- Pre 13.7 milijardi godina - vakum 10E-28 m, poceo da se siri - precnik duplirao svakih 10E-37 sec - ~100 “dupliranja”, dostigao dimenzije 100 metara, nakon 10E-35 sec - temperatura 10E+8 K, supermasivne cestice, supa - siri, hladi, teske cestice raspadaju - 10E-5 sec, nastaju protoni, neutroni - 1 sec – jeygro deuterijuma, helijuma, litijuma - 3 min – suvise hladan, kraj fuzije - 300.000 god, 3000K – stabilni atomi, fotoni mogu da putuju, transparentan - 1 milijarda gdo – galaksije, fuyija u yveydama - pre 4.5 milijardi god – Sunce, Zemlja - 3.5 miliona – zivot - poslednjih 500 godina – nastaju price o Univerzumu
The Hubble Ultra Deep Field, or HUDF, is an image of a small region of space in the constellation Fornax, composited from Hubble Space Telescope data accumulated over a period from September 24, 2003 through January 16, 2004. It is the deepest image of the universe ever taken in visible light, looking back (to when the universe is thought to have been 800 million years old) approximately 13 billion years ago. The HUDF contains an estimated 10,000 galaxies. The patch of sky in which the galaxies reside (just one-tenth the diameter of the full moon as viewed from Earth) was chosen because it had a low density of bright stars in the near-field. Although most of the targets visible in the Hubble image can also be seen at infrared wavelengths by ground-based telescopes, Hubble is the only instrument which can make observations of these distant targets at visible wavelengths. Located southwest of Orion in the Southern-Hemisphere constellation Fornax at right ascension 3h 32m 40.0s, declination -27° 47' 29" (J2000), the image covers 36.7 square arcminutes. This is smaller than a 1 mm by 1 mm square of paper held 1 meter away, and equal to roughly one thirteen-millionth of the total area of the sky. The image is oriented such that the upper left corner points toward north (-46.4°) on the celestial sphere. The star near the center of the field is USNO-A2.0 0600-01400432 with apparent magnitude of 18.95. In total, the image required 800 exposures taken over the course of 400 Hubble orbits around Earth. The total amount of exposure time was 11.3 days for the ACS and 4.5 days for the NICMOS. According to the Big Bang theory, the universe has a finite age, so we might expect very distant (and hence very young) galaxies to look different from the typical older galaxies we see today. This is indeed seen in the HUDF, although some argue that the difference is partly a result of the unusual wavelength used for the HUDF (corresponding to ultraviolet light from the rest-frame of the most distant galaxies). The Hubble Ultra Deep Field also shows more evidence for galaxy formation and merging than in local studies, as expected for the early universe.
The Hubble eXtreme Deep Field ( XDF ) is an image of a small part of space in the center of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field within the constellation Fornax, showing the deepest optical view in space.  Released on September 25, 2012, the XDF image compiled 10 years of previous images and shows galaxies from 13.2 billion years ago. The exposure time was two million seconds, or approximately 23 days. The faintest galaxies are one ten-billionth the brightness of what the human eye can see. Many of the smaller galaxies are very young galaxies that eventually became the major galaxies, like the Milky Way and other galaxies in our galactic neighborhood.  The Hubble eXtreme Deep Field, or XDF , adds another 5,500 galaxies to those discovered in the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field. 
Female Queen Alexandra's Birdwings are larger than males with markedly rounder, broader wings. The female can reach a wingspan of 31cm (>14 inches), a body length of 8 cm (3.2 inches) and a body mass of up to 12 grams (0.42 oz), all enormous measurements for a butterfly. The female has brown wings with white markings and a cream-colored body with a small section of red fur on its thorax. Males are smaller than females with brown wings that have iridescent blue and green markings and a bright yellow abdomen. The wingspan of the males is approximately 20 cm, but more usually about 16 cm. A spectacular form of the male is form atavus, which has gold spots on the hind wings. It is restricted to the forests of Oro Province in eastern Papua New Guinea.
An optical fiber (or fibre) is a glass or plastic fiber that carries light along its length. Fiber optics is the overlap of applied science and engineering concerned with the design and application of optical fibers. Optical fibers are widely used in fiber-optic communication, which permits transmission over longer distances and at higher data rates than other forms of communications. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss, and they are immune to electromagnetic interference. Optical fibers are also used to form sensors, and in a variety of other applications. Light is kept in the "core" of the optical fiber by total internal reflection. This causes the fiber to act as a waveguide. Fibers which support many propagation paths or transverse modes are called multimode fibers (MMF). Fibers which support only a single mode are called singlemode fibers (SMF). Multimode fibers generally have a large-diameter core, and are used for short-distance communication links or for applications where high power must be transmitted. Singlemode fibers are used for most communication links longer than 200 meters. Joining lengths of optical fiber is more complex than joining electrical wire or cable. The ends of the fibers must be carefully cleaved, and then spliced together either mechanically or by fusing them together with an electric arc. Special connectors are used to make
Mikro i makro kosmos - od kvarka do kvazara i nazad
Festival “Nauk nije bauke 5”, Niš, 29. mart 2013Mikro i makro kosmos- od kvarka do kvazara i nazad - Milan Milošević Departman za fiziku, Prirodno-matematički fakultet www.svetnauke.org
Reflections on a Mote of Dust Carl Sagan (1934-1996) We succeeded in taking that picture [from deep space], and, if you look at it, you see a dot. That’s here. That’s home. That’s us. On it, everyone you ever heard of, every human being who ever lived, lived out their lives. The aggregate of all our joys and sufferings, thousands of confident religions, ideologies and economic doctrines, every hunter and forager, every hero and coward, every creator and destroyer of civilizations, every king and peasant, every young couple in love, every hopeful child, every mother and father, every inventor and explorer, every teacher of morals, every corrupt politician, every superstar, every supreme leader, every saint and sinner in the history of our species, lived there on a mote of dust, suspended in a sunbeam. The earth is a very small stage in a vast cosmic arena. Think of the rivers of blood spilled by all those generals and emperors so that in glory and in triumph they could become the momentary masters of a fraction of a dot. Think of the endless cruelties visited by the inhabitants of one corner of the dot on scarcely distinguishable inhabitants of some other corner of the dot. How frequent their misunderstandings, how eager they are to kill one another, how fervent their hatreds. Our posturings, our imagined self-importance, the delusion that we have some privileged position in the universe, are challenged by this point of pale light. Our planet is a lonely speck in the great enveloping cosmic dark. In our obscurity — in all this vastness — there is no hint that help will come from elsewhere to save us from ourselves. It is up to us. It’s been said that astronomy is a humbling, and I might add, a character- building experience. To my mind, there is perhaps no better demonstration of the folly of human conceits than this distant image “Plava tačka u beskraju” of our tiny world. To me, it underscores our responsibility to dealVojadžer 1; 6. jula 1990. godine. more kindly and compassionately with one another and to preserve and cherish that pale blue dot, the only home we’ve ever known. 6,4 milijardi kilometara (iza Plutona)
10 = 0,0001 m -4 http://en.wikipedia.org Paramecium aurelia, najpoznatiji od svih trepljara pod optičkim mikroskopom. "Mehurići" u ćeliji paramecijuma su vakuole. Cela površina tela je prekrivena trepljama, koje su na slici mutne zbog toga što se brzo pokreću.
10 = 0,00001 m -5 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Mist_-_Ensay_region3.jpg Cotton plant, Texas, 1996. Photo courtesy of USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. http://photogallery.nrcs.usda.gov/Index.asp
10 -6 Escherichia coli: Scanning electron micrograph ofEscherichia coli, grown in culture and adhered to a cover slip. Credit: Rocky Mountain Laboratories, NIAID, NIH