Indian higheredpanel120110


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This presentation was part of a special panel organized by the CSAMES & International Program at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign including Indian Consul General Mukta D.Tomar; Prof. P.R. Kumar, Electrical and Computer Engineering ; Prof. Madhu Viswanathan, Business Administration; Mousumi Mukherjee, Doctoral student in the Department of Educational Policy Studies

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Indian higheredpanel120110

  1. 1. Higher Education in India andIndias role in Higher Education in a Global Context Mousumi Mukherjee Department of Educational Policy Studies Panel on Indian Higher Education in the Global Context December 1, 2010 Illini Union
  2. 2. Indian Higher Education: a complex system of 18, 600 universities and affiliated colleges ( four times larger than the system in the US & entireEurope, but this has to be understood in the context of India being second most populous country in the world with 1.8 billion people) University level Institutions 399 Public Institutions Deemed Universities 114 Institutes of National Based on Funding Source Importance (IITs) 13 Private Institutes set up Central State Universities Universitie by State Universities 24 232 Legislature s 11 5Source: Background papers of the University Grants Commission of the EleventhFive Year Plan: 2007 as cited in Agarwal (2009). This number has increased since2007 with couple of more IITs and State level management and technical institutes.
  3. 3. Global Experience: Private vs. Public share in Higher Education• Among 78 countries of which information has been gathered by the ―Programme for Research in Private Higher Education‖ (PROPHE) funded by the Ford Foundation at the University at Albany (SUNY), India’s level of private enrolment exceeds 55 cases and trials behind just 22.• However, though the private sector (as most of the affiliated colleges are private institutions) in India is one of the highest in the world, majority of large universities and colleges are public. These include some supported by the national government, but most by individual states. Moreover, so far none has the profile of a world-class research university compared to private institutions in the U.S. or any other country• Also, according to Altbach (2008) marketplace for international higher education in India “is large, growing and basically unregulated….[While there are some] prestigious universities hoping to build links overseas, recruit top students to their home campuses and strengthen their brand abroad. But many more are sub-prime institutions: sleazy recruiters, degree packagers, low-end private institutions seeking to stave off bankruptcy through the export market and even a few respectable universities forced by government funding cutbacks to raise cash elsewhere.”
  4. 4. Comparative Analysis: United States and India Linkages between different units in Linkages between different units in US higher education Indian Higher Education Federal Accreditation Government Bodies Student Centered Funding Central Govt. Accreditation UGC and Bodies Professional Councils Institutional Funding Higher Higher State State Education Governments EducationGovernments Institutions Institutions Institutional Funding Institutional Funding
  5. 5. India’s role in Higher Education in the Global Context:• Elite institutions of higher education are some of the strongest global brands and the United States, with a deregulated system of higher education, has many of these strong brands both in the public and private higher education sector like Harvard, Stanford, MIT and State flagship universities like UC Berkley and Illinois.• India has the IIT and IIM brands (created in the US model of MIT/Cal Tech) that are now recognized all over the world. These institutions have helped giving a positive image of India and Indian Higher Education abroad. These are some of the most selective institutions in the world and like many other elite institutions, these have not increased their intake substantially over the years and thus continue to be very selective, though 2 new IITs were launched recently in 2009 and another university is being planned to be converted as an IIT increasing the total number from 13 to 15 .• IITs were created by India’s first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru ―50 years ago just after independence to train the scientists and engineers he knew the nation would need to move from medieval to modern. He never imagined India would be supplying brainpower to the whole world.‖ (source: 60 minutes, CBS News, 22 June 2003, cited by Agarwal 2009)
  6. 6. Dilemmas of reform: a ―quiet crisis‖ or a ―sick child‖• Pawan Agarwal, (2009)Indian Administrative Officer & Fulbright New Century Scholar, in his recent book quotes the chairperson of Indian Knowledge Commission to refer to Indian Higher Education as a ―quiet crisis‖ and quotes the HRD minister to refer to it as ―sick child‖. Development economists have raised serious doubts about sustaining the macro-economic growth rate of India since it is now solely based on the service-sector. Taking into consideration the global economic crisis, this macro-economic growth could be a false boom until and unless research & development is boosted in the higher education sector.• India’s consistently high rate of economic growth in the recent years which has now become a major player in the global knowledge economy, is mostly because of its ―brain in circulation‖ as scholars like Anna Lee Saxenian (2006) have understood through extensive field research in the Silicon Valley in the US and in India. However, this growth momentum cannot be sustained as industries routinely complain huge skill shortages within the country. (Agarwal, 2009)
  7. 7. Public Policy• ―A fundamental problem faced by Indian higher education is that public policy assumes that all institutions are homogenous and therefore treats them equally and regards all programs as equal, while large system of higher education as India is incompatible with this model of understanding public policy.‖ (Agarwal, 2009)• ―Public policies are often not based on long-term concerns. These do not carefully weigh the trade off between seemingly contradictory goals and ignore that the markets are now the main arbitrators of resource allocation. The role of Government is to create an open environment and more demanding standards of transparency and accountability so that the market functions efficiently. The Government has to strike a delicate balance between growth and an equitable and inclusive development taking into account the forces of globalization and the prevailing socio-economic realities.‖ – Indian Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh during Civil Services Day Speech on 21 April 2006)
  8. 8. Indo-US collaboration: a way forward―I am not the first American president to visit India. Nor will I be the last. But I am proud tovisit India so early in my presidency. It is no coincidence that India is my first stop on a visit toAsia, or that this has been my longest visit to another country since becoming President. For inAsia and around the world, India is not simply emerging; India has already emerged. And it ismy firm belief that the relationship between the United States and India—bound by our sharedinterests and values—will be one of the defining partnerships of the 21st century. This is thepartnership I have come here to build. This is the vision that our nations can realize together.My confidence in our shared future is grounded in my respect for India’s treasured past—acivilization that has been shaping the world for thousands of years. Indians unlocked theintricacies of the human body and the vastness of our universe. And it is no exaggeration to saythat our information age is rooted in Indian innovations—including the number zero. India notonly opened our minds, she expanded our moral imagination. With religious texts that stillsummon the faithful to lives of dignity and discipline. With poets who imagined a future―where the mind is without fear and the head is held high.‖(Tagore) And with a man whosemessage of love and justice endures—the Father of your Nation, Mahatma Gandhi.‖- (US President Barack Obama’s remarks to the Indian Parliament, November 8, 2010)