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Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
Powerpoint circulatory system
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Powerpoint circulatory system

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  • 1. HUMAN BODY
    CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
  • 2. COMPOSITION OF BLOOD
    RED CELLS
    WHITE CELLS
    PLATELETS
    floating in a liquidcalled
    PLASMA
  • 3. COMPOSITION OF BLOOD
  • 4. COMPOSITION OF BLOOD
  • 5. RED BLOOD CELLS
    Biconcave discs
    No nuclei
    Spongycytoplasmenclosed in anelasticcellmembrane
    Red pigmentcalledhaemoglobin
    Are madebythe red bonemarrow of certainbones in theskeleton: ribs, vertebrae and breastbone
  • 6. Red bloodcells: hystology
  • 7. Red bonemarrow
  • 8. HAEMOGLOBIN
  • 9. Haemoglobin (Hb)
    Hb + O₂ oxyhaemoglobin (OHb)
    In places wherethe O₂ concentrationislow, OHbbreaksdown and releasesitsO₂. Where??
    Oxygenatedblood : containsmainlyOHb.
    Deoxygenatedblood : withlittleOHb.
  • 10. Oxyhaemoglobin
  • 11. Red bloodcells
    After 4 months
    HbIron
    BilirubinStored in theliver
    Bile
  • 12. WHITE CELLS
    Differenttypes
    Largerthan red cells
    Theyhavenuclei
    They are made in thesamebonemarrowthat red cells
    Thetwo more numeroustypes are:
    - Phagocytes
    - Lymphocytes
  • 13. White bloodcells
  • 14. White bloodcells
  • 15. White bloodcells: Phagocytes
    Theycollect at thesite of aninfection, engulfing (ingesting) and digestingharmful bacteria. Theypreventthe spread of infectionthroughthebody.
  • 16. Phagocytes
  • 17. White bloodcells: LymphocytesProduction of antibodies (proteins)
  • 18. PLATELETSTheyhelptoclottheblood
  • 19. PLASMA
    Ions: sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, hydrogen carbonate.
    Proteins: fibrinogen (clotting), albuminand globulins (antibodies).
    Foodsubstances: aa, glucoseand fats.
    Hormones
    Urea
  • 20.
  • 21. Functions of theblood
    Homeostaticfunctions
    Transport
    Defenceagainstinfections
    - Clotting
    - White cells
  • 22. Functions of blood: Transport
  • 23. THE HEART
  • 24. HumanHeart
    4 chambers:
    - 2 atria (thin-walled)
    - 2 ventricles (thick- walled)
    Veins: deoxygenatedbloodexceptpulmonaryvein
    Arteries: Oxygenatedbloodexceptpulmonaryartery
    Valves: They stop bloodflowingbackwards.
    Coronaryarteries: Theysupplytheheartmusclewithfood and oxygen.
  • 25. Humanheart
  • 26. Valves of the heart
  • 27. CONTROL OF THE HEART BEAT
    At rest: normal heartrate, 50-100 beats per minutes.
    Duringexercise: 200 beats/min
    Theheart beat isinitiatedbythepacemaker, a smallgroup of specializedmusclescells at the top of therightatrium.
  • 28. Control of theheart beat
    Bloodpressure↑ ↓ heartrate
    Bloodpressure↓
    ↑ heartrate
    ↓ O₂ concentration
    ↑ CO₂ concentration
    Hormone adrenaline
  • 29. THE CIRCULATION
  • 30. CIRCULATION
  • 31. BLOOD VESSELS
  • 32. Bloodvessels
  • 33. Arteries, veins: hystology
  • 34. LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
  • 35. Lymphaticsystem
    Thin-walledvesselscalledlymphatics.
    Theyemptytheircontentsintothebloodsystem.
    The fluid iscalledlymph.
    Most of thelymphflowresultsfromthevesselsbeingcompressedwhenthebodymusclescontract in movementssuch as walkingorbreathing.
    There are valves, whichforcethe fluid in onedirection: towardstheheart.
    Lymphnodes: storage of lymphocytes. There are alsophagocytes.
    Lymphaticorgans:Spleenandthymus
  • 36. Lymphnodes: part of thebodydefencesystem
  • 37. Lymphaticorgans: spleen and thymus
  • 38. SPLEEN: functions
    Removeworn-out red cells, bacteria and cellfragmentsfromtheblood.
    Produce lymphocytes and antibodies.
  • 39. THYMUS: functions
    Particularlyimportantlymphoidorgan in thenewborn:
    - controlsthedevelopment of thespleen and thelymphnodes.
    - produces lymphocytes (immunity)
    Afterpuberty, importantimmunologicalorgan, althoughitbecomessmaller.
    - storage of whitecells
    - production of a largepopulation of lymphocytes T.
  • 40. Bloodfunctions: DEFENCE AGAINST INFECTIONS
    WHITE CELLS:
    - Phagocytes: - at thesites of a wound
    - in thebloodcapillaries
    - in lymphnodes
    ingestharmful bacteria and stop thementeringthe
    general circulation
    - Lymphocytes:Production of antibodies
    CLOTTING
  • 41. CLOTTING
    Whentissueisdamaged and bloodvesselscut
    Plateletsclumptogether and block thesmallercapillaries.
    Fibrinogenfibrin(network of fibresacross
    thewound)
    Red cellsbecometrapped in thisnetwork and form a bloodclot.
    ↓ entry of harmful bacteria
    prevents
    furtherloss of blood
  • 42. Clotting
  • 43. Bloodclotting
  • 44. ATHEROMA and THROMBOSIS
  • 45. CORONARY HEART DISEASES
  • 46. Possible causes of coronaryheartdiseases
    SMOKING
    FATTY DIET
    STRESS
    LACK OF EXERCISE

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