Powerpoint circulatory system

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Powerpoint circulatory system

  1. 1. HUMAN BODY<br />CIRCULATORY SYSTEM<br />
  2. 2. COMPOSITION OF BLOOD<br />RED CELLS<br />WHITE CELLS<br />PLATELETS<br />floating in a liquidcalled<br /> PLASMA<br />
  3. 3. COMPOSITION OF BLOOD<br />
  4. 4. COMPOSITION OF BLOOD<br />
  5. 5. RED BLOOD CELLS<br />Biconcave discs<br />No nuclei<br />Spongycytoplasmenclosed in anelasticcellmembrane<br />Red pigmentcalledhaemoglobin<br />Are madebythe red bonemarrow of certainbones in theskeleton: ribs, vertebrae and breastbone<br />
  6. 6. Red bloodcells: hystology<br />
  7. 7. Red bonemarrow<br />
  8. 8. HAEMOGLOBIN<br />
  9. 9. Haemoglobin (Hb)<br />Hb + O₂ oxyhaemoglobin (OHb)<br />In places wherethe O₂ concentrationislow, OHbbreaksdown and releasesitsO₂. Where??<br />Oxygenatedblood : containsmainlyOHb.<br />Deoxygenatedblood : withlittleOHb.<br />
  10. 10. Oxyhaemoglobin<br />
  11. 11. Red bloodcells<br />After 4 months<br />HbIron<br />BilirubinStored in theliver<br />Bile<br />
  12. 12. WHITE CELLS<br />Differenttypes<br />Largerthan red cells<br />Theyhavenuclei<br />They are made in thesamebonemarrowthat red cells<br />Thetwo more numeroustypes are:<br /> - Phagocytes<br /> - Lymphocytes<br />
  13. 13. White bloodcells<br />
  14. 14. White bloodcells<br />
  15. 15. White bloodcells: Phagocytes<br />Theycollect at thesite of aninfection, engulfing (ingesting) and digestingharmful bacteria. Theypreventthe spread of infectionthroughthebody.<br />
  16. 16. Phagocytes<br />
  17. 17. White bloodcells: LymphocytesProduction of antibodies (proteins)<br />
  18. 18. PLATELETSTheyhelptoclottheblood<br />
  19. 19. PLASMA<br />Ions: sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, hydrogen carbonate.<br />Proteins: fibrinogen (clotting), albuminand globulins (antibodies).<br />Foodsubstances: aa, glucoseand fats.<br />Hormones<br />Urea<br />
  20. 20.
  21. 21. Functions of theblood<br />Homeostaticfunctions<br />Transport<br />Defenceagainstinfections<br /> - Clotting<br /> - White cells<br />
  22. 22. Functions of blood: Transport<br />
  23. 23. THE HEART<br />
  24. 24. HumanHeart<br />4 chambers:<br /> - 2 atria (thin-walled)<br /> - 2 ventricles (thick- walled)<br />Veins: deoxygenatedbloodexceptpulmonaryvein<br />Arteries: Oxygenatedbloodexceptpulmonaryartery<br />Valves: They stop bloodflowingbackwards. <br />Coronaryarteries: Theysupplytheheartmusclewithfood and oxygen.<br />
  25. 25. Humanheart<br />
  26. 26. Valves of the heart<br />
  27. 27. CONTROL OF THE HEART BEAT<br />At rest: normal heartrate, 50-100 beats per minutes.<br />Duringexercise: 200 beats/min<br />Theheart beat isinitiatedbythepacemaker, a smallgroup of specializedmusclescells at the top of therightatrium.<br />
  28. 28. Control of theheart beat<br />Bloodpressure↑ ↓ heartrate<br />Bloodpressure↓ <br />↑ heartrate<br />↓ O₂ concentration<br />↑ CO₂ concentration<br />Hormone adrenaline<br />
  29. 29. THE CIRCULATION<br />
  30. 30. CIRCULATION<br />
  31. 31. BLOOD VESSELS<br />
  32. 32. Bloodvessels<br />
  33. 33. Arteries, veins: hystology<br />
  34. 34. LYMPHATIC SYSTEM<br />
  35. 35. Lymphaticsystem<br />Thin-walledvesselscalledlymphatics.<br />Theyemptytheircontentsintothebloodsystem.<br />The fluid iscalledlymph.<br />Most of thelymphflowresultsfromthevesselsbeingcompressedwhenthebodymusclescontract in movementssuch as walkingorbreathing.<br />There are valves, whichforcethe fluid in onedirection: towardstheheart.<br />Lymphnodes: storage of lymphocytes. There are alsophagocytes. <br />Lymphaticorgans:Spleenandthymus<br />
  36. 36. Lymphnodes: part of thebodydefencesystem<br />
  37. 37. Lymphaticorgans: spleen and thymus<br />
  38. 38. SPLEEN: functions<br />Removeworn-out red cells, bacteria and cellfragmentsfromtheblood.<br />Produce lymphocytes and antibodies.<br />
  39. 39. THYMUS: functions<br />Particularlyimportantlymphoidorgan in thenewborn: <br /> - controlsthedevelopment of thespleen and thelymphnodes.<br /> - produces lymphocytes (immunity)<br />Afterpuberty, importantimmunologicalorgan, althoughitbecomessmaller.<br /> - storage of whitecells<br /> - production of a largepopulation of lymphocytes T.<br />
  40. 40. Bloodfunctions: DEFENCE AGAINST INFECTIONS<br />WHITE CELLS:<br /> - Phagocytes: - at thesites of a wound<br /> - in thebloodcapillaries<br /> - in lymphnodes<br />ingestharmful bacteria and stop thementeringthe<br /> general circulation<br /> - Lymphocytes:Production of antibodies<br />CLOTTING<br />
  41. 41. CLOTTING<br />Whentissueisdamaged and bloodvesselscut<br />Plateletsclumptogether and block thesmallercapillaries.<br />Fibrinogenfibrin(network of fibresacross<br />thewound)<br />Red cellsbecometrapped in thisnetwork and form a bloodclot.<br />↓ entry of harmful bacteria<br />prevents<br />furtherloss of blood<br />
  42. 42. Clotting<br />
  43. 43. Bloodclotting<br />
  44. 44. ATHEROMA and THROMBOSIS<br />
  45. 45. CORONARY HEART DISEASES<br />
  46. 46. Possible causes of coronaryheartdiseases<br />SMOKING<br />FATTY DIET<br />STRESS<br />LACK OF EXERCISE<br />

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