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Powerpoint circulatory system core

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  • 1. HUMAN BODYCIRCULATORY SYSTEM
  • 2. COMPOSITION OF BLOOD• RED CELLS• WHITE CELLS• PLATELETS floating in a liquid called PLASMA
  • 3. COMPOSITION OF BLOOD
  • 4. COMPOSITION OF BLOOD
  • 5. RED BLOOD CELLS• Biconcave discs• No nuclei• Spongy cytoplasm enclosed in an elastic cell membrane• Red pigment called haemoglobin• Are made by the red bone marrow of certain bones in the skeleton: ribs, vertebrae and breastbone
  • 6. Red blood cells: hystology
  • 7. Red bone marrow
  • 8. HAEMOGLOBIN
  • 9. Haemoglobin (Hb)• Hb + O₂ oxyhaemoglobin (OHb)In places where the O₂ concentration is low, OHb breaks down and releases its O₂. Where??• Oxygenated blood : contains mainly OHb.• Deoxygenated blood : with little OHb.
  • 10. Oxyhaemoglobin
  • 11. Red blood cells After 4 months Hb IronBilirubin Stored in the liver Bile
  • 12. WHITE CELLS• Different types• Larger than red cells• They have nuclei• They are made in the same bone marrow that red cells• The two more numerous types are: - Phagocytes - Lymphocytes
  • 13. White blood cells
  • 14. White blood cells
  • 15. White blood cells: Phagocytes• They collect at the site of an infection, engulfing (ingesting) and digesting harmful bacteria. They prevent the spread of infection through the body.
  • 16. Phagocytes
  • 17. White blood cells: LymphocytesProduction of antibodies (proteins)
  • 18. PLATELETSThey help to clot the blood
  • 19. PLASMA• Ions: sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, hydroge n carbonate.• Proteins: fibrinogen (clotting), albumin and globulins (antibodies).• Food substances: aa, glucose and fats.• Hormones• Urea
  • 20. Functions of the blood• Homeostatic functions• Transport• Defence against infections - Clotting - White cells
  • 21. Functions of blood: TransportSubstance From ToOxygen Lungs Whole bodyCarbon dioxide Whole body lungsUrea liver kidneysHormones glands Target organsDigested food intestine Whole bodyHeat (opening and closing of Abdomen and muscle Whole bodyblood vessels)
  • 22. Blood functions: DEFENCE AGAINST INFECTIONS• WHITE CELLS: - Phagocytes: - at the sites of a wound - in the blood capillaries - in lymph nodes ingest harmful bacteria and stop them entering the general circulation - Lymphocytes: Production of antibodies• CLOTTING
  • 23. THE HEART
  • 24. Human Heart• 4 chambers: - 2 atria (thin-walled) - 2 ventricles (thick- walled)• Veins: deoxygenated blood except pulmonary vein• Arteries: Oxygenated blood except pulmonary artery• Valves: They stop blood flowing backwards.• Coronary arteries: They supply the heart muscle with food and oxygen.
  • 25. Human heart
  • 26. Valves of the heart
  • 27. CONTROL OF THE HEART BEAT• At rest: normal heart rate, 50-100 beats per minutes.• During exercise: 200 beats/min• The heart beat is initiated by the pacemaker, a small group of specialized muscles cells at the top of the right atrium.
  • 28. Control of the heart beat• Blood pressure ↑ ↓ heart rate• Blood pressure ↓ ↑ heart rate• ↓ O₂ concentration• ↑ CO₂ concentration• Hormone adrenaline
  • 29. THE CIRCULATION
  • 30. CIRCULATION
  • 31. BLOOD VESSELS
  • 32. Blood vessels Function Structure of wall Width of lumenARTERIES Carry blood away from Thick and strong, Relatively narrow, it the heart containing muscles and varies with heart beat, as elastic tissue. it can stretch and recoil.CAPILLARIES supply all cells with their Very thin, only one cell Very narrow, just one cell requirements and take thick. can pass through. away waste products.VEINS Return blood to the heart Quite thin, containing Wide, contains valves less muscle and elastic tissue.
  • 33. Arteries, veins: hystology
  • 34. ATHEROMA and THROMBOSIS
  • 35. CORONARY HEART DISEASES
  • 36. Possible causes of coronary heart diseases• SMOKING• FATTY DIET• STRESS• LACK OF EXERCISE