The Grammar-Translation       Method      Introduction
Objectives of GTM   To be able to read literature written in    the target language   To be able to translate from one  ...
Key Features of GTM Native   language Vocabulary   / grammatical rules Accuracy   /translation Language    skills
Advantages of GTM Aneffective way for application of grammar and sentence structure Few   demands on teachers Least   s...
Disadvantage of GTM Wrong    idea of what language is Less   learners’ motivation Create   frustration for learners
Application: Typical Techniques (1)     Translation of a Literary Passage (2)     Reading Comprehension Questions (3)  ...
Reading Method outstanding following the Committee of Twelve in 1900 in the U.S.
The PurposeFor people who do not travelabroad, reading is a useful skill tolearn a foreign language.
GTM & RM˙Similarity  Little or no attention is given to   pronunciation.˙Diversity  GTM read difficult texts begun early  ...
The Characteristic( 1 ) Acquisition of vocabulary>  Grammatical skill( 2 ) Control vocabulary difficulty( 3 ) Reading Comp...
Advantages with using RM˙Good for people who do not travelabroad˙Teacher does not need to have good oralskill
Disadvantages with usingRM˙Narrow skill ability˙Unbalanced learning
Typical Procedure in a RMCourse( 1 ) Read a lot( 2 ) Expand vocabulary fast
The Direct Method    Introduction
Rationale of DM   First language learning process    (1) No grammar    (2) No mother tongue    (3) No translation    (4) ...
Key Features of DM Target   language Vocabulary   / grammar Teaching   point Language    skills
Guidelines of DM for teaching        oral language Demonstrate      Use  lesson plan Act              Follow plan Ask...
Advantages of DM An effective way in creating learners to be competent in using the target communicatively.
Disadvantage of DM Difficult to implement in public  secondary school education Time-wasting Not all teachers were prof...
Application: Typical Techniques (1) Reading Aloud (2) Question and Answer Exercise (3) Student Self-Correction (4) Con...
The Audiolingual Method˙Founded during World War II for   military purposes in USA˙Popular in the 1960s but died out in   ...
The PurposeFocus on students’ pronunciation,and train their ability of listening bydialogues and drills
Direct Method & ALM˙Similarity  taught language directly without   using L1˙Diversity  ALM drilled students without   teac...
Structural Linguistics &ALM ˙Mastering the building blocks ˙Learning the rules
Behaviorism & ALM - principles˙Language learning is habit-   formation˙Mistakes should be avoided˙Spoken language comes be...
Behaviorism & ALM - elements ˙Stimulus ˙Response ˙Reinforcement
The Characteristic( 1 ) Imitation( 2 ) repetition( 3 ) Positively reinforced( 4 ) Over learn*Emphasize in the “Form”, not ...
Advantages with using ALM˙Allows Students to communicate   quickly˙Students became good at pattern
Disadvantages with usingALM˙Turn Students into parrots˙Boring and mindless˙Reduce the motivation
Typical Procedure in an ALMCourse( 1 ) hear a dialogue( 2 ) repeat the dialogue( 3 ) key words or structures  changed( 4 )...
The Cognitive ApproachIntroduction & Rationale
Key Features Instruction            is often individualized Vocabulary / grammar Language skills Demands on teachers
Application: Cognitive approach              to grammar teaching Grammar   teaching should be planned  and systematic Ne...
Total Physical Response/TPR(James Asher , 1966)  founded by James Asher, a  professor of psychology at San  José State Uni...
The Purpose To have basic oral expression ability through using imperative sentences.
The Characteristic( 1 ) retention( 2 ) Direct commands( 3 ) No stress( 4 ) Listen first*Emphasize in the “Meaning”, not th...
Advantages with using TPR  ˙Fun.  ˙Memorable.  ˙Good for kinesthetic learners.  ˙No matter the class size.                ...
Advantages with using TPR˙Work well with mixed-abilityclasses.˙No requirement for manypreparation or materials.˙Effective ...
Disadvantages with usingTPR ˙Students feel shy ˙Less useful for upper levels ˙overuse TPR
Typical Procedure in a TPRCourse  ( 1 ) input  ( 2 ) comprehension  ( 3 ) express
Oral-Situational Approach Developed in Britain and popular between the 1930s and 1960s
Main difference between DMand OSA Oral-Situational Approach has a systematic planed vocabulary and grammar rules, DM hasn’t.
Main difference betweenALM &OSA Oral-Situational Approach doesn’t mention about reinforcement, ALM does.
Purpose Teaching a practical skill of L2 through copy the way children acquire L1
Characteristic˙Start from spoken language˙Avoid errors˙Teacher-centered˙Focus on Listening and speaking˙Chosen the vocabul...
Advantages with using OSA ˙Bring the reality situation in the classroom ˙Scheduled progress
Disadvantages with usingOSA˙Turn students into parrots˙Boring and mindless˙Reduce the motivation
Typical Procedure˙Teacher gave a topic˙Demonstrate with teaching aids˙Key word changed
Suggestopedia The name is from the words suggestion and pedagogy. Developed in the 1970s by the Bulgarian psychologist Geo...
Attention and memory studies(Adapted from: Richards & Rodgers 2001 Approaches & Methods in Language TeachingCambridge)
PurposeDesuggest the psychologicalbarriers to learn vocabulary andconversation
Characteristic ˙Present text with music ˙Practiced breathing ˙Comfortable ˙Choose target language name ˙Colorful posters o...
Elements to Suggestopedia ˙Authority ˙Infantilization ˙Double-planedness ˙Intonation, Rhythm and concert     pseudo-passiv...
Advantages with usingSuggestopedia  ˙Increase oral proficiency  ˙Lower classroom anxiety
Disadvantages with usingSuggestopedia  ˙Unavailable of music and     comfortable chair  ˙No advanced comprehension     tec...
Typical Procedure ˙Deciphering ˙Concert session ˙Elaboration ˙Production
Community LanguageLearningDeveloped by Charles Curran andhis associates in 1970s
Comparison
Psychological Requirementsfor Successful Learning ˙S stands for security ˙A stands for attention and aggression ˙R stands ...
PurposeThe teacher can successfullytransfer his or her knowledge andproficiency in the L2 to thestudents; Specific purpose...
Characteristic ˙Client-Counselor and Learner-     Knower relationships ˙Humanistic Techniques ˙Code Alternation
Advantages with using CLL˙Remove the feeling of distance   and insecure˙Counselor allows the learner to   decide the topic
Disadvantages with usingCLL˙Teacher may become too   indirective˙Confidence based on an inductive   strategy for learning
Typical Procedure ˙Translation ˙Group Work ˙Recording ˙Transcription ˙Analysis ˙Reflection and observation
Main Steps of Procedure ofCLL     ˙Investment     ˙Reflection
The Comprehension-based        Approach    (Natural Approach)      Introduction
Features of NA   Listening comprehension is very important   Begin by listening to meaningful speech   Speak when ready...
The NA v.s. The DMThe NA emphasize on       The DM emphasize on1.Exposure / input        1.Teach monologue2.Optimizing emo...
Objectives of NA To be able to function adequately in  the target situation. To be able to convey their requests  and idea
Teacher and Student Roles Teacher Roles  The primary source  Create a classroom atmosphere  Choose a rich mix of classr...
The Communicative    Approach    Introduction
Features of CACommunicative     intentThe use of authentic materialsActivities are often carried out
Teacher and Student Roles Teacher roles (1) To facilitate communication (2) To be a co-communicator Student      roles C...
Advantages of the CA       (1) Students will be more motivated       (2) Students have opportunities to express       (...
Disadvantages of the CA No  environment of ESL Difficulty in evaluating students’  performance Ignore the training of r...
Typical techniques Authentic  materials Scrambled sentences Language games Picture strip story Role play
Task-Based Approach     Introduction
Principles of TBATasks provide both the input and output processingTask activity and achievement are motivationalLearni...
Teacher and Student Roles Teacher roles (1) Selector and sequencer of tasks (2) Preparing learners for tasks (3) Consciou...
Advantages of TBA       (1) Students are free of language control       (2) Students have more varied exposure to       ...
Disadvantages of TBA focuson meaning could come at the expense of focus on form
Typical techniquesLesson plans should be designed  to cover 3 stages in the TBA(1)Pre-task stage(2)During-task stage(3)Pos...
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Teaching approaches

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  1. 1. The Grammar-Translation Method Introduction
  2. 2. Objectives of GTM To be able to read literature written in the target language To be able to translate from one language to another To develop reading and writing skill
  3. 3. Key Features of GTM Native language Vocabulary / grammatical rules Accuracy /translation Language skills
  4. 4. Advantages of GTM Aneffective way for application of grammar and sentence structure Few demands on teachers Least stressful for students
  5. 5. Disadvantage of GTM Wrong idea of what language is Less learners’ motivation Create frustration for learners
  6. 6. Application: Typical Techniques (1) Translation of a Literary Passage (2) Reading Comprehension Questions (3) Antonyms/Synonyms (4) Cognates (5) Deductive Application of Rule (6) Fill-in-the-blanks (7) Memorization (8) Use Words in Sentences (9) Composition     
  7. 7. Reading Method outstanding following the Committee of Twelve in 1900 in the U.S.
  8. 8. The PurposeFor people who do not travelabroad, reading is a useful skill tolearn a foreign language.
  9. 9. GTM & RM˙Similarity Little or no attention is given to pronunciation.˙Diversity GTM read difficult texts begun early GTM has Single Vocabulary lists
  10. 10. The Characteristic( 1 ) Acquisition of vocabulary> Grammatical skill( 2 ) Control vocabulary difficulty( 3 ) Reading Comprehension > Pronunciation and Conversational Skills( 4 ) Translation reappear
  11. 11. Advantages with using RM˙Good for people who do not travelabroad˙Teacher does not need to have good oralskill
  12. 12. Disadvantages with usingRM˙Narrow skill ability˙Unbalanced learning
  13. 13. Typical Procedure in a RMCourse( 1 ) Read a lot( 2 ) Expand vocabulary fast
  14. 14. The Direct Method Introduction
  15. 15. Rationale of DM First language learning process (1) No grammar (2) No mother tongue (3) No translation (4) Postponement of printed word (5) Postponement of written word
  16. 16. Key Features of DM Target language Vocabulary / grammar Teaching point Language skills
  17. 17. Guidelines of DM for teaching oral language Demonstrate  Use lesson plan Act  Follow plan Ask questions  Keep the pace of Correct the students Use sentences  Speak normally Make students  Speak naturally speak much  Take it easy
  18. 18. Advantages of DM An effective way in creating learners to be competent in using the target communicatively.
  19. 19. Disadvantage of DM Difficult to implement in public secondary school education Time-wasting Not all teachers were proficient enough in the foreign language
  20. 20. Application: Typical Techniques (1) Reading Aloud (2) Question and Answer Exercise (3) Student Self-Correction (4) Conversation Practice (5) Fill-in-the-blank Exercise (6) Dictation (7) Paragraph Writing
  21. 21. The Audiolingual Method˙Founded during World War II for military purposes in USA˙Popular in the 1960s but died out in the 70s
  22. 22. The PurposeFocus on students’ pronunciation,and train their ability of listening bydialogues and drills
  23. 23. Direct Method & ALM˙Similarity taught language directly without using L1˙Diversity ALM drilled students without teaching vocabulary
  24. 24. Structural Linguistics &ALM ˙Mastering the building blocks ˙Learning the rules
  25. 25. Behaviorism & ALM - principles˙Language learning is habit- formation˙Mistakes should be avoided˙Spoken language comes before written language˙Dialogues and drill centered
  26. 26. Behaviorism & ALM - elements ˙Stimulus ˙Response ˙Reinforcement
  27. 27. The Characteristic( 1 ) Imitation( 2 ) repetition( 3 ) Positively reinforced( 4 ) Over learn*Emphasize in the “Form”, not the “Meaning”
  28. 28. Advantages with using ALM˙Allows Students to communicate quickly˙Students became good at pattern
  29. 29. Disadvantages with usingALM˙Turn Students into parrots˙Boring and mindless˙Reduce the motivation
  30. 30. Typical Procedure in an ALMCourse( 1 ) hear a dialogue( 2 ) repeat the dialogue( 3 ) key words or structures changed( 4 ) practice substitutions in the pattern drills
  31. 31. The Cognitive ApproachIntroduction & Rationale
  32. 32. Key Features Instruction is often individualized Vocabulary / grammar Language skills Demands on teachers
  33. 33. Application: Cognitive approach to grammar teaching Grammar teaching should be planned and systematic Necessary grammar instruction Extensive exposure to instructed grammar points Production activities Group work and task performance Postlesson activities
  34. 34. Total Physical Response/TPR(James Asher , 1966) founded by James Asher, a professor of psychology at San José State University, California, USA
  35. 35. The Purpose To have basic oral expression ability through using imperative sentences.
  36. 36. The Characteristic( 1 ) retention( 2 ) Direct commands( 3 ) No stress( 4 ) Listen first*Emphasize in the “Meaning”, not the “Form”
  37. 37. Advantages with using TPR ˙Fun. ˙Memorable. ˙Good for kinesthetic learners. ˙No matter the class size. >>>
  38. 38. Advantages with using TPR˙Work well with mixed-abilityclasses.˙No requirement for manypreparation or materials.˙Effective with young learners.˙Involves both left and right-brainedlearning
  39. 39. Disadvantages with usingTPR ˙Students feel shy ˙Less useful for upper levels ˙overuse TPR
  40. 40. Typical Procedure in a TPRCourse ( 1 ) input ( 2 ) comprehension ( 3 ) express
  41. 41. Oral-Situational Approach Developed in Britain and popular between the 1930s and 1960s
  42. 42. Main difference between DMand OSA Oral-Situational Approach has a systematic planed vocabulary and grammar rules, DM hasn’t.
  43. 43. Main difference betweenALM &OSA Oral-Situational Approach doesn’t mention about reinforcement, ALM does.
  44. 44. Purpose Teaching a practical skill of L2 through copy the way children acquire L1
  45. 45. Characteristic˙Start from spoken language˙Avoid errors˙Teacher-centered˙Focus on Listening and speaking˙Chosen the vocabulary˙The first method uses structural syllabus
  46. 46. Advantages with using OSA ˙Bring the reality situation in the classroom ˙Scheduled progress
  47. 47. Disadvantages with usingOSA˙Turn students into parrots˙Boring and mindless˙Reduce the motivation
  48. 48. Typical Procedure˙Teacher gave a topic˙Demonstrate with teaching aids˙Key word changed
  49. 49. Suggestopedia The name is from the words suggestion and pedagogy. Developed in the 1970s by the Bulgarian psychologist Georgi Lozanov
  50. 50. Attention and memory studies(Adapted from: Richards & Rodgers 2001 Approaches & Methods in Language TeachingCambridge)
  51. 51. PurposeDesuggest the psychologicalbarriers to learn vocabulary andconversation
  52. 52. Characteristic ˙Present text with music ˙Practiced breathing ˙Comfortable ˙Choose target language name ˙Colorful posters on the wall ˙Liberate instead of teach
  53. 53. Elements to Suggestopedia ˙Authority ˙Infantilization ˙Double-planedness ˙Intonation, Rhythm and concert pseudo-passiveness
  54. 54. Advantages with usingSuggestopedia ˙Increase oral proficiency ˙Lower classroom anxiety
  55. 55. Disadvantages with usingSuggestopedia ˙Unavailable of music and comfortable chair ˙No advanced comprehension technique
  56. 56. Typical Procedure ˙Deciphering ˙Concert session ˙Elaboration ˙Production
  57. 57. Community LanguageLearningDeveloped by Charles Curran andhis associates in 1970s
  58. 58. Comparison
  59. 59. Psychological Requirementsfor Successful Learning ˙S stands for security ˙A stands for attention and aggression ˙R stands for retention and reflection ˙D represents discrimination
  60. 60. PurposeThe teacher can successfullytransfer his or her knowledge andproficiency in the L2 to thestudents; Specific purposes arenot mentioned.
  61. 61. Characteristic ˙Client-Counselor and Learner- Knower relationships ˙Humanistic Techniques ˙Code Alternation
  62. 62. Advantages with using CLL˙Remove the feeling of distance and insecure˙Counselor allows the learner to decide the topic
  63. 63. Disadvantages with usingCLL˙Teacher may become too indirective˙Confidence based on an inductive strategy for learning
  64. 64. Typical Procedure ˙Translation ˙Group Work ˙Recording ˙Transcription ˙Analysis ˙Reflection and observation
  65. 65. Main Steps of Procedure ofCLL ˙Investment ˙Reflection
  66. 66. The Comprehension-based Approach (Natural Approach) Introduction
  67. 67. Features of NA Listening comprehension is very important Begin by listening to meaningful speech Speak when ready One step beyond their level of competence Error correction Appropriate input for the learners Adopt freely from various method sources
  68. 68. The NA v.s. The DMThe NA emphasize on The DM emphasize on1.Exposure / input 1.Teach monologue2.Optimizing emotional 2.Direct repetition preparedness 3.Formal Q/A3.A prolonged period of 4.Accurate production hearing
  69. 69. Objectives of NA To be able to function adequately in the target situation. To be able to convey their requests and idea
  70. 70. Teacher and Student Roles Teacher Roles  The primary source  Create a classroom atmosphere  Choose a rich mix of classroom activities Student Roles Participator ; responder
  71. 71. The Communicative Approach Introduction
  72. 72. Features of CACommunicative intentThe use of authentic materialsActivities are often carried out
  73. 73. Teacher and Student Roles Teacher roles (1) To facilitate communication (2) To be a co-communicator Student roles Communicator
  74. 74. Advantages of the CA (1) Students will be more motivated (2) Students have opportunities to express (3) Student security is enhanced     
  75. 75. Disadvantages of the CA No environment of ESL Difficulty in evaluating students’ performance Ignore the training of reading and writing
  76. 76. Typical techniques Authentic materials Scrambled sentences Language games Picture strip story Role play
  77. 77. Task-Based Approach Introduction
  78. 78. Principles of TBATasks provide both the input and output processingTask activity and achievement are motivationalLearning difficulty can be negotiated and fine-tuned
  79. 79. Teacher and Student Roles Teacher roles (1) Selector and sequencer of tasks (2) Preparing learners for tasks (3) Consciousness-raising Student roles (1)Group participant (2)Monitor (3)Risk-Taker and innovator
  80. 80. Advantages of TBA (1) Students are free of language control (2) Students have more varied exposure to language (3) Enjoyable and motivating     
  81. 81. Disadvantages of TBA focuson meaning could come at the expense of focus on form
  82. 82. Typical techniquesLesson plans should be designed to cover 3 stages in the TBA(1)Pre-task stage(2)During-task stage(3)Post-task stage
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