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Sources: Jones, IGCSE Biology- Mackean, IGCSE Biology - Pickering, Complete Biology

Sources: Jones, IGCSE Biology- Mackean, IGCSE Biology - Pickering, Complete Biology

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  • 1. Relationships of organismswithoneanother and withtheirenvironment<br />
  • 2.
  • 3. NUTRIENT CYCLES<br />Carboncycle<br />Watercycle<br />Nitrogencycle<br />
  • 4. CARBON CYCLE<br />
  • 5.
  • 6. CARBON CYCLE<br /> REMOVAL OF CO₂ FROM THE ATMOSPHERE<br />PHOTOSYNTHESIS: uses light energytoconvert CO₂ intoorganiccompounds in plants.<br />ADDITION OF CO₂ TO THE ATMOSPHERE<br />RESPIRATION: convertscarbohydratestoCO₂ withtherelease of energy.<br />DEATH AND DECAY: provideplant and animal material fordecomposers – bacteria and fungi.<br />COMBUSTION: releasesCO₂ bytheburning of fossilfuels.<br />FOSSILISATION:Thehydrocarbonfuels, such as coal and petroleum, come fromancientplantswhichhaveonlypartlydecomposedoverthemillion of yearssincetheywereburied.<br />
  • 7. WATER CYCLE<br />
  • 8.
  • 9. NITROGEN CYCLE<br />
  • 10.
  • 11. NITROGEN CYCLE<br />1)PROCESSES WHICH ADD NITRATES TO SOIL<br />Nitrifying bacteria: they use ammoniafronexcretoryproducts and decayingorganisms as a source of energy. In thisprocessthey produce nitrates. <br />Thereis a specialgroup, thenitrogen-fixing bacteria, which can absorb N₂ as a gas fromthe air spaces in thesoil, and builditintocompounds of ammonia, which can beeasilybechangedtonitratesbyothernitrifying bacteria. Some of theselive in therootsnodulesofleguminousplants(peas,beans, clover).<br />
  • 12. 1)PROCESSES WHICH ADD NITRATES TO SOIL(cont)<br />Lightning: lightningdischargesmakessome of thenitrogen gas in the air combine withoxygen, formingnitrogen oxides. Theydissolve in rain, and are washedintothesoil, wheretheyformnitrates.<br />
  • 13. 2)PROCESSES WHICH REMONVE NITRATES FROM THE SOIL<br />Uptakebyplants: plantrootsabsorbnitratesfromthesoil and combine themwiththecarbohydratestomakeproteins.<br />Leaching: as rain waterpassesthroughthesoilitdissolvesthenitrates and carriesthemaway in therun-off ortodeeperlayers of thesoil.<br />Denitrifying bacteria: Theyobtainenergybybreakingdownnitratestonitrogen gas whichthen escapes fromthesoilintotheatmosphere.<br />
  • 14. POPULATION SIZE<br />POPULATION: group of organisms of onespecies, living in thesamearea at thesame time.<br />
  • 15.
  • 16. HUMAN POPULATION GROWTH<br />
  • 17.
  • 18. HUMAN INFLUENCES ON THE ECOSYSTEM<br />AGRICULTURE<br />POLLUTION<br />CONSERVATION<br />
  • 19.
  • 20. POLLUTION<br />WATER POLLUTION bysewage and chemicalwaste.<br />AIR POLLUTION by: - sulfurdioxide.<br /> - greenhouse gases <br />POLLUTION DUE TO PESTICIDES AND HERBICIDES.<br />POLLUTION DUE TO NUCLEAR FALL-OUT<br />
  • 21. POLLUTION OF WATER: the 2 pollutantsthat reduce oxygen in water are:<br />Fertilisers: nitrates and phosphates are addedtothesoilbyfarmers. Some are washedfromthesoilby rain intothenearestpond, lakeorriver. Thisprocessiscalledleaching.<br />Sewage: containsanexcellentsource of organicfoodfrom bacteria, and alsocontainsphosphatesfromdetergents.<br />
  • 22.
  • 23. AIR POLLUTION<br />BY SULFUR DIOXIDE: contributestoacid rain.<br />BY GREENHOUSE GASES CONTIBUTING TO GLOBAL WARMING.<br />Carbon + O₂ -> carbonmonoxide (CO)<br /> and carbondioxide (CO₂)<br />Sulphur + O₂ -> sulphurdioxide (SO₂)<br />Nitrogen + O₂ -> nitrogenmonoxide (NO) <br /> and nitrogendioxide (NO₂) <br />
  • 24. Greenhouseeffect:gasescontributing<br />
  • 25.
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28.
  • 29.
  • 30. Pollutiondueto nuclear fall-out<br />IONISING RADIATION MAY CAUSE CANCER<br />Accidents at nuclear powerstationsmayreleasesubstancesintotheatmosphere. Exposuretolargeamounts of radiationfromthesesubstances can cause radiationsickness and burns. They can alsoincreasemutationrates in DNA in ourcells, whichmay lead tocancer.<br /><ul><li>Alphaparticles
  • 31. Beta particles
  • 32. Gamma rays</li></li></ul><li>AGRICULTURE<br />DEFORESTATION<br />FERTILISERS<br />

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