• Testosterone (testes)
• Development of male sexual secondary
- Penis and testes grow: produce sperm and
- Facial hair develops
- Changes to larynx: deeper voice
- Hair grows on chest and in armpits
- Pubic hair develops
• Oestrogen and progesterone
• Development of male sexual secondary
- Ovaries grow- eggs develop and female
hormones are released
- Hair grows in armpits
- Breasts develop/increase in size
- Hips broaden
- Pubic hair grows
- Vagina enlargens
Fertilisation: the joining of the nuclei of the male
gamete (sperm) and the female gamete (egg)
Ovulation and implantation
• It begins when the strong muscles in the wall
of the uterus start to contract. This is called
• The wall of the cervix, gradually becomes wide
enough for the baby to be pushed through.
• The wall of the vagina can stretch to allow the
baby to be pushed through.
Afterbirth The placenta falls away from the wall
of the uterus, and passes out through the vagina.
• Diet plenty of calcium: why?
• Diet plenty of extra iron: why?
• Diet with extra carbohydrates: why?
• Diet with extra protein: why?
• Continue to take exercise
• No smoking: why?
• Not too much alcohol or drugs.
• Avoid illnesses: rubella (deaf or other disabilities)
• AIDS: the virus HIV can cross the placenta
Breast feeding vs. Milk formula
Advantage of breast milk vs. Formula
• No need to use an equipment, which, unless
clean it´s easier for bacteria to get into the milk
and make the baby ill.
• Contains antibodies from the mother, which
helps the baby ti fight off infectious diseases.
• Close relationship to develop between mother
The composition changes as it grows so that´s
exactly right for the different stages of
SOME METHODS OF BIRTH CONTROL
METHOD HOW IT WORKS ADVANTAGES AND
Careful record of menstrual cycle over
several months, so that the woman can
predict roughly when an egg is likely to
be present in her oviducts. Sexual
intercourse must be avoided around this
It is never possible to be 100% certain
when ovulation is going to happen.
Used by many people who do not want
to use another contraceptive method.
Contains oestrogen and progesterone,
which are made when the woman is
pregnant and stop egg production. One
pill is taken every day
Very effective method, as long as the
pills are taken at the right time. However,
unpleasant side-effects may be
experienced. Women must have regular
check-ups with the doctor.
It traps semen, as it is released stopping
it from entering the vagina.
Safe method if used correctly.
Helps to prevent the transfer of infection,
such as gonorrhoea and HIV.
Circular sheet of rubber placed over the
cervix, at the top of the vagina. Sperm
deposited in the vagina cannot get past
the diaphragm into the uterus.
Effective method if used and fitted
correctly. Fitting must be done by a
doctor, but after that a woman can put
her own diaphragm in and take it out as
Man: sperm ducts are cut or tied.
Woman: the oviducts are cut or tied.
Extremely sure with no side- effects.
However, the tubes cannot be re-opened
It is not a method for young people.
IUD: intra uterine device
SEXUAL TRANSMISSABLE DISEASES
Microorganism Symptoms/signs How to prenvent
- Only survives in moist
places, such as the
tissues lining the tubes in
the reproductive systems.
-MAN: It reproduces
inside the urethra.
Unpleasant discharge and
pain when urinating.
- WOMEN: it reproduces
mostly in the cervix.
Discharge and no pain.
They are anaware that
they have the infection
-Having only one sexual
-- tracing, warning and
treating all possible
sexual contacts of a
person who is diagnosed
with gonorrhoea to make
sure that it does not
spread any furthur.
AIDS: acquired immune deficiency syndrome
Microorganism Methods of
How it affects the
Ways in which can
-Direct contact of
your body fluids with
those of someone
with the viru:.
intercourse: can live
in the fluid inside the
vagina, rectum and
-- Through blood
a) blood transfusions
c) People who have
to deal with
particular T cells.
They are unable to
fight against other
vulnerable to other
infections such as
may develop cancer
and brain cells are
- They die of a
collection of several
-Having one sexual
- Using condoms
lowers the chances
of the virus passing
from one person to
- Blood used in
be screened for HIV
before it is used.
- Use of sterile
- Paramedics and
policemen: use of