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Team Motivation

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  • 1. Team MotivationA Historical Perspective
  • 2. Motivation is always a good thing 2
  • 3. Motivation is always a good thing Increased productivity 3
  • 4. Motivation is always a good thing Increased productivity Higher profits 4
  • 5. Motivation is always a good thing Increased productivity Higher profits A happier workforce 5
  • 6. Motivation is always a good thing Increased productivity Higher profits A happier workforce More cohesive teams 6
  • 7. Motivation is always a good thing Increased productivity Higher profits A happier workforce More cohesive teams Reduced absenteeism 7
  • 8. First, let’s give a brief historical sketchof factors that have influenced the studyof workplace motivation. 8
  • 9. Agrarian societies are characterized by … • Stability • Family-run operations • Simple tools 9
  • 10. The Industrial Revolution was characterized by … • The steam engine • Urbanization • Mass Production 10
  • 11. F. W. Taylor noticed certain patterns of inefficiency. Conformity to group norms. 11
  • 12. F. W. Taylor noticed certain patterns of inefficiency. Conformity to group norms. Patterns from pre-industrial age. 12
  • 13. F. W. Taylor noticed certain patterns of inefficiency. Conformity to group norms. Patterns from pre-industrial age. Zero-sum labor availability. 13
  • 14. F. W. Taylor noticed certain patterns of inefficiency. Conformity to group norms. Patterns from pre-industrial age. Zero-sum labor availability. No incentive for increased output. 14
  • 15. The absence of ambitionwas viewed as a virtue. 15
  • 16. Efforts to rise above the crowd wereinterpreted as social treason. 16
  • 17. Rising leaders faced social pressuresto return to their equalized statuswithin the group. 17
  • 18. Taylor’s Solution—Scientific Management—would bring … Objectivity 18
  • 19. Taylor’s Solution—Scientific Management—would bring … Objectivity Structure 19
  • 20. Taylor’s Solution—Scientific Management—would bring … Objectivity Structure Efficiency 20
  • 21. Taylor’s Solution—Scientific Management—would bring … Objectivity Structure Efficiency Training 21
  • 22. Taylor’s Solution—Scientific Management—would bring … Objectivity Structure Efficiency Training Matching the worker to the job 22
  • 23. But Weber saw a problem …How can organizations operaterationally and systematically? 23
  • 24. According to Weber …Untested Personal Opinions should be replace by … 24
  • 25. Untested Personal Opinions should be replace by … Proven Rules 25
  • 26. Charismatic or Traditional Authority should be replaced by … 26
  • 27. Charismatic or Traditional Authority should be replaced by …Rational-legitimate authority 27
  • 28. Political favoritism should be replaced by …. 28
  • 29. Political favoritism should be replaced by …. Selection by Competence 29
  • 30. Weber called this innovative management system … Bureaucracy 30
  • 31. The Critics According to some, Scientific Management was … “the attempt to make human work productive by eliminating the employees’ responsibility for their own work and concentrating it in the hands of a science-based managerial elite.” Hardy, L. (1990). The fabric of this world: Inquiries into calling, career choice, & the design of human work. Grand Rapids: MI: William B. Eerdmans. 31
  • 32. The Critics “Small opportunity is now given the workman to exercise that initiative of which Mr. Taylor talks so glibly.” Letter to the American Magazine, 1911, Cited in Dean, C. C. (1997) Primer of scientific management by Frank B. Gilbreth: A response to publication of Taylors principles in The American Magazine. Journal of Management History 3(1), 31-41. 32
  • 33. Weber Sensed the Need for Something More … “The fate of our times is characterized by rationalization and intellectualization and, above all, by the disenchantment of the world. Precisely the ultimate and most sublime values have retreated from public life either into the transcendental realm of mystic life or into the brotherliness of direct and personal human relations. It is not accidental that our greatest art is intimate and not monumental.” –Max Weber Source: The Columbia World of Quotations, 1996. 33
  • 34. Abraham Maslowdeveloped aframework forunderstanding this“something more.” 34
  • 35. The framework involveda pyramid (or hierarchy)of human needs. Physiological 35
  • 36. The framework involveda pyramid (or hierarchy)of human needs. Safety (Security) Physiological 36
  • 37. The framework involveda pyramid (or hierarchy)of human needs. Social (Affiliation) Safety (Security) Physiological 37
  • 38. The framework involveda pyramid (or hierarchy)of human needs. Esteem (Recognition) Social (Affiliation) Safety (Security) Physiological 38
  • 39. The framework involveda pyramid (or hierarchy)of human needs. Self-Actualization Esteem (Recognition) Social (Affiliation) Safety (Security) Physiological 39
  • 40. Other researchers began to focus on theemotional or “softer” side oforganizational behavior. 40
  • 41. Mary Parker Follett Saw the importance of relationships. Advocated employee participation. Recommended power sharing. 41
  • 42. Elton Mayo … Studied workplace environment. Discovered the relationship factor. 42
  • 43. Lillian Gilbreth discovered … That wages are not the only motivators. The importance of affirmation. The importance of communication. The value of training in “emotion work.”Graham, L. (2000) Lilian Gilbreth & the mental revolution at Macys, 1925-1928. Journal ofManagement History 6(7), 285-305. 43
  • 44. Douglass McGregor brought a new dimension to the study of worker motivation . . . the managers perspective on the nature of people.McGregor, D. (1960). The human side of enterprise. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. 44
  • 45. Theory X Sees People as …• Lazy• Irresponsible• Lacking in ambition• Needing someone to prod and control them. 45
  • 46. Theory Y Sees People as … • Intrinsically motivated • Responsible • Enjoying work • Highly productive … when empowered 46
  • 47. Researchers began to notice that motivation has atwo-dimensional character. B =f (P, S) Kurt Lewin 47
  • 48. Researchers began to notice that motivation has atwo-dimensional character. Individual behavior (B) is a function of (f) psychological factors (P) and the work situation (S) Kurt Lewin 48
  • 49. Rensis Likert discovered that close supervisionoften reduces motivation. Number of First-Line Supervisors Who Use . . . Close Supervision General Supervision High-Producing Sections 1 9 8 4 Low-Producing SectionsHersey, P., Blanchard, K. H. & Johnson, D. E. (1996). Management of organizational behavior (7th ed.). Upper SaddleRiver, NJ: Prentice Hall, p. 109. 49
  • 50. Two-Dimensional Management 50
  • 51. Two-Dimensional Management Concern for Productivity 51
  • 52. Two-Dimensional Management Concern for People Concern for Productivity 52
  • 53. Two-Dimensional Management Concern for People No Relationship (Indifference) Concern for Productivity 53
  • 54. Two-Dimensional Management Concern for People Command and No Relationship Control (Indifference) Relationship Concern for Productivity 54
  • 55. Two-Dimensional Management Concern for People Paternalistic Relationship Command and No Relationship Control (Indifference) Relationship Concern for Productivity 55
  • 56. Two-Dimensional Management Concern for People Paternalistic Empowering Relationship Relationship Command and No Relationship Control (Indifference) Relationship Concern for Productivity 56
  • 57. So, what are the motivationalissues of the future? 57
  • 58. Ethical Leadership 58
  • 59. Globalization 59
  • 60. Virtual teams 60
  • 61. Information Overload 61
  • 62. Spirituality& Meaning 62
  • 63. Thank You

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