A&p 18 ans integration

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  • 1. Integration of the Autonomic Nervous System Anatomy and Physiology L | E | C | O | M Mathew J. Bateman, Ph.D.
  • 2. Somatic vs. Autonomic
  • 3. Dual Innervation
  • 4. Innervation of the Heart Decreased Increase ( β 1 , β 2 ) Heat rate and force Parasympathetic Effect Sympathetic Effect and Receptor Type
  • 5. Autonomic Vascular Control Vasoconstriction ( α 1 , α 2 ) – contraction Slight vasodilation Vasodilation ( β 2 ) – relaxation Blood vessels (Vascular smooth muscle) Parasympathetic Effect Sympathetic Effect and Receptor Type
  • 6. Autonomic Vascular Control Blood Endothelial Cells Vascular Smooth Muscle Acetylcholine Blood Vessel Wall M Nitric Oxide - cGMP  2 Epinephrine cAMP -  1 Norepinephrine + High doses - + Relax (vasodilation) Contract (vasoconstriction)
  • 7. Blood Vessels without Dual Innervation
  • 8. Baroreceptor Reflexes
  • 9. Movie
  • 10. Innervation of the Respiratory System Increase ( β 2 ) No effect Decrease secretion ( α 1 ) Muscus glands Bronchoconstriction Contraction Bronchodilation Relaxation ( β 2 ) Bronchial Muscle Parasympathetic Effect Sympathetic Effect and Receptor Type
  • 11. Innervation of the Digestive System No effect Decreased ( α 2 ) Increased ( β 2 ) Pancreatic insulin secretion Increased Decreased ( α 1 ) Pancreatic enzymes secretion Glycogen synthesis Glycogen breakdown ( α 1 , β 2 ) Liver Increased Decreased ( α 2 ) Gastrointestinal secretion Increased Decreased ( α 1 , α 2 , β 1 , β 2 ) Gastrointestinal motility Thin serous secretion Thick mucus secretion ( α 1 ) Salivary Glands Parasympathetic Effect Sympathetic Effect and Receptor Type
  • 12. Autonomics of Defecation
  • 13. Innervation of the Urinary System Contraction No effect Bladder wall Relaxation, urine release Contraction, urine retention ( α 1 ) Internal urethral sphincter No effect Reduce urine output ( α 1 , α 2 ) Renin secretion ( β 1 ) Kidneys Parasympathetic Effect Sympathetic Effect and Receptor Type
  • 14. Autonomic Control of Urination
  • 15. Autonomics and Reproduction Parasympathetic Effect Sympathetic Effect and Receptor Type Relaxation ( β 2 ) Labor Contraction ( α 1 ) Uterus No effect Stimulation ( α 1 ) Orgasm, smooth muscle roles Stimulation No effect Glandular secretion Stimulation No effect Penile or clitoral erection
  • 16. Innervation of the Integumentary System No effect Hair erection ( α 1 ) Piloerector muscles No effect Secretion ( α 1 ) Apocrine sweat glands (scent) No effect Secretion (muscarinic) Merocrine sweat glands (cooling) Parasympathetic Effect Sympathetic Effect and Receptor Type
  • 17. Innervation of the Eye Secretion None Lacrimal (tear) gland Contraction for near vision Relaxation for far vision( β 2 ) Ciliary muscles and lens Pupillary constriction Pupillary dilation ( α 1 ) Iris Parasympathetic Effect Sympathetic Effect and Receptor Type
  • 18. Autonomic Control of the Iris