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# K 4 lessons

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## K 4 lessonsDocument Transcript

• Measuring Capacity and Mass SSK.1 Use direct comparison to compare two objects based on a single attribute, such as • length including height • mass • volume • capacity. a) Compare the length or height of two objects and explain how they compare using the words shorter, longer, taller, or almost the same. b) Compare the mass of two objects and explain how they compare using the words lighter, heavier, or almost the same. c) Compare the volume of two objects or capacity of two containers and explain how they compare using the words less, more, bigger, smaller, or almost the same. SS1.1 Demonstrate an understanding of measurement as a process of comparing by: • identifying attributes that can be compared • ordering objects • making statements of comparison • filling, covering, or matching SS2.1 Demonstrate understanding of non-standard units for linear measurement by: • describing the choice and appropriate use of non-standard units • estimating • measuring • comparing and analyzing measurements Concrete manipulatives: • Large beans • Rice • Macaroni • Peas • Bird seed • Large disposable roasting pans
• • Variety of cups, containers, scoops and funnels • Recording sheets Assessment: Name Determines Explains Uses Comments which container reasoning comparative holds more/ language less/same (more, less, most, least, same)
• Materials Needed: • A variety of non standard measurement of the same size and shape to compare lengths • Clay or playdough
• • Variety of containers, cups natural items such as sand, rice or bean table • Various items to compare mass, balance scales, home-made scales, bags, nets • Various flat objects to cover Choose an appropriate place for a measurement area. Some teachers set up several stations around the room (e.g., a sand table, rice tub, water tray, scales…). Other teachers have one station (or area in the room) where all the measuring materials are stored. Another idea is to prepare a set of measuring materials (non- breakable only) that can be used outside in a sand box, water station, or maybe in the snow during the recess break. Experiment with the measurement materials. Make sure there are some measurement materials capable of providing specific conceptual experiences you want the class to discover within the context of the activities. For instance, you may want to have different shaped containers which can hold equal amounts of material; some scoops which hold twice as much (or half as much) as other scoops; or a tall, skinny container which can hold as much as a short, fat container, etc. Before: Gather the students together at the carpet. Hold up two containers and ask the students how we could compare these objects? Have the children make statements about the objects. Explain to the students that many of the words we used to compare end in “–er” (other comparison words: lighter, heavier, shorter, taller, wider, thinner, fuller). Today we are going to compare by filling. 1. Comparing Cylinders Materials: Two pieces of tagboard or clear acetate (12" by 18"); material to measure, catch basin (e.g., a large box lid), tape Use two sheets of tagboard or acetate the same size. Tape one piece into a short, fat cylinder and one into a tall, skinny cylinder. Place the tall, skinny cylinder inside the short, fat cylinder. Fill the tall, skinny cylinder with material. Ask the group to predict how high the material in the tall, skinny cylinder will be when it is poured into the short, fat cylinder. Which holds more, which holds less? Check the predictions by lifting the tall cylinder and letting the material pour into the short, fat cylinder. Discuss the results. Would the results be the same for a different kind of material? Students will be put into centres to explore capacity.
• During: Comparing Two Containers Recording sheet: MTW Blackline #23 Choose two containers and a material to measure. Fill one container with the material. Be sure to level off the material. Ask the children to predict whether the second container can hold more, less or the same amount of material. Check the containers by carefully pouring the material from the first container to the empty container, using a funnel. Calibrated Jar Recording sheet: NL Blackline #13 Choose a container and fill it with the chosen material to be measured. Ask the children to predict how high the material will reach when a full container of material is poured into the calibrated jar. Check by pouring the full container into the calibrated jar. Repeat the process with a different container and compare the results. Ordering Containers Choose several containers. Ask the children to help you place the empty containers in order from the container that holds the least to the container that holds the most. Take what appears to be the smallest container and fill it with the material. Using a funnel, carefully pour the contents of the smallest container into the next container in the line. If the material from the first container fits into the next container, it is in the correct order; but if the material from the first container overflows when it’s poured into the next container, the containers are out of order. If the containers are out of sequence, rearrange them into a new sequence and check again. Repeat this process down the line until the containers are in the correct order. Have students draw a picture of their predictions and correctly ordered containers. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ After: Bring students together to share their predictions and discoveries. How did you find out which container holds more? Less? Were you surprised with anything? Why? Confirm that students understand that containers can hold different amounts. They can compare two containers by filling one to the top and then transferring the material to the other container. If the materials don’t fit, then the first one
• holds more. If the material from the first one doesn’t fill the second, then it holds less. When is it easy to tell which container holds more? When is it important to know which container holds more? ---------------------------------------------------------------- Day 2- Introduce a new station of “CONSERVATION” Evaluate students one on one during this time using the evaluation provided in day 1. Before Review vocabulary from yesterday. Use the photos’ from yesterday to spring conversations about the concept of holds, holds less, holds the same as. Students will be evaluated one/one at a performance station. Vocabulary: Holds the Same Too much; the cup holds less than the pan
• The cup holds less than the pan because there is still space. I pour to fill. How much does the bowl hold? Container A holds more than B, because it is flowing over the top.
• I can record my work. Introduce the station of comparing scoops: Demonstrate how to make a prediction and how to wrap the rubber band around the container. COMPARING SCOOPS Concepts: Conservation; comparison language; making predictions; counting; one-to- one correspondence; counting-on Materials: scoops, containers, rubber bands, various measuring materials How High…? Determine how many scoops of material to put in the container. Ask the children to predict how high the material will reach when the predicted scoopfuls are placed in the jar. Wrap a rubber band around the predicted spot on the container. Check by counting the predetermined number of scoopfuls of material into the container. I predict that 12 scoops will fill the container this much (mark using an elastic band). Have partner count as you fill or pour 12 scoops into the container. Was 12 too much? Not enough or just right? You may have to scoop out (counting back from 12) if it was too much. You may have to count on from 12( adding more scoops ) if it was not enough. It may be just right too!! Record the actual number of scoops under CHECK.
• Concepts: Conservation; comparison language; making predictions; one-to-one correspondence; counting; counting-on; recording Materials: 2 containers, 1 scoop, assorted measuring materials, a funnel, small chalkboards, chalk and eraser, xylophone Basic procedure for the tally activities: One child fills a scoop with a material to be measured. Another child strikes a xylophone each time a scoopful is poured into the container. The xylophone player slides the mallet up the scales to indicate when to draw a slash across the tally marks on the chalkboards. The rest of the group records tally marks on individual chalkboards as the scoopfuls of material are being added. When the jar is full, the recorders circle the groups of ten tally marks. Then, starting with the groups of ten, the tally marks are counted. Later the children can continue to work at the tally activities in pairs. It is not necessary that they continue to use the xylophone at this stage. One child scoops, while the other child records the tally marks. Assess student learning and follow up What conclusions can be made from assessment information? How effective have instructional strategies been? What are the next steps for instruction? How will the gaps in the development of understanding be addressed? How will the children extend their learning? Performance station Questions: Record comments on the assessment sheet from lesson 1/ Day 1 1. Have student choose two containers. Ask: “which container do you think holds more? Why do you think that? What could you do to find out? Have student prove their statement by pouring either from the least or greatest container. Let’s say they fill the greater container want to pour into the container that they think holds the least. Ask: what will happen” Make notes on their comments and how they use math language. Are they using words such as holds more than or less than, pour, spill over because it’s too full, some space left, half full, full at the top, etc.
• 2. Now show the student two containers that you know holds the same amount. Ask: “compare these two containers using math language” If the student says that the two containers hold the same amount ask them how they could find out and what will happen when they pour one into the other. Listen for they both will come to the top, or something similar. 3. Ask the student to choose three containers and to put them in order. Ask them what their order is. How can they prove? If they ordered incorrect (that is ok as long as they can see on their own why and rearrange into the proper order. 4. Record any other comments you may have about their ability to make statement s of comparison by filling. Strand: Shape and Space- Measurement of Mass Identify the outcomes to be learned SSK.1 Use direct comparison to compare two objects based on a single attribute, such as • length including height • mass • volume • capacity. a) Compare the length or height of two objects and explain how they compare using the words shorter, longer, taller, or almost the same. b) Compare the mass of two objects and explain how they compare using the words lighter, heavier, or almost the same. c) Compare the volume of two objects or capacity of two containers and explain how they compare using the words less, more, bigger, smaller, or almost the same. SS1.1 Demonstrate an understanding of measurement as a process of comparing by: • identifying attributes that can be compared • ordering objects • making statements of comparison • filling, covering, or matching SS2.2 Demonstrate understanding of non-standard units for measurement of mass by: • describing the choice and appropriate use of non-standard units • estimating • measuring • comparing and analyzing measurements. Determine how the learning will be observed
• What will the children do to know that the learning has occurred? What should children do to demonstrate the understanding of the mathematical concepts, skills, and big ideas? What assessment tools will be the most suitable to provide evidence of student understanding? How can I document the children’s learning? The focus will be on the comparative language so I will need to observe, record sound, video, and interview. They will make statements of comparison and explain their reasoning. Name Uses comparative Uses a balance scale Explains that objects with Comments: language or other tool the same (heavier, to compare mass are lighter, balanced heaviest, lightest)
• Plan the learning environment and instruction What learning opportunities and experiences should I provide to promote the learning outcomes? What will the learning environment look like? What strategies do children use to access prior knowledge and continually communicate and represent understanding? What teaching strategies and resources will I use? When we measure, we compare things. When we compare which object is heavier, we are talking about mass. Before: Have a tub of water and use a tin pan as a boat. Place a heavy rock in the boat so that it sinks. Facilitation Questions • Why did the boat sink? Answers may vary. Now place a small animal toy in the boat. • Could the mouse sink the boat all by itself? Why or why not? Answers may vary. • What would have happened if only 1 type of animal climbed on the boat? Answers may vary. • How many _________ do you think it would take to sink the boat? Why? Record the answers so the students can see that it should take more mice than pigs to sink the boat. Facilitation Questions
• • What would happen to the boat if a heavy animal sat on one end of the boat? The boat would be lower on that end. • What would happen if a mouse were on one end of the boat and an elephant were on the other end of the boat? Why? The end of the boat with the elephant would sink lower because an elephant is heavier than a mouse. • What happened when we put the boat in the water? It floated. • What happened when we put 2 different objects on opposite ends of the boat? One side of the boat sank lower than the other side of the boat. • Which side of the boat sank the end that had a heavy object on it or the end that had a light object on it? Why? The end with the heavy object sank lower because it weighs more. • What happened when objects with the same weight were placed on opposite ends of the boat? Possible answer: The ends of the boat sank the same amount. The boat stayed level. It stayed balanced. EXPLORE Station 1: The Explore phase of the lesson provides the student with an opportunity to be actively involved in the exploration of the mathematical concepts addressed. This part of the lesson is designed for small group instruction. 1. Show the students 4 small objects. (Examples: eraser, pencil, ruler, marker, crayon, etc.) 2. Choose 2 of the objects. Ask the students, “Without touching the objects, which object do you predict is heavier? Why?” 3. Record the predictions on a chart as shown below. Prediction Tally Results Hand Measurements Comparison Check
• Object 1 ____ Object 2_____ Object 1______ Object 2______ 4. Repeat the process of predicting which object is heaviest until each of the 4 objects have been compared with each other. 5. Model comparing the objects by holding 1 object in each of your hands. 6. Ask the students to compare the objects by holding one object in each hand in order to estimate which one is the heavier object. 7. Record the students’ findings under the “Hand” Measurements part of the chart. Use tally marks to record predictions. After predictions of hand measurements have been made, have the students place the objects in order from heaviest to lightest. 9. Record the sequence of objects for use during the explain phase of this lesson. Questions • Which object do you predict is heavier? Why? Answers may vary depending on objects. • Are the bigger objects always the heaviest objects? Why? No, sometimes smaller objects can weigh more than larger objects. • Are the longer objects always the heavier objects? No. The ___ was shorter than the ___, but it seemed heavier. • Can the smaller objects be the heavier objects? Why? No. The ___ was smaller and lighter than the ___. • Can the shorter objects be the heavier objects? Why? Yes. The ___ is heavier than the ___.