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VERTEBRATES
Passer domesticus. House sparrow. Banc d’imatges del Centre de Recursos de Biodiversitat animal, UB.
THE SUBPHYLUM OF VERTEBRATES
FINS AS
EXTREMITIES
LEGS WITH
FIVE FINGERS
Fishes (is not a taxon)
CHARACTERISTICS OF VERTEBRATES
• Vertebral column: it protects spinal cord.
• Circulatory system
• Skin or tegument:
Scal...
Brava: a whale that was found in Llançà.
CO2 Oxigen
The Three Vital functions:
1.NUTRITION
Food
Process
Nutrients Cells Oxigen
Energy
CO2 (as a waste)
Wastes
Lungs...
2. INTERACTION and RESPONSE TO STIMULI
• Thanks to the coordination between the
nervous system and the muskuloeskeletal
sy...
3. THE ROLE OF REPRODUCTION
• Sexual reproduction: the reproductive system.
• Types of fertilization:
– External fertiliza...
Classification of vertebrates: fish (group)
Lopihus piscatorius. Angler. Banc d’imatges del Centre de Recursos de Biodiver...
Fish respiration: gills
Water
Exits
Through
opened
Operculum
(gill cover in Osteichthyes)
Filaments
Gill
Water
Enters
thro...
Circulatory system of fish
Why are gills red?
gills
ventricleAtrium
organs
Heart
How is the circulatory system?
1. closed
...
Adaptations to the aquatic life:
1. Skin of fish: with scales.
2. Hydrodynamic body shape
Adaptation to the aquatic life:
3.extremities of fish (fins)
An anal fin
Two pelvic fins
(forelimbs)
Two pectoral fins
(hi...
Adaptations to aquatic life:
4.Gas bladder (inside the fish)
5.Lateral line
Fish classification: 1. Agnathans
Lampreys: male (left) and female (right). Sexual reproduction, external fertilization
Th...
Fish classification: 2. Osteichtyes
Main characteristics:
1. Skin covered with dermic scales.
2. Osseous skeleton
3. Operc...
Fish classification 3: Condrichtyes
Main characteristics:
1. Skin covered with placoid scales.
2. Cartilaginous skeleton.
...
Salamandra salamandra. Banc d’imatges del Centre de Recursos de Biodiversitat Animal, UB.
Amphibians: Anurans and Urodelans
Alytes obstetricans. Toad. CRBA, UB.
Hyla meridionalis. Frog. CRBA, UB.
Triturus marmora...
Common parts of amphibians: head
Split projectable tonguetympani
Nostrils
(breathe
and smell)
Lower eyelid
(mobile)
Bufo b...
Common parts of amphibians: trunk
Calotriton arnoldi. Newt. Tritó del Montseny CRBA, UB.
Forelimbs or front extremities
wi...
Common characteristics of class Amphibians
• Amphibian skin:
– Naked (it means without scales, without feathers, without h...
Amphibian reproductive cycle (Frog)
Development of the embryo
is overand aquatic larvaes
(tadpoles) are born.
External fer...
http://www.flickr.com/groups/bbcspri
ngwatch/pool/map?mode=group
Click on: Search the map
Search: BBCSpringwatch (official...
Disassociation from the aquatic habitat or
adaptation to the land environment 1/ Skin
Casa Batlló. Camp d’Aprenentatge de ...
Disassociation from the aquatic
habitat: 2/ eggs against dehydratation
Internal Fertilization. Egg shell+ different membra...
Reptyle morphology
TRUNK HEAD
Head: 2 nostrils, 2 eyes, 2 eyelids. Mouth with teeth (snakes) or a sort of beak.
Trunk: sup...
Tarentola mauritanica. Banc d’imatges del Centre de Recursos de Diversitat Animal, UB.
Reptiles’ classification: Saurians
Tarentola mauritanica. Dragon. Banc d’imatges del Centre de Recursos de Diversitat Anim...
Reptiles’ classification: Ophidians
Vipera aspis. Viper. Escurçó.Banc d’imatges del Centre de Recursos de Diversitat Anima...
Reptiles’ classification: Chelonians
Land turtle. From Biodidac.
Reptiles’ classification: Crocodilians
• Oviparous
• But some ovoviviparous (egg laid when hatching)
and viviparous. (snak...
Buteo buteo. Eagle (aligot comú) C.R.B.A, UB Otus Scops. Owl. (xot) C.R.B.A,UB.
http://www.rspb.org.uk/wildlife/birdguide/name/r/
robin/index.aspx
Erithacus rubecula. Robin. Pit-roig. Banc d’imatges del...
Class Birds
General facts:
• Homeothermic animals: so they can live in very cold habitats.
• Amniotic eggs: the embryo dev...
Turdus merula. Blackbird. Merla. Banc d’imatges del Centre de Recursos de Diversitat Animal, UB.
Bird morphology
Head:
Jaw covered by a beak.
The beak has blowholes
They don’t have teeth
Trunk:
The trunk supports
WINGS
...
Fingers covered with reptilian scales
Hindlimbs of a Seagull.
Bird flight adaptation
1. LITTLE WEIGHT:
Their bones are light
Semi empty bones
2. STRONG PECTORAL MUSCULATURE:
Muscles ne...
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM OF BIRDS
Air sacks
LUNGS
The air sacks are
Connected to the lungs
And to the empty bones
MAIN AIR SACS ...
Skin covered by Feathers
Rectix Feathers (on tail)
1. Set the direction of flight
2. Help Keeping balance
Remix Feathers (...
Birds´ Nutrition and Reproduction:
• Birds diet:
– Hunters
– Fruit
– Scavengers
Birds digestive system:
-Crop
-Gizzard
Bir...
Vertebrates circulatory systems:
. Number of atria
(they receive blood)
One: Simple circulation
Two: Double circulation:
2...
Meles meles. Badger. Teixó. Banc d’imatges del Centre de Recursos de Diversitat Animal, UB.
Class Mammals:
They nurse their babies with milk.
Internal Fertilization. Viviparous (two exceptions)
Homeothermic: they c...
Mammals morphology
Head:
Sensory organs:
Moveable ears exclusive to mammals
Eyes, eyelids, mouth with teeth and lips
Trunk...
Circulatory system of Mammals
Classification of Mammals
• 1. Marsupials (like Koala bears and Kangaroos)
– Pouch: protective sac where they carry on dev...
Guia Ocells de Collserola
• www.parcnaturalcollserola.cat/pages/ocells-de-collserola
• Guia multimèdia de les espècies més...
Guía de las aves SEO/Birdlife, F. BBVA
• Enlaces de descàrrega gratuïta:
• Android
• https://play.google.com/store/apps/de...
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  1. 1. VERTEBRATES Passer domesticus. House sparrow. Banc d’imatges del Centre de Recursos de Biodiversitat animal, UB.
  2. 2. THE SUBPHYLUM OF VERTEBRATES FINS AS EXTREMITIES LEGS WITH FIVE FINGERS Fishes (is not a taxon)
  3. 3. CHARACTERISTICS OF VERTEBRATES • Vertebral column: it protects spinal cord. • Circulatory system • Skin or tegument: Scales: fish, reptiles Naked: amphibians Feathers: birds Hair: mammals • Basic shape:
  4. 4. Brava: a whale that was found in Llançà.
  5. 5. CO2 Oxigen The Three Vital functions: 1.NUTRITION Food Process Nutrients Cells Oxigen Energy CO2 (as a waste) Wastes Lungs and gills
  6. 6. 2. INTERACTION and RESPONSE TO STIMULI • Thanks to the coordination between the nervous system and the muskuloeskeletal system (muscular system+skeletal sysem). • Sensory organs that capture stimuli.
  7. 7. 3. THE ROLE OF REPRODUCTION • Sexual reproduction: the reproductive system. • Types of fertilization: – External fertilization: gametes released in the water. – Internal fertilization: male gametes introduced in the female’s body. • Types of reproduction: – Viviparous: development of the embryo inside the body of the mother. – Oviparous: development of the embryo inside an egg. – Ovoviviparous: the egg is hatched inside the female’s body.
  8. 8. Classification of vertebrates: fish (group) Lopihus piscatorius. Angler. Banc d’imatges del Centre de Recursos de Biodiversitat Animal, UB.
  9. 9. Fish respiration: gills Water Exits Through opened Operculum (gill cover in Osteichthyes) Filaments Gill Water Enters through opened mouth Gill rakers Gill arch SEM Photograph of salmonid gill
  10. 10. Circulatory system of fish Why are gills red? gills ventricleAtrium organs Heart How is the circulatory system? 1. closed 2. simple blood circulation 3. incomplete
  11. 11. Adaptations to the aquatic life: 1. Skin of fish: with scales. 2. Hydrodynamic body shape
  12. 12. Adaptation to the aquatic life: 3.extremities of fish (fins) An anal fin Two pelvic fins (forelimbs) Two pectoral fins (hindlimbs) A caudal fin A dorsal fin Salmo trutta. Trout. (salmó) C.R.B.A., UB. Class Osteichtyes Blue shark Class Condrichthyes PLACOID SCALES DERMIC SCALES
  13. 13. Adaptations to aquatic life: 4.Gas bladder (inside the fish) 5.Lateral line
  14. 14. Fish classification: 1. Agnathans Lampreys: male (left) and female (right). Sexual reproduction, external fertilization The only parasitic vertebrates Lamprey: oval mouth (1cm) with small teeth and a sucker Branchial cleft gills
  15. 15. Fish classification: 2. Osteichtyes Main characteristics: 1. Skin covered with dermic scales. 2. Osseous skeleton 3. Operculum: a hard flap that covers the gills 4.Usually have a lateral line and a gas bladder 5.Reproduction through external fertilization Examples: many fish we eat: salmon trout, sardines, hakes, sturgeons, swordfish, angler... Egg of a fish (24 hours)
  16. 16. Fish classification 3: Condrichtyes Main characteristics: 1. Skin covered with placoid scales. 2. Cartilaginous skeleton. 3. Powerful musculature. 4. Branchial clefts: various openings on each side of the head through which the gills come out. 5. They don’t have a gas bladder. 6. Reproduction through internal fertilization. 7. Some of them are great marine predators. Examples: sharks, rays... Branchial clefts (5-7) Cartilaginous skeleton of a shark. Biodidac. Lateral line of a shark
  17. 17. Salamandra salamandra. Banc d’imatges del Centre de Recursos de Biodiversitat Animal, UB.
  18. 18. Amphibians: Anurans and Urodelans Alytes obstetricans. Toad. CRBA, UB. Hyla meridionalis. Frog. CRBA, UB. Triturus marmoratus .Newt. CRBA, UB. Salamandra salamandra. CRBA, UB. Anurans means without tail Urodelans means with tail
  19. 19. Common parts of amphibians: head Split projectable tonguetympani Nostrils (breathe and smell) Lower eyelid (mobile) Bufo bufo. Banc d’imatges del Centre de Recursos de Biodiversitat Animal, UB.
  20. 20. Common parts of amphibians: trunk Calotriton arnoldi. Newt. Tritó del Montseny CRBA, UB. Forelimbs or front extremities with 4 fingers Hindlimbs or hind extremities with 5 fingers Sometimes the hindlimbs have Interdigital membranes: to swim!
  21. 21. Common characteristics of class Amphibians • Amphibian skin: – Naked (it means without scales, without feathers, without hair) – With glands that secrete substances: • To keep the skin moist, to avoid dehydration and to make skin respiration (exchange of gases) possible . • Sometimes also secrete toxins (toads, salamanders...) • Amphibian respiration: – Adult frogs: Lungs + skin. – Aquatic larvae (tadpoles): gills. • Amphibian blood circulation: – Double but incomplete heart with only one ventricle
  22. 22. Amphibian reproductive cycle (Frog) Development of the embryo is overand aquatic larvaes (tadpoles) are born. External fertilization: Gametes released in the water. Tadpoles (aquatic larvae): Tail, Breath through gills, no extremities, Tadpoles undergo metamorphosis Metamorphosis: Extremities appear tail disappears Lungs are formed Gills disappear The adult frog can leave the water Fertilized egg fixed to other eggs thanks to mucous substances Development of the embryo (2-3 months in the water)
  23. 23. http://www.flickr.com/groups/bbcspri ngwatch/pool/map?mode=group Click on: Search the map Search: BBCSpringwatch (official) Search for: Bufo bufo Tadpoles Lissotriton helveticus Podarcis muralis Lacerta bilineata http://www.rspb.org.uk/wildlife/birdidentifier/
  24. 24. Disassociation from the aquatic habitat or adaptation to the land environment 1/ Skin Casa Batlló. Camp d’Aprenentatge de la ciutat de Barcelona. Consorci d’Educació de Barcelona.
  25. 25. Disassociation from the aquatic habitat: 2/ eggs against dehydratation Internal Fertilization. Egg shell+ different membranes Amniotic egg (like birds, different from those of amphibians or fish) Amnion Corion YolkWhite Yolk Air cell Egg Shell (coriaceus, Porous) Allantois Embryo Viteline layer
  26. 26. Reptyle morphology TRUNK HEAD Head: 2 nostrils, 2 eyes, 2 eyelids. Mouth with teeth (snakes) or a sort of beak. Trunk: supports the extremities (5 fingers). Aquatic turtles: interdigital membranes Tail: it extends past the excretory orifice or cloaca.
  27. 27. Tarentola mauritanica. Banc d’imatges del Centre de Recursos de Diversitat Animal, UB.
  28. 28. Reptiles’ classification: Saurians Tarentola mauritanica. Dragon. Banc d’imatges del Centre de Recursos de Diversitat Animal, UB.
  29. 29. Reptiles’ classification: Ophidians Vipera aspis. Viper. Escurçó.Banc d’imatges del Centre de Recursos de Diversitat Animal, UB.
  30. 30. Reptiles’ classification: Chelonians Land turtle. From Biodidac.
  31. 31. Reptiles’ classification: Crocodilians • Oviparous • But some ovoviviparous (egg laid when hatching) and viviparous. (snakes) • Internal fertilization: specific mating rituals. Reptile reproduction Circulatory system of reptiles Double: two atria and one ventricle (except crocodiles) Incomplete: 1 ventricle so the blood is mixed
  32. 32. Buteo buteo. Eagle (aligot comú) C.R.B.A, UB Otus Scops. Owl. (xot) C.R.B.A,UB.
  33. 33. http://www.rspb.org.uk/wildlife/birdguide/name/r/ robin/index.aspx Erithacus rubecula. Robin. Pit-roig. Banc d’imatges del Centre de Recursos de Diversitat Animal, UB.
  34. 34. Class Birds General facts: • Homeothermic animals: so they can live in very cold habitats. • Amniotic eggs: the embryo developes inside a cavity full of water. These eggs are also resistant to dehydratation. • Amniotic Egg Gallus gallus. Chick of a cock. (pollet de gall negre) • Skin covered with feathers. Birds evolve from feathered dinosaurs.
  35. 35. Turdus merula. Blackbird. Merla. Banc d’imatges del Centre de Recursos de Diversitat Animal, UB.
  36. 36. Bird morphology Head: Jaw covered by a beak. The beak has blowholes They don’t have teeth Trunk: The trunk supports WINGS LEGS: 4 fingers each Forelimbs for flying: eagle Also non-flying species: cock, peacock Hindlimbs for walking: pigeons Hindlimbs for swimming: seagulls Hindlimbs for standing: flamingo Tail: Short tail. It supports the rectrix feathers Fingers covered with reptilian scales
  37. 37. Fingers covered with reptilian scales Hindlimbs of a Seagull.
  38. 38. Bird flight adaptation 1. LITTLE WEIGHT: Their bones are light Semi empty bones 2. STRONG PECTORAL MUSCULATURE: Muscles need a great amount of oxygen: High efficiency Respiratory System A heart that beats very fast 3. AERODYNAMIC SHAPE: Frontal view Lateral view
  39. 39. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM OF BIRDS Air sacks LUNGS The air sacks are Connected to the lungs And to the empty bones MAIN AIR SACS FUNCTIONS: 1. Help decreasing weight 2. Improve lungs work 3. Help regulating temperature
  40. 40. Skin covered by Feathers Rectix Feathers (on tail) 1. Set the direction of flight 2. Help Keeping balance Remix Feathers (body) Down Feathers (abdominal region) 1. Insulate against cold and water
  41. 41. Birds´ Nutrition and Reproduction: • Birds diet: – Hunters – Fruit – Scavengers Birds digestive system: -Crop -Gizzard Birds Reproductory System: Males attract females: sing, dance Internal fertilization: via cloaca Oviparous, incubation period Chics are nidifugous: hatch and go
  42. 42. Vertebrates circulatory systems: . Number of atria (they receive blood) One: Simple circulation Two: Double circulation: 2 atria enable a body circuit And a pulmonary circuit. Number of ventricles (they pump blood) One: Incomplete circulation Two: Complete circulation (no mixing of the blood of the Different circuits)
  43. 43. Meles meles. Badger. Teixó. Banc d’imatges del Centre de Recursos de Diversitat Animal, UB.
  44. 44. Class Mammals: They nurse their babies with milk. Internal Fertilization. Viviparous (two exceptions) Homeothermic: they can regulate their body temperature so they can live in cold places Skin covered with hair (insulation against cold weather, protects the skin)
  45. 45. Mammals morphology Head: Sensory organs: Moveable ears exclusive to mammals Eyes, eyelids, mouth with teeth and lips Trunk Four extremities with 5 digits each. Extremities adapted to the habitat Excretory orifice or anus at the end Tail: Not always present Wales use it for swimming Dogs use it for equilibrium Monkeys use it for hanging
  46. 46. Circulatory system of Mammals
  47. 47. Classification of Mammals • 1. Marsupials (like Koala bears and Kangaroos) – Pouch: protective sac where they carry on development. – Really small and without hair when they are born • 2. Monotremes – Oviparous mammals: they lay amniotic eggs. – Only in Australia: echidnas and platypus • 3.Placental mammals – Placenta helps the embryo to develope inside the females´ body. (provides nutrients, oxigen, retains waste products...) – They can live most places on earth: pole, desert...
  48. 48. Guia Ocells de Collserola • www.parcnaturalcollserola.cat/pages/ocells-de-collserola • Guia multimèdia de les espècies més freqüents al Parc. Integra el contingut de les col·leccions de fitxes OCELLS DE COLLSEROLA 1 i 2, a les quals incorpora el cant de cada ocell i proposa un procés d'autoaprenentatge dels cants a través de jocs de dificultat progressiva. • Va ser editada l'any 2001, en suport CD, i actualment, un cop exhaurits els darrers exemplars, s'ha posat a disposició en el web. Podeu descarregar-la gratuitament directament des d'aqui i instal·lar-la al vostre ordinador. • S’ha de clicar al botó “Descarregar Executable” • L’ordinador pregunta si confieu amb la pàgina web per a descarregar l’arxiu, s’ha de dir que sí, l’arxiu és segur.
  49. 49. Guía de las aves SEO/Birdlife, F. BBVA • Enlaces de descàrrega gratuïta: • Android • https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.alborgi s.seo&hl=es • Apple iOS • https://itunes.apple.com/es/app/las-aves-de- espana/id791119664?mt=8 • La app Guía de las aves e itinerarios ornitológicos de España, descargable de forma gratuita a través de tiendas on line, es una versión para dispositivos móviles de la Enciclopedia de las aves de España, editada en 2008 por SEO/BirdLife y la Fundación BBVA .(www.enciclopediadelasaves.es).
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