The Columbian ExchangeEssential Questions:1. What was the Columbian Exchange?2. What was its impact on the old and new worlds?3. What are some examples of the impact of the Columbian Exchange?
The Columbian Exchange• Explorers created contact between Europe and Americas.• Interaction with Native Americans led to big cultural changes.• Contact between the two groups led to the exchange of plants, animals, and disease—the Columbian Exchange. The Exchange of Goods Sharing Discoveries• Plants, animals developed in very • Arrival of Europeans in Americas different ways in hemispheres changed all this• Europeans—no potatoes, corn, • Previously unknown foods taken sweet potatoes, turkeys back to Europe• People in Americas—no coffee, • Familiar foods brought to oranges, rice, wheat, sheep, Americas by colonists cattleThe introduction of beasts of burden to the Americas was a significantdevelopment from the Columbian Exchange. The introduction of the horseprovided people in the Americas with a new source of labor and transportation.
Effects of the Columbian ExchangeDifferent Foods Exchange of foods, animals had dramatic impact on later societies Over time crops native to Americas became staples in diets of Europeans Foods provided nutrition, helped people live longerEconomics and Gastronomics Activities like Texas cattle ranching, Brazilian coffee growing not possible without Columbian Exchange; cows, coffee native to Old World Traditional cuisines changed because of Columbian ExchangeItalian Food Without Tomatoes? Until contact with Americas, Europeans had never tried tomatoes Most Europeans thought tomatoes poisonous By late 1600s, tomatoes had begun to be included in Italian cookbooks
Impact on Native Americans Colonization brought the spread of disease Europeans brought measles, mumps, chicken pox, and small pox Diseases devastated Native American communities Nearly 1/3 of Hispaniola’s approximately 300,000 inhabitants died during Columbus’s time there By 1508 fewer than 100,000 survivors lived on the island The European disease was the ultimate conqueror of America
Impact on Africa The Slave Trade Begins With disease devastating the native workforce Europeans turned to Africa for slaves African Losses African slave trade devastated many African societies Before the slave trade ended in the 1800s Africa lost at least 12 million people
Impact on Europe New types of food and animals were brought back to Europe This had both positive and negative aspects: ◦ Positive because they served as a valuable source for food ◦ Negative because they destroyed their croplands Plants carried back to Europe enriched nutrition in the Old World and this resulted in major population explosions
Effectsof Columbian Exchange felt not only in Europe, Americas China ◦ Arrival of easy-to-grow, nutritious corn helped population grow tremendously ◦ Also a main consumer of silver mined in Americas Africa ◦ Two native crops of Americas—corn, peanuts—still among most widely grown Scholarsestimate one-third of all food crops grown in world are of American origin
Where did it Plant, Animal, and Disease Impact originate?Animal Horse Old World Allowed Native Americans to shift to a nomadic lifestyleAnimal Provided new food source for Turkey New World EuropeansAnimal Chicken Old World Provided new food source for New World inhabitants Staple of Italian cuisine today,Plant Tomato New World world wide use World’s most important cerealPlant Maize New World crop (plant with edible seeds) World staple crop; failure ofPlant Potato New World Irish crop lead to massive American migration First outbreak after 1492Disease Syphilis New World believed to have killed more than 5 million EuropeansDisease Smallpox Old World Devastated Native populations who were not resistant