    We become more invested in the relationship
    The more invested a person feels, the more likely they are to be influenced by the relationship
    This is the Nigerian scam’s overwhelming power
    44
  • 66.
  • 67. Scarcity
    46
  • 68. Scarcity
    People will take almost any opportunity for their own gain
    Especially if the opportunity seems scarce
    If we have to hurry, the amygdala takes over
    This is a marketing tactic
    Infomercials
    Scams
    47
  • 69. Ron Popeil
    “If you call in the next 15 minutes…”
  • 70.
  • 71.
  • 72. So much more we could discuss…So little time.Keep an eye on:ForegroundSecurity.comEpisteme.caEmail me: mmurray@episteme.ca