Argumentation
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Transcript

  • 1. Argumentation
    Supporting a Claim
  • 2. Argument
    A logical, well-thought-out presentation of ideas that makes a claim about an issue and supports that claim with reasons and evidence
  • 3. Four Basic Parts of an Argument
    Issue
    Claim
    Support
    Refutation
  • 4. Issue
    An issue is a controversy – a problem or idea about which people disagree.
    When choosing an issue, be sure that it is arguable – one that people have differing opinions on.
    Don’t argue a pointless argument.
  • 5. Claim
    A claim is a statement that tells readers your position on the issue.
    It is best to state your claim in a strong thesis early in the essay.
    You need a clear and specific claim to build a convincing argument.
  • 6. Claim and Audience Analysis
    Agreeing Audience – focus on your shared viewpoint and build emotional ties with audience.
    Neutral or Wavering Audience – establish your credibility, engender readers’ trust, and present solid evidence.
    Disagreeing Audience – establish common ground and use logical line of reasoning.
  • 7. Support
    A reason is a general statement that backs up a claim; it answers the question, “Why do I have this opinion on this issue?”
    You need to support each reason with evidence.
  • 8. Forms of Evidence
    Facts
    Statistics
    Examples
    Personal experience
    Expert testimony
  • 9. Refutation
    Acknowledge
    Accommodate
    Refute
  • 10. Acknowledge
    You admit that the other side exists and have considered it.
  • 11. Accommodate
    You acknowledge the readers’ concerns and incorporate them into your own argument.
  • 12. Refute
    You demonstrate the weakness of the opponent’s argument.
  • 13. Conclusion
    Restatement of claim
    Final appeal to needs or values
    Urges readers to take action
  • 14. Create your own argument…
    State the issue and your claim on the issue.
    Provide support.
    reasons
    Evidence
    Refute the opposing argument.
    Conclude.