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Argumentation
Argumentation
Argumentation
Argumentation
Argumentation
Argumentation
Argumentation
Argumentation
Argumentation
Argumentation
Argumentation
Argumentation
Argumentation
Argumentation
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Argumentation

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  • 1. Argumentation<br />Supporting a Claim<br />
  • 2. Argument<br />A logical, well-thought-out presentation of ideas that makes a claim about an issue and supports that claim with reasons and evidence<br />
  • 3. Four Basic Parts of an Argument<br />Issue<br />Claim<br />Support<br />Refutation<br />
  • 4. Issue<br />An issue is a controversy – a problem or idea about which people disagree. <br />When choosing an issue, be sure that it is arguable – one that people have differing opinions on. <br />Don’t argue a pointless argument.<br />
  • 5. Claim<br />A claim is a statement that tells readers your position on the issue.<br />It is best to state your claim in a strong thesis early in the essay.<br />You need a clear and specific claim to build a convincing argument.<br />
  • 6. Claim and Audience Analysis<br />Agreeing Audience – focus on your shared viewpoint and build emotional ties with audience.<br />Neutral or Wavering Audience – establish your credibility, engender readers’ trust, and present solid evidence.<br />Disagreeing Audience – establish common ground and use logical line of reasoning.<br />
  • 7. Support<br />A reason is a general statement that backs up a claim; it answers the question, “Why do I have this opinion on this issue?”<br />You need to support each reason with evidence.<br />
  • 8. Forms of Evidence<br />Facts<br />Statistics<br />Examples<br />Personal experience<br />Expert testimony<br />
  • 9. Refutation<br />Acknowledge<br />Accommodate<br />Refute<br />
  • 10. Acknowledge<br />You admit that the other side exists and have considered it.<br />
  • 11. Accommodate<br />You acknowledge the readers’ concerns and incorporate them into your own argument.<br />
  • 12. Refute<br />You demonstrate the weakness of the opponent’s argument.<br />
  • 13. Conclusion<br />Restatement of claim<br />Final appeal to needs or values<br />Urges readers to take action<br />
  • 14. Create your own argument…<br />State the issue and your claim on the issue.<br />Provide support.<br />reasons <br />Evidence<br />Refute the opposing argument.<br />Conclude.<br />

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