Chapter 3 Matter Properties And Changes


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Chapter 3 Matter Properties And Changes

  1. 1. Chapter 3<br />Matter and Changes<br />
  2. 2. Properties of Matter (3.1)<br />Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass.<br />Mass is the amount of matter in an object.<br />
  3. 3. Types of Matter<br />Pure Substance:<br />Matter that has a uniform composition (H2O)<br />Can’t be separated by physical means<br />Mixture:<br />Physical blend of 2 or more pure substances (Salt water). <br />Can be separated by physical means (filter, evaporate, distillation, crystallize). <br />
  4. 4. Properties of Matter<br />Physical Properties:<br />Can be observed and measured without changing the substance.<br />Ex. Density, color, odor, taste, hardness, melting point, boiling point.<br />Chemical Properties:<br />Ability of a substance to combine with or change into one or more substances.<br />Examples: flammability, heat of combustion, reactivity with water, pH.<br />
  5. 5. Properties of Matter<br />Extensive Properties- A property that changes when the size of the sample changes.<br />Ex. Mass, length, volume<br />Intensive Properties- A property that doesn&apos;t change when you take away some of the sample.<br />Ex. temperature, color, hardness, melting point, boiling point, pressure, molecular weight, and density. <br />Used to identify a substance<br />
  6. 6. States of matter<br />Solid- matter has definite shape and volume.<br />Liquid- definite volume but takes the shape of its container (flows).<br />Gas- a substance without definite volume or shape and can flow to fill its container.<br />Vapor- a gas, but normally is a liquid or solid at room temperature.<br />Plasma<br />High temperature ionized gas<br />Most common in the universe<br />
  7. 7. States of Matter<br />Definite Volume?<br />Definite Shape?<br />Temp. increase<br />Com-pressible?<br />Small Expans.<br />Solid<br />YES<br />YES<br />NO<br />Small Expans.<br />Liquid<br />NO<br />NO<br />YES<br />Large Expans.<br />Gas<br />NO<br />NO<br />YES<br />
  8. 8. Condense<br />Freeze<br />Evaporate<br />Melt<br />Gas <br />Liquid <br />Solid<br />
  9. 9. Changes in Matter (3.2)<br />Physical changes - a change that changes appearances, without changing the composition.<br />Examples? Melting Ice, Bend a spoon,<br />Chemical changes - a change where a new form of matter is formed.<br />Also called chemical reaction.<br />Examples? rusting, explode, burn, rot, tarnish<br />Not phase changes!<br />Ice is still water.<br />
  10. 10. Conservation of Mass <br />Mass can not be created or destroyed in ordinary (not nuclear) changes.<br />All the mass can be accounted for.<br />Mass at the start (Reactants) = mass at end (Products)<br />
  11. 11.
  12. 12. Mixtures of Matter (3.3) <br />Mixtures are made up of two substances.<br />Variable composition. Mixtures can be:<br />Heterogeneous- mixture is not the same from place to place. (Chocolate chip cookie, gravel, soil). Or,<br />Homogeneous- same composition throughout. (Kool-aid, air). Every part keeps its properties. A Homogeneous mixture is also referred to as Solution.<br />
  13. 13. Separating mixtures<br />Only a physical change- no new matter<br />Filtration- separate solids from liquids with a barrier<br />
  14. 14. Separating mixtures<br />Distillation- separate because of different boiling points<br />Heat mixture<br />Catch vapor in cooled area<br />
  15. 15. Separating mixtures<br /> Chromatography- different substances are attracted to paper or gel, so move at different speeds.<br />
  16. 16. Separating mixtures (cont.)<br />Crystallization- Separation technique that results in the formation of pure solid. (ex. Making rock candy).<br />
  17. 17. Elements and Compounds (3.4)<br />Elements- simplest form of matter<br />Can’t be broken down into simpler substances<br />Made-up of identical atoms (Ex. Na, Fe)<br />Compounds are combinations of two or more elements (ex. NaCl).<br />can be broken down by chemical methods<br />When they are broken down, the pieces have completely different properties than the compound. (Salt vs. Na or Cl)<br />Made of molecules- two or more atoms stuck together (H2O)<br />
  18. 18. Compound or Mixture<br />Compound<br />Mixture<br />One kind of piece-<br />Molecules or<br />formula units <br />More than one kind -<br /> Molecule or atoms <br />Making is a <br />chemical change <br />Making is a <br />physical change <br />Only one kind <br />Variable composition <br />
  19. 19. Which is it?<br />Element<br />Compound<br />Mixture<br />
  20. 20. Chemical Reactions<br />Another name for chemical change<br />When one or more substances are changed into new substances.<br />Reactants- stuff you start with<br />Products- What you make<br />NEW PROPERTIES <br />
  21. 21. Indications of a chemical reaction<br />Energy absorbed or released<br />Color change<br />Odor change<br />Precipitate- solid that separates from solution<br />Not easily reversed<br />
  22. 22. Chemical symbols<br />There are 118 elements (He, Fe, etc.)<br />Each has a 1 or two letter symbol<br />First letter always capitalized, <br />second never (Pb)<br />
  23. 23. Chemical symbols<br />Used to write chemical formulas<br />Subscripts tell us how many of each atom<br />H2O<br />C3H8<br />HBrO3<br />
  24. 24. Energy<br />The ability to do work.<br />Work - cause a change or move an object.<br />Many types- all can be changed into the other.<br />
  25. 25. Types of energy<br />Potential- stored energy<br />Kinetic Energy- energy something has because its moving<br />Heat- the energy that moves because of a temperature difference.<br />Chemical energy- energy released or absorbed in a chemical change.<br />Electrical energy - energy of moving charges<br />
  26. 26. Types of Energy<br />Radiant Energy- energy that can travel through empty space (light, UV, infrared, radio)<br />Nuclear Energy – Energy from changing the nucleus of atoms<br />All types of energy can be converted into others.<br />If you trace the source far enough back, you will end up at nuclear energy.<br />
  27. 27. Conservation of Energy<br />Energy can be neither created or destroyed in ordinary changes (not nuclear), it can only change form.<br />Its not just a good idea, its the law.<br />
  28. 28. What about nuclear?<br />E = mc2<br />energy = mass x (speed of light)2<br />speed of light = 3 x 108<br />A little mass can make a lot of energy<br />Law of Conservation of Mass - Energy the total of the mass and energy remains the same in any change<br />