Book sugarcane crop in guatemala


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Sugarcane Crop in Guatemala

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Book sugarcane crop in guatemala

  1. 1. SSuuggaarrccaannee CCrroopp iinn GGuuaatteemmaallaa EDITORS  Mario Melgar  Adlai Meneses  Héctor Orozco  Ovidio Pérez  Rodolfo Espinosa  engicañaengicañaengicañaengicaña Artemis Edinter
  2. 2. The Guatemalan Sugarcane Research and Training Center CENGICANA, was created by the Guatemalan Sugar Association, ASAZGUA in 1992, to support the technological advance of the sugar agroindustry, with the aim of improving the production and productivity of sugarcane crop and its derivatives. It is funded by the sugar mills of the Guatemalan Sugarcane Agro-industry, who make their contributions to the budget of the Center, in proportion to the sugar production obtained. According to the Strategic Plan (2005-2015), our Vision is "To be leaders in creating technology to increase the competitiveness of the Sugarcane Agro-industry in the region"; and our Mission is: "We are the organization of the Sugar Agroindustry responsible for generating, adapting, and transferring quality technology for profitable and sustainable development". The Board of Directors of the Center is constituted by representatives of the sugar mills and canegrowers. The Strategic and Operational Plans are made with the input from the Board of Directors, the Technical Advisory Committee, and the Technical Industrial Committee. The research areas are determined with the participation of managers and technical personnel of the sugar mills, who develop applied and specific research. The coordination of activities is the responsibility of the General Director. The Quality Management System of CENGICANA is certified according to ISO 9001:2008 standards. Research activities are carried out through the following research programs: Varieties Program, Integrated Pest Management Program, Agronomic Program and Industrial Research Program, and also the Technology Transfer and Training Program, the Analytical Services Laboratory and the Administration Unit.
  3. 3. i Sugarcane Crop in Guatemala EDITORS Mario Melgar Adlai Meneses Héctor Orozco Ovidio Pérez Rodolfo Espinosa CENGICANA Guatemalan Sugarcane Research and Training Center
  4. 4. ii Sugarcane Crop in Guatemala EDITORS Mario Melgar Adlai Meneses Héctor Orozco Ovidio Pérez Rodolfo Espinosa Cover design and layout: Priscila López de Alvarado (Cover photo courtesy of Dr. Mario Melgar) © Librerías Artemis Edinter, S.A. ISBN: 978-9929-40-376-5 Printed in Guatemala by: Litografías Modernas S.A. 5ta. Calle 18-27, zona 8 de Mixco, San Cristóbal II Tel. (502) 2478-2770 CENGICANA (Guatemalan Sugarcane Research and Training Center). 2012. Sugarcane Crop in Guatemala. Melgar, M.; Meneses, A.; Orozco, H.; Pérez, O.; and Espinosa, R. (eds.). Guatemala. 495 p. 2012 Librerías Artemis Edinter, S.A. 12 calle 10-55, zona 1. PBX: (502) 2419 9191 Fax: (502) 2238 0866 Guatemala, C.A.
  5. 5. iii CENGICANA Guatemalan Sugarcane Research and Training Center Km. 92.5 Carretera a Santa Lucía Cotzumalguapa, Escuintla, Guatemala Phone: (502) 7828 1000 Fax: (502) 7828 1000 Email: Email: Web:
  6. 6. iv Content Page Acronyms and Abreviations vi Preface viii I. Technological Development of the Sucarcane Agro- Industry and Perspectives Mario Melgar 1 II. Characterization of Sugarcane Growing Areas Braulio Villatoro, Ovidio Pérez 33 III. Sugarcane Breeding and Selection Héctor Orozco, José Luis Quemé, Werner Ovalle and Fredy Rosales Longo 45 IV. Biotechnology Applied to Sugarcane Crop Luis Molina and Mario Melgar 77 V. Crop Establishment Work 103 Soil Preparation for Sugarcane Planting Joel García, Braulio Villatoro, Fernando Díaz and Gil Sandoval 104 Nurseries and Commercial Planting Werner Ovalle, José Luis Quemé, Héctor Orozco and Ovidio Pérez 115 VI. Weed Control and Management Gerardo Espinoza 125 VII. Crop Nutrition And Fertilization Ovidio Pérez 141 VIII. Irrigation of Sugarcane Crop Otto Castro 171
  7. 7. v Page IX. Integrated Pest Management José Manuel Márquez 195 X. Diseases in Sugarcane Crop Werner Ovalle 225 XI. Sugarcane Ripening and Sugarcane Flowering and their Management Sugarcane Ripening Gerardo Espinoza Sugarcane Flowering and its Managment Gerardo Espinoza and José Luis Quemé 251 252 274 XII. Sugarcane Harvesting Adlai Meneses 289 XIII. The Sugar Production Process 301 José Luis Alfaro, Enrique Velásquez, Luis Monterroso and Rodolfo Espinosa XIV. Sugar Agroindustry Diversification 351 Co-Generation in the Sugar Industry Mario Muñoz 352 Production of Ethanol Rodolfo Espinosa and Claudia Ovando 371 Coproducer Perspectives on Sugarcane Mario Muñoz 407 XV. Meteorology in Sugarcane Otto Castro and Alfredo Suárez 433 XVI. Climate Change and the Sugarcane Crop Alex Guerra and Alejandra Hernández 463
  8. 8. vi ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS Institutions AGG Guatemalan Managers Association ASAZGUA Guatemalan Sugar Association ATAGUA Guatemalan Society of Sugarcane Technologists CAÑAMIP Integrated Pests Management Committee CENGICANA Guatemalan Sugarcane Research and Training Center CIASA Sugar Mills Consultants CIRAD Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement CENICAÑA Centro de Investigación de la Caña de Azúcar de Colombia COPERSUCAR Cooperative of Sugarcane, Sugar and Ethanol Producers of the State of Sao Paulo CONCYT National Council for Science and Technology EEGSA Electric Company of Guatemala ENCA National Central School of Agriculture ICC Private Institute for Climate Change Research ICSB International Consortium of Sugarcane Biotechnology ICTA Institute of Science and Agricultural Technology ICUMSA International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis INDE National Institute of Electrification INSIVUMEH National Institute of Seismology, Volcanology, Meteorology and Hydrology INTECAP Technical Institute for Training and Productivity IPNI International Plant Nutrition Institute ISSCT International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists MAGA Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food TECNICAÑA Colombia Association of Sugarcane Technologists URL Rafael Landivar University USAC San Carlos University USDA United States Departament of Agriculture UVG Del Valle University
  9. 9. vii Technical expressions and units Atm atmosphere dap days after planting ha hectare km kilometer Mz 0.7 hectare min minute qq 46 kilogrames TSH tonnes of sugar per hectare TCH tonnes of cane per hectare Tchd tonnes of cane/man/day t metric tonnes t cane/ha tonnes of cane per hectare t sugar/ha tonnes of sugar per hectare Sugarcane varieties B Barbados C Cuba CC CENICAÑA Colombia CG CENGICANA Guatemala Co Coimbatore CP Canal Point CTC Centro de Tecnología Canavieira ECU Ecuador Ja Jaronu L Louisiana M Mauritius MEX Mexico MPT MitrPhol, Thailand My Mayari NA North of Argentina PGM Pantaleon Guatemala Mexico PPQK Cuba PR Puerto Rico Q Queensland RB Republic of Brazil SP São Paulo
  10. 10. viii PREFACE Without books, history is silent, literature dumb, science crippled, thought and speculation at a standstill. BARBARA W. TUCHMAN Sugarcane began to be cultivated in Guatemala in 1536, the first Guatemalan trapiches were founded in the central valley of Guatemala and in the Salama Valley, during the 16th century. In the 17th century the number of trapiches increased, the most important were in hands of religious orders. It was until the middle of the 19th century that Guatemala began to export sugar in small amounts. In 1957 the Guatemalan Sugar Association, ASAZGUA was founded and in1960, when the total production of sugar was 68,000 metric tones, the country received its first quota from the United States. The year 1960, is taken as a starting point for the modern history of sugarcane; in the world, the industrial era was highly developed and changes in the world dynamics were foreseen, it was then that sugar mills defined their modernization and growth strategy. Sugar factories evolved from local to exporting industries, becoming one of the most important agro-industrial activities of the country. When Guatemalan sugar exports expanded, the ASAZGUA started to develop a series of projects and strategies that were the driving force of the national Sugar Agro-industry. In order to increase sugarcane production, the sugar mills introduced improvements in the crop, harvest, factory, distribution and product commercialization, as well as better life conditions for the workers of the sugarcane agro-industry. In 1971, the Guatemalan Society of Sugarcane Technologists, ATAGUA was founded with the purpose of promoting the exchange of experiences and technology; as well as the spreading of technical knowledge to promote the development of the Sugarcane Agro-industry. This favored the transference of technology in congresses and symposiums with other sugarcane technical associations of Central and Latin America. In the decade of 1970 various sugar mills began to hire Guatemalan professionals and sugarcane technicians and foreign consultants, in order to improve the efficiency in the industrial operation and to design expansion and modernization projects for some sugar mills.
  11. 11. ix The ASAZGUA created the Department of Agricultural Experimentation in 1974; and in 1978 Pantaleon Sugar Mill began to develop research projects. Afterwards, Santa Ana, Concepcion and La Union Sugar Mills, did it as well. The ASAZGUA created FUNDAZUCAR in 1990, the Guatemalan Sugarcane Research and Training Center CENGICANA in 1992, EXPOGRANEL in 1994; and the Department of Environmental Management. Since 1990 the Sugarcane Agro-industry started to gain a worldwide position, being among the tenth most important countries in export volume, according to the International Sugar Organization (ISO); and the third place worldwide in productivity, according to International LMC. In 2001 in Brisbane, Australia, Guatemala was designated venue for the most important sugarcane technological event worldwide. The XXV Congress of the International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists (ISSCT), which took place successfully in January 2005 in Guatemala. The Guatemalan Sugarcane Agro-industry has been permanently growing since 1960 to place Guatemala in the fifth position as sugarcane exporter in the world, the second position in Latin America and the third place in productivity worldwide (metric tons of sugar/ha). Sugar is the second agricultural product in Guatemala that creates foreign income, becoming a very important contribution to the national economy. The increase in productivity has been more remarkable in the last 20 years. In the decade of 1980-1990 an average of 6.77 tons of sugar were produced per hectare (TSH), while in the decade 2000-2010 the average was 10.11 TSH. The main factors that have had relevance in the development of the Guatemalan Sugarcane Agro-industry are: ECOLOGIC: the agro-ecologic conditions have been favorable. ORGANIZATIONAL MANAGEMENT: private industry, trade organization, export terminal, diversification (cogeneration and ethanol). TECHNOLOGIC: field operations, factory operations, research, training, technology transfer, benchmarking. SOCIAL: corporate social responsibility. The technological component has had an important part in the development of this Agro-industry. CENGICANA has formed a research and technological development system for sugarcane. Thus, it has established policies, regulatory framework, plans, organization, quality management, and a technology management system.
  12. 12. x It has been also developed applied research for the cultivation of sugarcane in diverse areas of the agronomic system to increase the productivity. The research areas are: Plant Breeding, Plant Pathology, Biotechnology, Integrated Pest Management, Fertilization and Vegetal Nutrition, Irrigation, Agrometeorology, Geographic Information System and Sucrose Recovery. The research has been done jointly with the associated sugar mills. The results of all research have been presented in more than 900 publications; most of them are available at CENGICANA website Methodologies and technologies have been generated or adapted in all areas. In this book we present in 13 chapters, the experience in research and technology transfer, in the sugarcane crop areas, where CENGICANA has worked with the sugar mills. In Chapter XIII we present: The Process of Sugar Fabrication, in Chapter XIV Sugarcane Agro-industry Diversification; and in Chapter XVI presents Climate Change and the Cultivation of Sugarcane, written by professionals of the Private Research Institute of Climate Change ICC, which is the newest organization created by the ASAZGUA in 2010. We are gratefull with the associated sugar mills, editors, authors, coauthors, translators especially to Wendy Cano, Erika Monterroso and contributors of this publication. Our desire is that this book will be useful for professionals, technicians, sugarcane growers, students and personnel of the Sugarcane Agro- industry. Board of Directors CENGICANA 2011-2012 President: Ing. Mauricio Cabarrus Pantaleon-Concepcion Sugar Mills Vicepresident: Ing. Max Zepeda Madre Tierra Sugar Mill Secretary: Ing. Jorge Leal Magdalena Sugar Mill Treasurer: Ing. Herman Jensen Santa Ana Sugar Mill First vocal member: Ing. Jaime Botran Tulula Sugar Mill Second vocal member: Dr. Freddie Perez San Diego-Trinidad Sugar Mills Third vocal member: Ing. Jorge Sandoval La Union Sugar Mill Fourth vocal member: Ing. Arturo Gandara Sugarcane Growers Joint vocal member: Ing. Hector Ranero ASAZGUA Financial Advisor: Lic. William Calvillo ASAZGUA General Director: Dr. Mario Melgar CENGICANA
  14. 14. 2 TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE SUGARCANE AGRO-INDUSTRY AND PERSPECTIVES Mario Melgar INTRODUCTION Technological development is the process of systematic organization of scientific and technological knowledge for the production of goods and services. Technology is essential knowledge, but it is a knowledge specifically organized for production. Technological development causes transformations in productive processes. According to Enriquez, 2001 “”. The success of a country, sector, organization, business or an individual, depends upon their ability to understand and apply technological changes. Alvin Tofler in his book The Third Wave, 1982 summarizes the technological history of humanity through, the impact of three waves that have triggered three revolutions. The first: the agricultural revolution; the second: the industrial revolution; and the third: the information technology revolution. Each of those waves creating a new civilization with their own jobs, lifestyles, economic structures and political thinking. Richard Oliver, in The Coming Biotech Age, 1999 suggests that the world is entering a new era or wave, “The Bionanotechnology Revolution”, which will guide the global economy in the first decades of the 21th century. In Figure 1 we can observe the evolution of these eras through time and their impact in globalization and added value terms (gross national product (GNP) per capita and life expectancy). The duration of each wave has been shorter, due to the previous accumulation of knowledge.  Ph. D. General Director of CENGICANA.  
  15. 15. 3 Figure 1. Technology creates economic waves Source: Melgar, M. 2003. No debemos perder la siguiente ola: La revolución biotecnológica ATAGUA (Gua) 3(4): 14:18. TECHNOLOGICAL HISTORY OF SUGARCANE IN GUATEMALA Figure 2. Waves in the Guatemalan Sugarcane Agroindustry Globalization addedvalue 6000 BC 1760 1950 2000 Time and technology Agriculture Industry Informatics Bionanotechnology 1536 1960 1990 2010 Agriculture Trapiches First sugar mills Agroindusty Export Informatics Export (Global Top Ten) Institutional development Diversification Globalization addedvalue
  16. 16. 4 In a similar way as the technological waves of Tofler, we can propose that the technological development of the Guatemalan Sugarcane Agro-Industry has occurred in three waves that are concisely described as follows. Wagner, 2007 in his book History of Sugarcane in Guatemala, mentions that sugarcane began to be cultivated in Guatemala in 1536, in Amatitlan. The first trapiches in Guatemala were founded in the central valley of the country and in the Salama Valley during the 16th century. In the 17th century the number of trapiches grew, the most important ones were in charge of religious orders. Wagner mentions that at that time “the consumption and production of brown sugar and cane rum became so popular among the population that sugar mills were found in all the warm climate regions of the country.” It was until the middle of the 19th century that Guatemala began to export sugar in small quantities. The Guatemalan Sugar Association, ASAZGUA was founded in 1957 with the purpose of solving problems in sugarcane production and to develop programs to promote, improve and introduce the use of modern technology in the sugarcane industry of the country. According to McSweeney, in 1990 Guatemala received its first quota from the United States, at that time the total production of sugar in Guatemala was 68,000 metric tons. In the prologue of the book History of Sugarcane in Guatemala 2007, Fraterno Vila, mentions that, for the modern history of sugarcane, the year 1960 is taken as a starting point. In the world, the industrial era was highly developed and changes in the world dynamics were foreseen, it was then that sugar mills defined their modernization and grow strategy. The industry transformed from a local to an exportating industry, becoming one of the most important agro- industrial activities of the country. As Guatemalan sugar exports expanded, the ASAZGUA began to develop a series of projects and strategies that were the driving force of the national Sugar Agro-industry. To increase production, the sugar mills introduced improvements in the crop, harvest, factory, distribution and product commercialization, as well as life conditions for the workers of the sugarcane industry, was improved.
  17. 17. 5 In 1971, the Guatemalan Society of Sugarcane Technologists, ATAGUA was founded with the purpose of promoting the exchange of experiences and technology and to spread technical knowledge to promote the development of the Sugarcane Agro-industry. This favored technology transfer with other sugarcane technical associations of Central and Latin America, through congresses and symposiums. In the decade of 1970, various sugar mills began to hire Guatemalan professionals and sugarcane technicians and foreign consultants mainly from Cuba to improve the efficiency in the industrial operation and to design expansion and modernization projects for some sugar mills. The education of sugarcane technicians in universities began in 1975, making it possible for new professionals to take important positions in the sugar mills. That is how the transformation of the Guatemalan Sugarcane Agro-industry began, which kept progressively evolving in the crop, the harvest and the transportation. ASAZGUA created the Department of Agricultural Experimentation in 1974; and in 1978 Pantaleon Sugar Mill began to develop research projects. Afterwards, Santa Ana, Concepcion and La Union Sugar Mills, did it as well. The ASAZGUA created: The Sugar Foundation, FUNDAZUCAR 1990, whose mission is “To become the model for promoting social development, replicable for other sectors of the country”; The Guatemalan Sugarcane Research and Training Center, CENGICANA in 1992, whose mission is: "We are the organization of the Sugar Industry responsible for generating, adapting and transferring quality technology for profitable and sustainable development"; EXPOGRANEL in 1994, whose mission is “To be the shipment terminal that facilitates the competitiveness of The Guatemalan sugarcane industry worldwide through the effective and reliable management of exportating sugar”; and in 1994, it created the Environmental Management Department. Since 1990 the Sugarcane Agro-industry reached a position worldwide, and Guatemala is situated among the tenth most important countries in export volume, according to the International Sugar Organization (ISO); and it is
  18. 18. 6 also well positioned in productivity, according to International LMC, as shown in Figure 3, where Guatemala occupies the third place worldwide. As a result it was elected venue for the XXV International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists, ISSCT which was successfully held in 2005, in Guatemala. The Private Research Institute of Climate Change (ICC) was founded by ASAZGUA in 2010, whose mission is: “To create and promote actions that facilitate climate change mitigation and adaptation in the region based on technical and scientific guidelines, as well as economic feasibility”. Figure 3. Competitiveness indicators Source: LMC Sugar Technical Performance - Executive Summary. September 2008. In this chapter the following topics are briefly presented emphasizing the period 1990-2010: 1. Development factors of the Guatemalan Sugarcane Agro-Industry. 2. Sugarcane innovation system. 3. Research and development strategies at sectorial level. 4. Changes in the factors of production within the agronomic system. 5. Perspectives Australia Brazil (C.S) Brazil (N.E.) China Colombia Guatemala India Mexico South Africa Sudan Swaziland Thailand USA Al 02/05/2010 6 11 16 21 26 31 36 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Prod. Sucrose per ton of milling capacity  Sugar Yield (TSH) Competitiveness Indicators
  19. 19. 7 DEVELOPMENT FACTORS The Guatemalan Sugarcane Agro-industry has been growing permanently since 1960, as far as to position Guatemala as follows:  Fifth place as sugarcane export country worldwide, second in Latin America and third in productivity (sugar metric tons/ha) worldwide (Figure 3).  Sugar is the second agricultural product in Guatemala, generating foreign currency incomes, becoming a very important contribution to the national economy (Chart 4). In Figure 4 we observe that the increase in production is due to the increase in the cultivated area, and in productivity. The increase in productivity has been more noticeable in the last 20 years as shown in Figure 5. Figure 4. Trends in area, production and yield of sugar in Guatemala, 1960-2010 Source: Melgar, M. 2010. “Estrategias de la investigación tecnológica en la agroindustria azucarera de Guatemala”. Presentación en Power Point en el simposio “Modelos de investigación y desarrollo tecnológico agrícola” Experiencias del sector privado. USAID-AGEXPORT. 15 de julio 2010. 0 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000 350,000 0 500,000 1,000,000 1,500,000 2,000,000 2,500,000 1959‐60 1961‐62 1963‐64 1965‐66 1967‐68 1969‐70 1971‐72 1973‐74 1975‐76 1977‐78 1979‐80 1981‐82 1983‐84 1985‐86 1987‐88 1989‐90 1991‐92 1993‐94 1995‐96 1997‐98 1999‐00 2001‐02 2003‐04 2005‐06 2007‐08 2009‐10 Area(ha) Tonnesof Sugar Toneladas de Azúcar Área (ha)Tonnesof Sugar Area (ha)
  20. 20. 8 Figure 5. Sugar yield/TSH 1960-2010 Source: CENGICAÑA. 2007. Eventos históricos y logros 1992-2007 y actualización 2010 (See Annex 1). Guatemala. In the decade of 1980-1990 an average of 6.77 sugar tons were produced per hectare (TSH), while in the decade of 2000-2010 the average was 10.11 TSH. Diverse authors describe the main factors that have influenced the development of the Guatemalan Sugarcane Agro-industry. These factors are: Chart 1. Main factors of development of the Sugar Agro-industry in Guatemala FACTOR DESCRIPTION AUTOR(S) Ecological Favorable agro-ecological conditions International Sugar Journal 1998 Organizational Management Private industry Trade organization Export method Export terminal Diversification International Sugar Journal, 1998 Hasrajani, 2004 McSweeney, 2005 Technological Field operations Factory operations Research Training Technology transfer Benchmarking Int. Sugar Jul 1998 Herrera et al., 2001 Meneses et al., 2003 Hasrajani, 2004 McSweeney, 2005 Menéndez y Estévez, 2005 Tay y Huete, 2006 Social Working conditions Social Responsibility Herrera et al., 2001 McSweeney, 2005 Source: CENGICAÑA. 2007. Eventos históricos y logros 1992-2007. Guatemala. Years TCH % Suc TSH 1959/60* 53 9.70 5.20 1960/65 57 9.34 5.34 1965/70 62 9.24 5.76 1970/75 74 8.83 6.58 1975/80 77 8.49 6.54 1980/85 76 9.10 6.58 1985/90 71 9.66 6.90 1990/95 82 10.10 8.32 1995/00 85 10.42 8.87 2000/05 90 11.33 10.17 2005/10 94 10.75 10.05 * Just  1959/60  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 00 05 10 TSH Year
  21. 21. 9 Market: Sugar, cogeneration, ethanol. SYSTEMATIC LEVEL INNOVATION RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM SUGARMILLS Canegrowers, Research departments CENGICANA Sugarcane Research Centers form other countries (Mainly United States, Colombia and Brazil) ATAGUA consultants, and sugarcane technologists association from other Suppliers INTECAP Universities: USAC, URL, UVG, UG, ZAMORANO, EARTH ENCA, Technological centers The mentioned authors agree that the technological component has played a very important role in the development of the Guatemalan Sugarcane Agro- industry. SUGARCANE INNOVATION SYSTEM IN GUATEMALA According to Tosi, 2010, the innovative achievement of a country, region or sector cannot be evaluated focusing only on the individual success of the organizations. On the contrary, innovation is a process that results from the interaction of diverse organizations. In Figure 6 we present the main enterprises or organizations that participate in the innovation system of sugarcane in Guatemala. Flow of knowledge Flow of production Figure 6. Innovation system of sugarcane in Guatemala Other activities that have been developed by the innovation system, are: trainings, publications and congresses, as shown in Figures 7, 8 and 9.
  22. 22. 10 42% 15% 28% 15% PEOPLE TRAINED BY AREA Field Workshops All Factory Figure 7. Training events coordinated by CENGICANA Source: Melgar, M. 2011. "Desarrollo Tecnológico de la Agroindustria Azucarera y su Impacto en la Costa Sur de Guatemala". Presentación en Power Point en el foro "La Ciencia y Tecnología para el Desarrollo Rural Integral” XI Congreso de Ingenieros Agrónomos, Forestales y Ambientales de Guatemala. 15 de junio 2011. Figure 8. Publications by CENGICAÑA, most are available in 40% 35% 25% PEOPLE TRAINED BY RANK Operating Middle Management 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 25 16 23 81 81 71 92 45 41 39 46 44 69 49 95 41 49 62 Number of publications Years CENGICANA publications
  23. 23. 11 AGREEMENTS NATIONAL INTECAP Universities: USAC, URL, UVG,  GALILEO Government: CONCYT, ENCA, ICTA MAGA Associations: Chambers, AGG,  ATAGUA CIAG INTERNATIONAL Argentina, Australia Barbados, Brazil,  Central America, Colombia, Cuba,  Ecuador, España,  United States, France,  Mauritius,  Mexico, Thailand,  Venezuela Asociaciones: ISSCT, ICSB, STAB, ASSCT TECNICAÑA S U G A R M I L L S CENGICANA Projects: Research Training Technology transfer Committees Technical events Benchmarking Congresses Publications Library Pantaleón‐Concepción  Palo Gordo La Unión Madre Tierra Tululá San Diego‐Trinidad Santa Teresa La Sonrisa Santa Ana Guadalupe Magdalena Figure 9. Sugarcane congresses organized in Guatemala by ATAGUA, supported by ASAZGUA and CENGICAÑA Figure 10 summarizes the technology network actors of the technology management system that make possible the formation of “the Technology Stock” of the Guatemalan Sugarcane Agroindustry. TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM NETWORK TECHNOLOGY Figure 10. Technology management system actors Source: Melgar, M. 2011. “Estrategias de la investigación tecnológica en la agroindustria azucarera de Guatemala”. Presentación en Power Point en el seminario-taller "Situación actual y perspectivas de la investigación agropecuaria, forestal e hidrobiológica en Guatemala”. 02 de junio 2011. 1973 1975 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1995 1997 1998 2000 2001 2002 2005 2008 2011 World Latin America Central  America National
  24. 24. 12 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT POLICIES AT SECTORIAL LEVEL As it can be observed in Figure 6, the innovation sources are diverse and each one has its policies. In Chart 2, we present the research and development policies at sectorial level that have directed the work of CENGICANA, and which have been documented in publications or presentations. Chart 2. Research and development policies POLICY DESCRIPTION STRATEGY 1. SECTORIAL COORDINATION POLICY Activities for the scientific and technological development will be held with the participation of the enterprises that are part of the sugarcane sector,in a coordinated form. Creation of Centro Guatemalteco de Investigacion y Capacitacion de la Caña de Azucar (CENGICANA) 2. PRIORIZATION OF THE RESEARCH PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS POLICY Scientific and technological research will be oriented to solve priority problems of the cultivation of sugarcane. Development of strategic and operative plans with the participation of management and technical levels from sugar mills. 3. HUMAN RESOURCES TRAINING POLICY The training, updating and education of professionals and technicians, will be a priority activity for the technological development of the sector. Links with national and international institutions for the training of human resources. 4. TECHNOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT POLICY Diffusion of research results will be promoted through joint activities with sugar mills. A system of technology management and an innovation system will be developed.  Creation of specific committees  Organization of technical events and congresses  Elaboration of publications  Coordinated research  Benchmarking events  Establishment of a specialized library  Creation of website 5. NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION POLICY CENGICANA´s links to other sugarcane international research centers and national organizations, will be established and strenghtened. Establish agreements and other mechanisms that allow the development of joint programs or projects that promote technological exchange
  25. 25. 13 POLICY DESCRIPTION STRATEGY 6. INVESTMENT IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY Mechanisms that stimulate investment in science and research by the enterpreneurs of the sector, will be identified. Presentations or elaboration of publications that show profitability of investment in research 7. QUALITY MANAGEMENT POLICY CENGICANA will implement a quality management system Certification by CENGICANA Quality management system according to ISO 9001:2000 in 2006 and recertification ISO 9001:2008 in 2009. Source: CENGICANA, 2007. Historic events and successes 1992-2007. Guatemala. PRIORIZATION STRATEGIES IN RESEARCH PROGRAMS AND PROYECTS CENGICANA was created by ASAZGUA in 1992 to support technological advance of the sugarcane agro-industry with the objective to improve production and productivity of the sugarcane crop and its derivatives. It is financed by the sugar mills that form the Guatemalan sugarcane agro-industry and who make contributions to the budget of the Center in proportion to their sugar production. According to the Strategic Plans 2005-2015, the vision of CENGICANA is “To be leaders in technology generation to increase the competitiveness of the sugarcane agro-industry in the region; and the mission is “"We are the organization of the Sugar Industry responsible for generating, adapting and transferring quality technology for profitable and sustainable development". The strategic objectives of the Center are: 1. To increase the profitability and sustainability of the sugarcane agro-industry through the continuous improvement of the processes of Varieties, Integrated Pests Management, Biotecnology, Fertilization, Irrigation, Agrometeorology, Agroecologic Zonification and Weeds, and Chemical Ripening. 2. To evaluate and implement new research programs in factory, cogeneration and coproduction. 3. To improve technology transfer to the associated sugar mills, through training, publish and promotion of the benchmarking processes in field, factory and transportation.
  26. 26. 14 4. To ensure the satisfaction of the associates with technologies to improve the profitability and sustainability and to maintain the Quality Management System certified according to ISO 9001:2008. 5. To develop a continuous program of education, training and updating of the technical personnel of CENGICANA and the Sugarcane Agro-industry. The programs and projects that CENGICANA develops based in the prioritization defined jointly with the Board of directors, Agricultural Managers, and Industrial Managers are listed in the following Chart: Chart 3. Research Programs and projects of CENGICAÑA PROGRAMS AREAS PROJECTS  Development of Varieties 1. Plant Breeding 1. Germplasm source. 2. Cross-breeding program. 3. Selection scheme. 4. Genetic seed. 5. Promotion of new varieties 2. Biotecnology 1. Molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS), 2. Molecular diagnosis of diseases. 3. Tissue culture 3. Plant Pathology 1. Pathogen detection in nurseries  Integrated Pests Managements Program IPM 1. Entomology 1. Bioecology of pests and natural enemies. 2. Bioeconomic research. 3. Development of control strategies  Agronomy Program 1. Fertilization and Vegetal Nutrition 1. Nutrient requeriments studies. 2. Fertilization management. 3. Use and management of byproducts. 4. Green manures 2.Irrigation 1. Technical and economic efficiency of irrigation. 2. Technical and economic efficiency of irrigation methods. 3. Studies of groundwater levels 3. Agrometeorology 1. Analysis of meteorological information for sugarcane 4. Information System for Precision Agriculture 1. Agronomic Information System. 2. Agroecological zoning. 3. Thematic maps 5. Weeds and ripeners 1. Flowering inhibitors. 2. Ripeners. 3. Weed management  Industrial Research Program 1. Sucrose recovery. 2. Standardization and normalization 3. Energy efficiency Source: Melgar, M. 2011. “Estrategias de la investigación tecnológica en la Agroindustria Azucarera de Guatemala”. Presentación en Power Point en el seminario-taller “Situación actual y perspectivas de la investigación agropecuaria, forestal e hidrobiológica en Guatemala”. 02 de junio 2011.
  27. 27. 15 CHANGES IN THE TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS Figure 11 presents the agronomic system of commercial production. The main changes in technological factors are described with emphasis in the period 1990-2010. Figure 11. Agronomic sistem of comercial production of sugarcane Source: Melgar, M. 2011. "Desarrollo Tecnológico de la Agroindustria Azucarera y su Impacto en la Costa Sur de Guatemala". Presentación en Power Point en foro "La Ciencia y Tecnología para el Desarrollo Rural Integral“ XI Congreso de Ingenieros Agrónomos, Forestales y Ambientales de Guatemala. 15 de junio 2011. Adaptado de Gundersen, 2006.  Factors that research has been conducted in coordination with CENGICANA. Varieties During the period of 1990/2010 (Figure 12) a predominance of CP varieties coming from the Canal Point Experimental Station, Florida was observed. The variety CP72-2086 stands out, which during the harvest 2002/2003 occupied the 75 percent of the cultivated area. - SUGAR - ETHANOL - COGENERATION - MOLASSES -CLEANING -PURITY -COLOR - RENEW - ENLARGE -MANUAL -MECHANIC RATOON CANE RENEWAL -PACKING -BULK SUGAR MILL STORAGE - SUPERFICIAL - FLOOD -FROGHOPPER -BORER -SOIL PESTS -TYPE -SIZE -INTERNAL NETWORK -EXTERNAL NETWORK -VARIETY -REPRODUCTION -SELECTION -CAUDAL -SYSTEM -MANAGEMENT -QUANTITY -TYPE -TOPOGRAPHY -MANAGEMENT -CUT BACK -CLEANING -TRACE -ROADS -PLOT LAND IMPROVEMENT BUDGET PROGRAM - EXPERIMENTS - DESIGNS - ANALYSIS - APPLICATIONS ENGINEERING -MATERIALS -PARTS -SHIPPING -WORKSHOPS -LOGÍSTICS SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT -FINANCIAL -ECONOMIC -ACCOUNTING -LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT OF WORKERS -LEGAL -SOCIAL -HUMAN ENVIRONMENT TOPOGRAPHY CLIMATE WATERSOIL LATITUDE HUMAN FACTOR DRAINAGE ROADSAREA IRRIGATION SEED SUBSOILING SOWING PLOW PLOW POLISH PESTSDRAINAGE PRODUCTION -SMUT -RUST -PHOSPHORUS -FORMULATES -MINOR ELEMENTS - EFICIENCY - EQUIPMENT -SOURCE -CALENDAR FERTILIZER SEED RONDEO AND ROADS DISEASESIRRIGATION RIPENERSHILLING WEEDS RATS -MECHANIC -TYPE -MANAGEMENT -HERBICIDES -MANUAL -MECHANICAL -TYPES -TRAPS -POPULATION -WEIGHING -BRIX -MILLING TIME -NORMAL -COLD -RONDEO PREVIOUSSAMPLING(HARVEST)BURNING QUALITYCONTROL EXPORT CONSUMER MARKET LOCAL -LEAF SCALD RESEARCH -NITRGEN -RATOON STUNTING
  28. 28. 16 The variety CP72-2086 has been denominated a “super-variety”, because it has occupied more than 40 percent of the cultivated area for more than ten years and with more than 8 tons of sugar per hectare. Similar cases were registered in Brazil in the decade of 1980 with the variety NA5679; in Louisiana in the decade of 1990, with the variety LCP85-845; in Australia in the decade of 1990, with Q124, and currently, in Colombia with the variety CC85-92. From the detection of Orange Rust in Guatemala in 2007, the area of variety CP72-2086 has diminished, and the area of variety CP88-1165, has increased. Other varieties cultivated starting 2007 are: CP, Mex, PGM, BR, SP, NA and CG. In the period 1990/2010 the hybridization process began for the development of Guatemalan varieties CG, which for the harvest 2010/2011, occupied 9,000 hectares. Seventeen hundred varieties have been introduced, which mainly come from: Canal Point United States of America, Mexico, Brazil, Barbados, Australia, Mauricio, Cuba, Thailand, and Colombia. An importing quarantine was established in 1993, and two new diseases have been reported, the Leaf Scald Disease and the Orange Rust Disease. For the improvement of the nurseries, the hydrothermic treatment for Ratoon Stunting Disease is a usual technology. An analysis service by serologic methods was established in 1999; a molecular detection of diseases for imported varieties was implemented in 2010. While the seed multiplication, through micro-propagation, is made by two sugar mills. Agreements have been established for the exchange of varieties with BSES of Australia, Barbados, Canal Point Florida and ARS-USDA-HOUMA- LOUSIANA United States of America, CENICANA from Colombia, CINCAE from Ecuador, CIDCA from Mexico, Mitr Phol from Thailand, DIECA from Costa Rica, MSIRI from Mauritius, and CTC from Brazil.
  29. 29. 17 Figura 12. Percentage of commercial cultivated area by variety of sugarcane in Guatemala, from 1980 to 2011 Source: CENGICAÑA. 2010. Memoria. Presentación de resultados de investigación. Zafra 2009- 2010. Integrated Pest Management In figure 13, infestation levels of the main pests with economic impact, are observed. Except for some high percentages of rodent infestation and a year of Froghopper, the presence of plagues has been maintained under economic damage level, which shows sustainable management of the crop. The work performed by technicians responsible for pest management in each sugar mill, is supported by the Integrated Pest Management Program of CENGICANA, that jointly with the Integrated Pest Management Committee (CANAMIP), has developed integrated management plans for the Sugarcane Borer, Froghopper and rodents. The sugar mills have also received the support of some advisors from Guatemala, Colombia, Costa Rica and Mexico. At the same time, biological studies have been developed for soil plagues, termites and homopters. CP 72-2086 CP 88-1165 CP 57-603 PPQK B 37172 B 49119 B 4362 C 8751 BT 65-152 L 6840 Q 96 SP 70-1284 CP 73-1547 CP 72-1210 CP 72-1312 Mex68-P23 PGM 89-968 PR 87-2080 CP 88-1508 Mex69-290SP 79-2233 PGM 89-121 PR 61-632 PR 75-2002 CG 97-97 CG 96-135 Mex79-431 CG 98-10 NA56-42 Others 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Other
  30. 30. 18 0 2 4 6 8 00‐01 01‐02 02‐03 03‐04 04‐05 05‐06 06‐07 07‐08 08‐09 09‐10 0.71 1.03 0.85 1.14 1.5 1 1.21 1.82 1.1 0.66 2.59 2.63 2.68 2.15 3.04 2.14 1.93 2.4 1.6 0.92 6.65 6.41 5.09 4.07 5.02 3.66 3.26 6.1 1.72 3.46 % Infestation Field Rats Alto Medio BajoHigh Medium Low Figura 13. Evolution of different sugarcane pests 2000-2010 Source: CENGICAÑA 2011. Situación actual y proyección de la producción de azúcar Zafra 2010/2011. Presentación en Power Point a Junta Directiva de ASAZGUA. 22 de marzo 2011. Fertilization Since 1993 the studies “Semi-detailed Study of Soils of the Guatemalan Sugarcane Zone” and “Soil Management Groups” have been made- A systematic scientific-technologic research job was also developed, which made possible to determine strategies for the optimization of nitrogen fertilizer and economic recommendations for the use and management of phosphorus fertilizer. The fertilizers are applied, by soil management groups, according to the requirements, soil analysis, and potential performance. Recommendations for nitrogen and phosphorus have been specified, as observed in Figure 14. During this period techniques were developed for the efficient utilization of filter mud and vinasse, management of green fertilizers and differential response for promissory varieties. 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 00‐01 ´01‐02 `02‐03 '03‐04 ´04‐05 ´05‐06 ´06‐07 ´07‐08 08‐09 ´09‐10 % of i.i % Infestation Borer 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50 5.00 00‐01 01‐02 02‐03 03‐04 04‐05 05‐06 06‐07 07‐08 08‐09 09‐10 % of i.i % Infestation Froghopper
  31. 31. 19 Recommendation of nitrogen doses (kg N / ha) for sugarcane cultivation in soils derived from volcanic ash in Guatemala Category of Organic matter (%) Plant cane (kg N/ha) Ratoon 1/ Rel N:TC Minimum dose Maximum dose Kg N/ha Low (< 3.0) 80 1.14 100 150 Medium (3.0 – 5.0) 70 1.0 90 130 High (> 5.0) 60 0.9 80 120 1/ Rel N:TC= Relationship kg of N per ton of cane expected Phosphorus recommendations bases on P soil, cultivation season and soil type Category of P Plant cane Ratoon Andisols Other soils Andisols Other soils Low (< 10 ppm) 80 60 40 25 Medium (10-30 ppm) 60 40 0 0 High (>30 ppm) 0 0 0 0 Figura 14. Nitrogen and Phosphorus recommendations. Source: Adapted from Pérez, O.; Ufer, C.; Azañón, V. and Solares, E. 2010. Strategies for the optimal use of nitrogen fertilizers in the sugarcane crops in Guatemala. In: Proc. Int. Soc. Sugar Cane Technol. Veracruz, Mexico. Source: Adapted from Pérez, O.; Hernández, F. 2002. Comportamiento y manejo del fósforo en la fertilización de caña de azúcar en suelos de origen volcánico. En: Memoria de XIV Congreso de Técnicos Azucareros de Centro América ATACA. Guatemala. pp. 161-168. Irrigation The area under irrigation in the Guatemalan sugarcane zone has increased, as observed in Figure 15, otherwise, the compliance with the technical and economic recommendations for the application of irrigation has increased the efficiency in water utilization, as observed in Figure 16. Progress has been made also with the application of other technologies that increase production, such as: use of hydric balance, precut irrigation programming, water quality and capillary water contribution analysis, and management of sandy veins. The broadening of the areas with mechanized irrigation systems has been reported, such as fixed swivel and mobile swivel and frontal displacement, and a greater number of aspersion systems.
  32. 32. 20 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 140000 160000 2001/2002 2004/2005 2005/2006 2006/2007 2007/2008 2008/2009 2009/2010 6160 4794.52 5863.00 7397.00 9383.10 5276.00 6007.36 19938 19217.73 24342.00 39239.00 23727.30 28514.00 28979.08 47014 62558.75 65549.00 72534.00 95598.60 98707.00 111360.5673112 86571 95754 119170 128709 132497 146347.00 Area(ha) Harvest season Irrigatedareas (ha) ALTO MEDIO BAJO TOTALHIGH          MEDIUM         LOW           TOTAL     ‐TOTAL ‐ LOW ‐ MEDIUM ‐ HIGH Figure 15. Growth in irrigated area 2001-2010, low altitude stratum (1-100 masl), medium (100-300 masl) and high (over 300 masl) Source: CENGICAÑA 2011. Situación actual y proyección de la producción de azúcar Zafra 2010/2011. Presentación en Power Point a Junta Directiva de ASAZGUA. 22 de marzo 2011. Figure 16. Evolution of irrigation efficiency Source: CENGICAÑA 2011. “Situación actual y proyección de la producción de azúcar” Zafra 2010/2011. Presentación en Power Point a Junta Directiva de ASAZGUA. 22 de marzo 2011. 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 Has/ML Harvest season Irrigated hectares/megaliter of water Has/ML
  33. 33. 21 Ripeners The application of technology for the utilization of chemical ripening products to increase yields has been extended from 2,900 hectares in harvest season 1989/1990, to more than 140,000 in harvest season 2009/2010 as observed in Figure 17. Over time, factors affecting the response to ripeners such as: water quality, soil moisture, and potential yield varieties have been evaluated. Figure 17. Area applied with ripeners Source: CENGICAÑA 2011. Situación actual y proyección de la producción de azúcar Zafra 2010/2011. Presentación en Power Point a Junta Directiva de ASAZGUA. 22 de marzo 2011. Weeds The Manual for the Identification and Management of Main Sugarcane Weeds and the Herbicide Technical Catalogue used in the Guatemalan Sugarcane Agro-industry, were made, in order to generate information about weed control. Agrometereology The automatic meteorological network in the Guatemalan sugarcane zone, has been established, in order to obtain basic data available, with 16 stations that provide information about the main meteorological variables, which can be accessed through CENGICANA webpage 100 300 700 2,904 11,281 12,500 14,000 18,50020,000 22,500 24,033 39,705 59,600 73,861 88,121 92,963 97,806 98,944 100,081 108,757 113,778 118,799 127,740 141,160 75 25075 50075 75075 100075 125075 150075 86- 87 87- 88 88- 89 89- 90 90- 91 91- 92 92- 93 93- 94 94- 95 95- 96 96- 97 97- 98 98- 99 99- 00 00- 01 01- 02 02- 03 03- 04 04- 05 05- 06 06- 07 07- 08 08- 09 09- 10 Area(ha)appliedripeners Harvest season Area (ha) applied ripeners harvest season 1986-2009*
  34. 34. 22 Through agro-meteorological studies. The relation of diverse climatic variables with sugarcane production has been found. As an example, the case of August solar radiation that is highly related with the production of sugarcane, as observed in Figure 18. Figure 18. Relationship ENSO, August sunshine and tons of sugarcane of the Guatemalan Sugarcane Agroindustry Source: CENGICAÑA 2011. Situación actual y proyección de la producción de azúcar Zafra 2010/2011. Presentación en Power Point a Junta Directiva de ASAZGUA. 22 de marzo 2011. In 2009, Villatoro et al., published the study First Approach to the Agro- ecologic Zonification for the Sugarcane Cultivation in the Sugarcane Zone of the Guatemalan Southern Coast. The GPS technology and the Geographic information system have been mainly used for the application of agrochemicals in the cultivation of sugarcane, topographic applications, irrigations and transportation. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPACT According to the biggest impacts are:  Generation of 65,000 direct jobs and 350,000 indirect and direct jobs in 230,000 hectares that are equal to 2.1 percent of the national territory. Ño Ño Ña N N Ño Ño N Ño Ña N Ño Ña Ña Ña N Ño N Ño N Ño Ña N Ño Ña N 73 73 70 80 83 80 78 78 86 79 88 98 87 83 85 92 88 92 91 89 96 87 91 103 89 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 TCH ? % Sunshine N= NEUTRAL YEAR  Ño= NIÑO YEAR Ña= NIÑA YEAR
  35. 35. 23 For the 2009/2010 harvest season, sugar represented 10.25% of the GNP of the country total exports; 20.80% of the agricultural exports; and it generated US$493 million in foreign currency, which is the basis for the national economical exchange that includes food, contributing to food safety. Foreign currency earnings from sugar and molasses export ranked second, after coffee, and even in some years have achieved the first place (Chart 4).  The activities that promote human development area carried out through educative programs.  The social impact of the Sugarcane Agro-industry is shown by the regional development level, mainly in the department of Escuintla, which is the third department with better levels of development in Guatemala (better life conditions, lower levels of poverty and malnutrition indexes).  Eight sugar mills develop cogeneration for the production of the 23 percent of electrical energy in harvest season in the Interconnected National System, that represent 310 MW of power.  During harvest season 2009/2010, five enterprises associated to sugar mills produced 265 million liters of ethanol, which was exported to Europe and the United States. Chart 4. Foreing currency earnings for exports during 2003 to 2010, 000 in thousands ofUS$ Año 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Total export earnings 2,284,338 3,074,419 3,644,832 3,813,657 4,219,396 5,034,553 4,795,305 5,490,744 Main products 944,528 1,244,861 1,456,635 1,449,539 1,560,044 1,540,893 1,855,565 2,087,566 Sugar and Molasses 316;429 457,024 497,499 550,608 546,509 406,708 492,987 763,831 Bananas 228,051 277,481 289,119 266,020 302,383 322,919 494,291 351,565 Coffee 328,122 424,740 575,322 529,553 587,987 660,130 589,245 705,477 Cardamom 67,548 98,473 108,152 122,851 143,890 180,435 300,212 307,500 Central America 312,833 382,765 371,876 590,535 692,547 1,147,115 1,212,780 1,991,856 Other Products 1,036,975 1446,793 1,816,320 1,773,583 1,966,805 2,346,544 1,726,960 1,411,321 Source: Banco de Guatemala
  36. 36. 24 PERSPECTIVES Sugarcane is currently cultivated in more than 100 countries covering more than 20 million hectares in the world, where 1,300 million tons of sugarcane are produced. (D´Hont et al., 2008). In the past, it has been mainly used to produce sugar, providing almost two thirds of the world production. Even though the world economy will depend in the next decades on fossil energy, the biomass will partially substitute fossil energy for being a source of renewable energy. Due to its exceptional capacity to produce biomass, sugarcane will be an important source of it (Botha, 2009). Sugarcane will be the favorite raw material for the production of ethanol or the generation of electric energy and co-products, such as: bioplastics and sucrochemistry derivatives. (ISO, 2009). PRODUCTION LEVELS Moore 2005, describes the different levels of production associated to constraints factors and agronomic practices or technologies to protect or increase the yield of crops. In Figure 19, levels of production adapted to sugarcane in Guatemala, are shown. The present day yield is defined as the one reached under conditions with constraint factors such as: weeds, pests, diseases or nutrient deficit. With the appropriate fertilization and weed, pests and disease control sustainable yield can be reached. The obtainable yield is determined by environmental constraints, associated to factors such as water, radiation, temperature, or soil salinity. The potential yield is reached when the crop is in optimal conditions to provide inputs, such as: water and nutrients in absence of pests, and with the appropriate variables. The potential yield in a region can be estimated by the record yield reached. The theoretical yield is calculated through simulation models based on phenology and physiology of sugarcane and, it is possible to be reachred with the support of biotechnology and precision agriculture.
  37. 37. 25 The record yields of sugarcane, approximately reach a 65 percent of the theoretical yield (Moore, 1997) so there is a high potential to increase them. Figure 19. Production levels, constraints production factors and agronomic practices or technologies with the potential to protect or increase the tonnage (Adapted from Moore, P. 2005). Source: Melgar, M. 2010. Tendencias de la Investigación en Caña de Azúcar a Nivel Mundial. Sugar Journal (USA). November 2010. pp. 6-18 . RESEARCH TRENDS Melgar, 2010, presents a revision of some sugarcane research trends, in Chart 5 the technologies that will be used in the future of sugarcane, are listed. Charto 5. Technological trends in sugarcane Area Currently in development Medium term Genetic Breeding Conventional breeding Insterespecífics and intergeneric crosses Energy cane Biotecnology: Molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS), Transgenic sugarcane Management of limiting biotic (pests, diseases and weeds) Integrated Pests Management Molecular diagnosis of diseases Biocontrol Molecular biology Transgenic sugarcane Silencing genes AGRONOMIC  CONSTRAINTS Weeds Pests Diseases NutrientsN, P ENVIRONMENTAL  CONSTRAINTS Water Radiation Temperature Soil: Salinity,  Sodicity PHYSIOLOGICAL  CONSTRAINTS Phenology Physiology Architecture Cytology Present Obtainable Potential Theorist TCH 90 110 160 200 Weed control, Pests and Diseases, Fertilization Irrigation Soils Management Varieties,  Planting season Density Biotechnology,  Precision Agriculture
  38. 38. 26 Area Currently in development Medium term Management of weeds, Strategies for changes in the evolution of pests, diseases and weeds Molecular diagnosis of diseases Natural resources management (Eco- efficiency) Soil management Integrated water management Agrometeorological information system Cropping System Mechanization (planting, harvesting) New fertilizers Water harvesting Precision Agriculture (GPS, GIS, remote sensing) Information and communication technologies (Internet, cellular phones) Source: Melgar, M. 2010. Tendencias de la investigación en caña de azúcar a nivel mundial. Sugar Journal (USA). November 2010. pp. 6-18. Based on Melgar´s revision (2010), some trends for sugarcane and its derivatives that indicate research trends, are presented as follows: 1. As the energetic demand grows worldwide, sugarcane will play an important role as bio-fuel and as a source of energy. The leadership in research development for the optimization of production processes of ethanol and energy is being taken by Brazil, through universities and institutions localized mainly in the state of Sao Paulo and the Centro de Tecnologia Canaviera (CTC) (Center of Sugarcane technology). The use of all biomass produced by sugarcane is presented as one of the main research and development challenges, for which diverse countries are developing sugarcane energetic clones, derived from intraspecific and inter-generic cross-breedings. 2. Most of the research centers in the reviewed countries are making great investments in sugarcane biotechnology, so that in the midterm, sugarcane transgenic varieties will be used at a commercial level, especially, in those countries that already have transgenic varieties at experimental level (Brazil, Colombia, United States, South Africa, China, India and Australia). The main characters that have been transformed in sugarcane are: herbicide, pests and disease resistance, greater sucrose accumulation and production of polymers and pharmaceutical products.
  39. 39. 27 3. Derivative technologies from molecular biology and genetics engineering, will be used not only for the development of sugarcane varieties, but also as tools for integrated pests management, disease diagnosis, weed control and for methods associated to fertilization, such as: biologic fixation of nitrogen and soil microbiology. 4. The occurrence of droughts is a restriction factor mentioned by various countries, hence, the research in irrigation systems with efficient use of water will be indispensable, such as irrigation by dripping, technologies for the optimization of water utilization, water harvest and conservation, and management of water sources. 5. Precision agriculture for the optimal use of supplies in the search of eco- efficiency will require research in more precise diagnosis techniques, use of tools as: geographic information systems (GPS), remote sensors and the application of information technologies: cellular telephones and internet. Cenicana, Colombia has developed the model of specific agricultural model for sites. India, has promoted the use of information technologies for the transfer of technology due to this country has a large number of a small sugar growers.. 6. Competition for the use of land for other crops, forestry and urban development, make economic research necessary. 7. Due to climate change and environmental concern there will be a more focused legislation on the protection of the environment (water, soil, protected areas, biodiversity, agrochemical use, industrial security, traffic and burnings) so that, the focus of development must be based on sustainability. APPRECIATION/ACKNOLEGMENT To Licda. Priscila Lopez de Alvarado for her valuable contribution to the integration of this chapter and the diagramming of this book.
  40. 40. 28 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Botha, F.C. (2009). Energy Yield and Cost in a Sugarcane Biomass System. En: Proc. Aust. Soc. Sugar Cane Technol., Vol. 31:1–10. 2. CENGICAÑA. 2007. Eventos históricos y logros 1992-2007. Guatemala. 85 p 3. CENGICAÑA. 2010. Logros 2006-2010. Presentación en Power Point a Junta Directiva de CENGICAÑA. 03 de mayo 2010. 4. CENGICAÑA. 2011. Situación actual y proyección de la producción de azúcar Zafra 2010/2011. Presentación en Power Point a Junta Directiva de ASAZGUA. 22 de marzo 2011. 5. D’Hont, A., et al (2008). Sugarcane: A Major Source of Sweetness, Alcohol, and Bio-energy. Springer. 2008. Genomics of tropical crop plants. Springer. p. 483-513. 6. Enriquez, Juan. 2001. As the Future Catchs You. Crow Business New York. USA. 7. Hasrajani, N. 2004. La industria azucarera en Guatemala: Una Visión Global. ISJ Vol CVI N1267 jul p.385-389 8. Herrera, J.; Orive, J.; Boesche, A. 2001. Guatemala Sugar industry , INT. SUGAR JNL., VOL. 103, NO. 1235 p.484-485 9. International Sugar Journal. 1998. Guatemala continúa la trayectoria de éxitos. ISJ Vol100 No 1190 February. p46 10. ISO. International Sugar Organization. 2009. Sugar Year Book 2009. Documento en línea: %20sample.pdf 11. ISO. Organización Mundial del Azúcar. 2009. Potencial de mercado para bioproductos derivados de la remolacha y de la caña de azúcar. 12. McSweeney, J.F.; 2005. Guatemala From Zero to major exporter 1960- 2004. Proc ISSCT Vol25. pp.465-470
  41. 41. 29 13. Melgar, M. 2003. No debemos perder la siguiente ola: La revolución biotecnológica. ATAGUA (Gua) 3(4): 14:18 14. Melgar, M. 2010. Estrategias de la investigación tecnológica en la agroindustria azucarera de Guatemala. Presentación en Power Point, en simposio “Modelos de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico Agrícola” Experiencias Del Sector Privado. USAID-AGEXPORT. 15 de julio 2010. 15. Melgar, M. 2010. Tendencias de la investigación en caña de azúcar a nivel mundial. Sugar Journal (USA). November 2010. pp. 6-18. 16. Melgar, M. 2011. Estrategias de la investigación tecnológica en la agroindustria azucarera de Guatemala. Presentación en Power Point en el seminario-taller “Situación actual y perspectivas de la investigación agropecuaria, forestal e hidrobiológica en Guatemala”. 02 de junio 2011. 17. Melgar, M. 2011. Desarrollo Tecnológico de la Agroindustria Azucarera y su Impacto en la Costa Sur de Guatemala. Presentación en Power Point en foro "La ciencia y tecnología para el Desarrollo Rural Integral” XI Congreso de Ingenieros Agrónomos, Forestales y Ambientales de Guatemala. 15 de junio 2011. 18. Menéndez, M.; Estévez, M.; 2005 Reporte de inteligencia competitiva, DCE, Ministerio de Economía de El Salvador. Artículo electrónico. Http:// 20Inteligencia%20Competitiva%20_azucar.pdf 19. Meneses, A.; Melgar, M.; Cano, W. 2003. Desarrollo de la agroindustria azucarera en Guatemala. SJ October Vol.62, No5. pp.18-19 20. Moore, P. 2005. Integration of sucrose accumulation processes across hierarchical scales: towards developing an understanding of the gene-to- crop-continuum. Field Crops Research 92 119:135. 21. Moore, P.H.; Botha, F.C.; Furbank, R.T.; Grof, C.R.L. 1997 Potential for overcoming physio-biochemical limits to sucrose accumulation. in Intensive sugarcane production: Meeting the challenges beyond 2000, eds Keating B.A, Wilson J.R.(CAB International, Wallingford, UK), pp. 141﹣156. 22. Oliver, Richard W. 1999. The Coming Biotech Age. McGraw Hill. USA. 23. OROZCO, H.; Buc, R. 2010. Censo de Variedades de Caña de Azúcar en Guatemala a la Zafra 2010-2011. In: Memoria. Presentación de resultados de investigación. Zafra 2009-2010. Guatemala, CENGICAÑA. pp. 21-30
  42. 42. 30 24. Pérez, O.; Hernández, F. 2002. Comportamiento y manejo del fósforo en la fertilización de caña de azúcar en suelos de origen volcánico. In: Memoria de XIV Congreso de Técnicos Azucareros de Centro América ATACA. Guatemala. pp. 161-168 25. Pérez, O.; Ufer, C.; Azañón, V. and Solares, E. 2010. Strategies for the optimal use of nitrogen fertilizers in the sugarcane crops in Guatemala. In: Proc. Int. Soc. Sugar Cane Technol. Veracruz, Mexico. 26. TAY, K.; Huete, S. 2006. Guatemala sugar Annual 2006. Gain Report USDA Foreign Agricultural Service. Global Agriculture Information Network. USA. Documento en línea 27. Toffler, Alvin. 1982. La tercera ola. Plaza & Janés, S.A. Barcelona, España. 28. Tosi, F.; Andreé; Gaya, S. Mirna; Barbosa, C. Luis. 2010. The Brazilian sugarcane innovation system. Energy Policy. Vol. 39. pp. 156-166. 29. Villatoro, B.; Pérez, O.; Suárez, A.; Castro, O.; Rodríguez, M.; Ufer, C. 2009. Zonificación agroecológica para el cultivo de caña de azúcar en la zona cañera de la Costa Sur de Guatemala – Primera Aproximación -. In: Memoria. Presentación de resultados de investigación. Zafra 2008-2009. Guatemala, CENGICAÑA. pp. 226-239. 30. Wagner, Regina. 2007. Historia de la caña de azúcar en Guatemala. Galería Guatemala.
  43. 43. 31 Annex 1 Sugar production in Guatemala, 1959/60 - 2009/10 HARVEST SEASON AREA (ha) MILLED CANE (MT) ** SUGAR (MT) ** YIELD SUGAR (%) CANE (MT/ha) SUGAR (MT/ha) SUGAR MT/ha/monthWHITE RAW AMA* TOTAL 1959-60 12,534 670,130 65,163 9.70 54.00 5.24 0.46 1960-61 15,315 878,735 73,337 701 74,038 9.16 57.38 5.25 0.46 1961-62 21,859 1,217,472 106,240 7,539 113,779 9.35 55.70 5.21 0.45 1962-63 22,829 1,373,991 81,306 48,399 129,706 9.44 60.19 5.68 0.49 1963-64 24,576 1,461,832 80,364 55,775 136,138 9.31 59.48 5.54 0.48 1964-65 25,109 1,427,067 99,891 33,707 133,598 9.36 56.83 5.32 0.46 1965-66 29,715 1,844,223 112,118 48,822 160,940 8.73 62.06 5.42 0.47 1966-67 31,502 2,005,247 109,842 73,493 183,334 9.14 63.65 5.82 0.51 1967-68 25,306 1,605,109 102,915 51,588 154,503 9.63 63.43 6.11 0.53 1968-69 28,699 1,852,901 108,250 67,255 175,505 9.47 64.56 6.12 0.53 1969-70 31,446 1,946,474 115,252 64,660 179,911 9.24 61.90 5.72 0.50 1970-71 30,633 2,075,293 139,435 58,281 197,717 9.53 67.75 6.45 0.56 1971-72 35,780 2,543,070 114,887 116,246 231,133 9.09 71.08 6.46 0.56 1972-73 43,878 3,166,241 144,112 116,300 260,412 8.23 72.16 5.94 0.52 1973-74 45,384 3,584,436 171,391 142,854 314,244 8.77 78.98 6.92 0.60 1974-75 52,517 4,258,341 163,180 210,013 373,193 8.76 81.09 7.11 0.62 1975-76 75,594 6,220,755 193,071 343,811 536,882 8.63 82.29 7.10 0.62 1976-77 76,643 6,049,351 224,907 283,143 508,051 8.40 78.93 6.63 0.58 1977-78 60,629 4,785,963 236,869 159,362 396,231 8.28 78.94 6.54 0.57 1978-79 53,706 4,242,057 201,415 161,367 362,782 8.55 78.99 6.76 0.59 1979-80 66,000 4,624,547 184,866 212,183 397,049 8.59 70.07 6.02 0.52 1980-81 78,000 5,485,805 247,456 200,439 447,896 8.17 70.33 5.74 0.50 1981-82 76,964 6,410,563 294,027 244,728 538,756 8.40 83.29 7.00 0.61 1982-83 73,446 5,527,187 360,014 171,004 528,837 9.61 75.26 7.23 0.63 1983-84 76,146 5,536,266 290,281 225,236 515,517 9.31 72.71 6.77 0.59 1984-85 84,000 5,569,528 270,528 279,280 549,809 9.87 66.30 6.55 0.57 1985-86 81,000 5,696,386 382,403 207,089 589,492 10.35 70.33 7.28 0.63 1986-87 88,000 6,413,251 388,551 236,497 625,048 9.75 72.88 7.11 0.62 1987-88 97,000 7,113,195 385,107 268,767 653,874 9.20 73.33 6.75 0.59 1988-89 100,000 7,006,059 485,315 187,476 672,791 9.60 70.06 6.73 0.59 1989-90 110,000 8,834,892 559,232 279,595 838,827 9.50 80.32 7.63 0.66 1990-91 120,000 9,934,918 557,853 416,944 974,798 9.81 82.79 8.12 0.71 1991-92 130,000 10,402,975 548,843 526,093 1,074,936 10.33 80.02 8.27 0.72 1992-93 135,000 10,519,424 523,290 538,410 1,061,699 10.09 77.92 7.86 0.68 1993-94 140,000 10,847,973 622,816 489,693 1,112,508 10.26 77.49 7.95 0.69 1994-95 150,000 12,916,574 651,231 641,976 1,293,207 10.01 86.11 8.62 0.75 1995-96 165,000 13,033,507 615,096 680,021 1,295,117 9.94 78.99 7.85 0.68 1996-97 167,702 14,792,739 701,854 815,175 1,517,029 10.25 88.21 9.04 0.79 1997-98 181,218 17,666,169 630,452 1,161,233 1,791,686 10.15 97.49 9.89 0.86 1998-99 180,000 15,644,721 664,020 919,032 1,583,053 10.10 87.40 8.83 0.77 1999-00 180,000 14,338,961 642,060 1,013,108 1,655,168 11.55 82.80 9.56 0.83 2000-01 179,471 15,174,029 548,724 1,163,108 1,711,832 11.30 84.64 9.56 0.83 2001-02 185,000 16,900,237 718,007 1,193,410 1,911,418 11.30 92.00 10.40 0.90 2002-03 187,000 16,623,874 674,761 1,172,302 35,053 1,882,115 11.30 88.32 9.98 0.87 2003-04 194,000 17,780,557 908,481 1,052,834 44,424 2,005,740 11.30 91.89 10.38 0.90 2004-05 200,000 17,819,763 820,447 1,165,937 50,734 2,037,118 11.45 91.30 10.45 0.91 2005-06 197,000 16,883,877 719,196 1,066,348 61,247 1,910,683 11.25 89.30 10.04 0.87 2006-07 210,000 19,813,455 1,024,846 1,020,039 125,005 2,169,890 10.95 96.31 10.54 0.92 2007-08 230,000 19,697,218 1,158,401 815,590 115,405 2,089,396 10.60 87.26 9.25 0.80 2008-09 230,000 20,156,217 1,206,521 886,661 124,150 2,217,332 11.00 91.12 10.02 0.87 2009-10 230,000 22,033,540 1,371,868 880,291 43,547 2,329,795 10.04 102.40 10.28 0.89 Source: Data from milled cane, sugar and yield: ASAZGUA, CENGICANA For data on harvested area: from 1959-60 to 1972-73 (ASAZGUA 1974), from 1973-74 to 1978-79 (Bank of Guatemala), from 1979-80 to 1980-81 and from 1984 to 1986-87 (Sugar and Sweetener, 1996), from 1981-82 to 1983-84 (ASAZGUA, 1984), from 1987-88 to 1998-99 (LMC International, 1998) and CENGICAÑA, from 1999 to 2010 CENGICAÑA and ASAZGUA MT** = metric tons AMA*= Metric tons of sweetened material production
  44. 44. 32
  46. 46. 34 CHARACTERIZATION OF SUGARCANE GROWING AREAS Braulio Villatoro and Ovidio Pérez INTRODUCTION Sugar industry of Guatemala is composed of 13 sugar mills which are distributed geographically as follows:  Ten of the sugar mills are located on the Pacific coastal plain, Southern Coast of Guatemala, occupying almost the totality of sugarcane growing area (99 %). These sugar mills are: Tululá, Palo Gordo, Madre Tierra, La Unión, Pantaleon, Concepcion, Magdalena, Santa Ana, Trinidad, and El Pilar. The other sugar mills are located in relatively small areas, at different parts of the country. At the Villa Canales Municipality, Guatemala District, is located Santa Teresa Mill, and in the Santa Rosa District is La Sonrisa. The Chabil Utzaj Mill is being established at the Northern of the country, in Alta Verapaz District. GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION OF SUGARCANE GROWING AREAS The sugarcane growing areas in the Southern Coast of Guatemala, are located between 91°50’00” - 90°10’00” West Longitude and 14°33’00” - 13°50’00” North Latitude. Geopolitically, these areas are located in the Retalhuleu, Suchitepéquez, Escuintla and Santa Rosa Districts. At the moment, the sugarcane growing areas are expanding towards the Jutiapa District. A general geographical distribution is presented in Figure 1.  Braulio Villatoro is Agr. Eng., Specialist in Information Systems for Precision Agriculture; Ovidio Pérez is Agr. Eng., M.Sc. Agronomy Program Leader, CENGICAÑA.
  47. 47. 35 Figure 1. Geographical distribution of sugarcane growing areas in the Southern Coast of Guatemala The sugarcane growing areas are located in the river basin of the following rivers: Ocosito, Samalá, Sis-Icán, Nahualate, Madre Vieja, Coyolate, Acomé, Achiguate, María Linda, Paso Hondo, Los Esclavos, and La Paz; which have their origin in the highlands and flow into the Pacific Ocean. WEATHER CONDITION The sugarcane growing areas of Guatemala are divided in four strata, based on altitudinal position and expressed as meters above sea level (MASL). Altitudinal position of these areas are associated to climatic and soil conditions, due to physiographic characteristics corresponding to a natural landscape from the base of the mountains to the coastal plain, with slopes of 7 to 25 percent. The areas are undulated hills that easily descend to the plain level of the Pacific Coast (CENGICAÑA, 1996). The high stratum is located above 300 MASL; Medium stratum is from 100 to 300 MASL; Low stratum, from 40 to 100 MASL, and Littoral stratum corresponding from 0 to 40 MASL. Localization of these strata is presented in Figure 2. Climatic conditions are summarized in Table 1.
  48. 48. 36 Figure 2. Altitudinal Strata of sugarcane growing areas Table 1. Climatic characteristics of sugarcane growing areas Strata Altitude (masl) Rainfall (mm/year) Temp. (°C) Solar Radiation (MJ/m2 /day) Avg. Wind Speed (Km/h) Min. Average Max. High > 300 4100 20.2 26.2 32.2 17.7 5.2 Medium 100 - 300 3700 20.5 26.7 32.2 17.3 6.8 Low 40 – 100 1900 21.2 27.3 33.8 18.4 6.2 Littoral < 40 1500 21.0 27.5 33.4 18.0 8.7 Solar radiation and temperature are more varied getting close to the coast, but these conditions become more stable as ascending near to the mountains. On the other hand, rainfall diminishes as descending from the base of mountains to the coast. Rainfall is distributed in two seasons: rainy season (known locally as winter) that occurs between May and October with major rainfalls during June and September. Between July and August occurs a dry period of 15 days (canicula). The non rainy season (locally named summer) occurs between October and May, corresponding to the harvesting period.
  49. 49. 37 SOILS Parent material Parent material on which soils of sugarcane growing areas are developed are mainly formed by volcanic ash, lapilli, pumice and pyroclastics, which exist due to high volcanic activity occurred in different geological time, mainly the Quaternary Period (CENGICAÑA, 1996). Soil mineralogy and granulometrical characteristics vary from one place to the other, depending on geographical position, especially in relation to the distance from the volcanic crater. Allophane is the predominant material in soils at high and medium strata, meanwhile, in low stratum Haloisite and 2:1 clay are predominant, probably Esmectite in the lowlands along the Western and Eastern parts of the region. Soil classification at the sugarcane region In 1993 and 1994, a semi detailed soil survey was carried out (1:50,000) in the sugarcane growing zone. For this, the Soil taxonomy System was used, considering Family level (Soil survey Staff, 1992). At the region, the following were identified: 6 soil Orders, 9 Suborders, 13 Great Groups, 25 Subgroups and 37 Families. By its extension: Mollisols, Andisols, Entisols, Inceptisols, Alfisols and Vertisols, in order of importance, respectively. Order localization in the region is observed in Figure 3. The position of each Order is corresponding to the natural landscape, depending on slope and topography characteristics due to fluvio-volcanic material deposition and its distribution downward leaching from the mountains. Thus, it is observed that Andisols (recent formed soils) are located at high and medium strata in the region with greater rainfall than in the lowlands and littoral areas where Mollisols are predominant.
  50. 50. 38 Figure 3. Map showing Soil classification at sugarcane growing areas at Southern Guatemala. Source: SIAP-CENGICAÑA The main characteristics of six Orders of soil are described in the following paragraphs. Mollisols are presented in 40 percent of total area. They are located mainly in littoral zone, close to the coast, in flat and slightly flat topography. These soils present medium development, showing ABC y AC horizons. The superficial horizon has a variable depth, dark color and medium organic matter content. Base saturation is more than 50 percent through soil profile. Soil particles aggregation varies from moderate to strong structure. Mostly, we come across soil that is loamy and sandy- loamy with predominant sandy subsoil. Andisols are predominant in high and medium strata, occupying 26 percent of total area. They present little development, derived from volcanic ash, dark in color, high organic matter content and low bulk density. Consistency ranges from friable to loose. These soils have excellent physical properties with loamy and sandy loamy textures, but present some chemical limitations, such as high retention of phosphate and sulfur.
  51. 51. 39 Entisols are the less evolved soils in the region, with just AC horizons. They constitute 16 percent of the total area. They are found in valleys and alluvial fans in narrow strips, located in medium and lowlands that extend to the coast plains. They have little or no development and little or no evidence of genetic horizons development. Mostly, these soils present a good permeability due to gross sandy texture. Subsoil tends to be sandy so, during the summer, water deficit is frequently a limiting factor. Inceptisols are located on medium and lower strata, composing 11 percent of the total area. They are mainly developed on clay material mixed with volcanic ash and rock fragments. These soils have a medium development presenting saturation of exchange capacity (< 50 %). They have well developed structure and medium or fine texture on clay subsoil. Alfisols are suited on medium and low strata of the antique fans, presenting undulated and slightly undulated topography. An important characteristic is an argillic B horizon due to clay leaching down to the subsoil. Usually these soils present clay texture with massive and compact structure. Vertisols occupy a minimum extension of total area (0.5 %). Soils are well developed with ABC horizons. They present high clay content, such as Montmorillonite, and therefore tend to crack during dry season, and swell in rainy season. Soil Management Groups The grouping of soil management was based on information from Semi- detailed Study of Soils of the Sugarcane Growing Zone of Guatemala (CENGICAÑA, 1996), adapted from the original grouping. The soils were classified in accordance to the Manual de Conservación del Suelo y del Agua del Colegio de Post-graduados, de la Secretaría de Agricultura y Recursos Hídricos de México (Adapted for the sugarcane crop in Guatemala) and the corresponding taxonomic family (CENGICAÑA, 2002).
  52. 52. 40 Factors employed to define Soil Classes were divided into two groups: limiting factors and auxiliary factors. Limiting factors – by range of variation and importance- define specific classes, whereas auxiliary factors do not necessarily define a class, but describe special handling conditions. The most important limiting factors found were: climatic conditions, susceptibility to erosion, topography and soil; auxiliary factors were soil texture, permeability and soil reaction (pH), (CENGICAÑA, 2002). The analysis of both limiting and auxiliary factors results on 13 soil groups, corresponding to 4 soil classes (agrological classes). Each class was identified with its corresponding limiting factor(s) using conventional nomenclature, while auxiliary factor(s) are described in parentheses. The main characteristics of each of the Soil Management Groups are presented in Table 2, and their geographical localization is shown in Figure 4. Table 2. Main characteristics of the soil management groups of the sugarcane area of Guatemala (CENGICAÑA, 2002) Soil Group Soil Class /limiting factors Characteristics S01 I Deep Mollisols with high fertility. S02 II/E Deep and well drained Andisols, showing slight erosion S03 II/S1 (PR) Gross texture, moderately deep and permeable (Dry Mollisols). S04 II/S1 (PL) Moderately deep Inceptisols, with clay texture and low permeability S05 II/T1 E (PL) Clay Inceptisols, slightly slanted Susceptible to erosion, low permeability S06 II/T1 S1 E Moderately deep Andisols, slightly slanted to Undulated, susceptible to erosion. S07 II/T1 S1 E (TF) (PL) Clay soils that crack in the dry season, slightly slanted susceptible to erosion and very slowly permeable (Vertic integrated soils).
  53. 53. 41 Soil Group Soil Class /limiting factors Characteristics S08 III/S1 Superficial, limited by presence of hardpan (talpetate) (Superficial Andisols). S09 III/S4 (PR) Mollisols affected by moderate presence of salts, Gross texture, highly permeable. S10 III/S1 (TQ) (PR) Entisols with low water holding capacity, limited by layers of sand along profile S11 III/T2 E S5 (TF) (PL) Slightly slanted to undulated soils, susceptible to erosion, heavy texture with slow permeability and sodium presence (vertic Alfisols). S12 IV/T2 Inceptisols and Entisols forming part of hills with high slope, undulated to hilly topography, low fertility. S13 IV/T2 (RI) (PL) Low fertility soils, heavy texture, low permeability, very dry during the summer, flat to undulated topography (Southern Coastal Plains). Predominant soils in the sugarcane growing zone are dry Mollisols (S03 Group) that cover 37.1 percent of total area, followed by Entisols (19.9 percent), characterized by low water holding capacity due to layers of sandy soil along profile (S10 Group). Other important soils are deep and well drained Andisols (S02 Group), deep and highly fertile Mollisols (S01) and superficial Andisols (S08), occupying 13.4, 8.4 y 7.6 percent of the total area, respectively (Villatoro et al., 2010). AGROECOLOGICAL ZONIFICATION (AEZ) Agroecological zonification was obtained by interaction of two geographic layers corresponding to the Soil Management Group map and Iso-balance Group map, obtained through hydrologic balance from May to October by CENGICAÑA. Each zone was identified with an alphanumeric code consisting of five characters; the first three characters indicate soil group (For example: S01 = soil group 1) and the last two characters indicate the iso-balance group (For example: H2= Iso-balance Group 2). Also, zones were identified with a correlative number starting from 1. In this first approximation, 44 agro ecological zones were obtained. The base map used for the first approximation of agro-ecological zonification for sugarcane growing areas of South Coast of
  54. 54. 42 Guatemala was that of Soil Management Groups. The Agro ecological Zonification is shown in Figure 5 (Villatoro et al., 2010). Figure 4. Soil Management Groups Map in sugarcane growing areas at Southern Coast of Guatemala Figure 5. Agro ecological zonification of sugarcane growing areas in Southern Coast of Guatemala
  55. 55. 43 Agro-ecological zonification is currently used to analyze data from yields at each cropping area. It is useful to compare productivity among different areas, select areas to establish field experiments, evaluate varieties at a regional and semi commercial scale, and relate other management variables. REFERENCES 1. CENGICAÑA. 1996. Estudio semidetallado de suelos de la zona cañera del sur de Guatemala. Ingeniería del Campo Ltda. Compañía Consultora. Guatemala. 216 p. 2. CENGICAÑA. 1996b. Anexo I del libro: Estudio semidetallado de suelos de la zona cañera del sur de Guatemala. Ingeniería del Campo Ltda. Compañía Consultora. Guatemala. 137 p. 3. CENGICAÑA. 2002. Grupos de Manejo de Suelos de la Zona Cañera de Guatemala. In: Informe Anual 2001-2002. Guatemala, CENGICAÑA. pp. 37-39. 4. CENGICAÑA. 2009. Estratificación de la zona cañera de Guatemala. En: Informe Anual 2007-2008. Guatemala, CENGICAÑA. pp. 71-73. 5. Holdridge, L. R. 1967. Life Zone Ecology. Tropical Science Center. San José, Costa Rica. (Traducción del inglés por Humberto Jiménez Saa: Ecología Basada en Zonas de Vida, 1a. ed. San José, Costa Rica: IICA, 1982). 6. MAGA (Ministerio de Agricultura, Ganadería y Alimentación). 2006. Mapa de Cobertura de Uso del Suelo y Uso de la Tierra, escala 1:50,000. UPGGR (Unidad de Planificación Geográfica y Gestión de Riesgo). Guatemala. 7. Meneses, A.; Melgar, M.; Posadas, W. 2011. Boletín Estadístico año 12-2 del área de Campo. Guatemala, CENGICAÑA. 48 p. En prensa. 8. Orozco, H.; Soto, G. J.; Pérez, O.; Ventura, R.; Recinos, M. 1995. Estratificación preliminar de la zona de producción de caña de azúcar (Saccharum spp) en Guatemala con fines de investigación en variedades. Guatemala, CENGICAÑA. Documento Técnico No. 6. 24 p.
  56. 56. 44 9. Soil Survey Staff. 1992. Keys to soil taxonomy 5th Ed. Virginia. United States. Pocahontas Press. 10. Villatoro, B.; Pérez, O.; Suárez, A.; Castro, O.; Rodríguez, M.; Ufer, C. 2010. Zonificación Agroecológica para el Cultivo de Caña de Azúcar en la Zona Cañera de la Costa Sur de Guatemala –Primera Aproximación–. In: Memoria. Presentación de resultados de investigación. Zafra 2009-2010. Guatemala, CENGICAÑA. pp. 325-331.
  58. 58. 46 SUGARCANE BREEDING AND SELECTION Héctor Orozco, José Luis Quemé, Werner Ovalle and Fredy Rosales Longo INTRODUCTION The objectives of breeding and selection in plants are the modification of traits and at the same time, to take advantage of the natural genetic variation. The final aim is to obtain new varieties that suit human needs in specific circumstances. The focus of CENGICAÑA's sugarcane breeding and selection program is to obtain new high yielding varieties through breeding and selection in order to progressively, increase sugar yield in the sugarcane growing areas of Guatemala. The new varieties besides high sugar yield, must adapt to the different environments and soil conditions in the production area, with genetic resistance to the main diseases, as well as adequate agronomic characteristics for their proper management. The sugarcane breeding and selection program of CENGICAÑA was established with a general strategy that includes three main components: a) genetic variability, generation through germplasm acquisition and management, and by crossing selected parents, b) assessment and selection from crosses progenies and introduced varieties from abroad, and c) releasing of new varieties (Orozco, 2005). This chapter describes the above components. The general strategy involves four main breeding objectives: a) sugar yield increase per unit/area b) disease resistance, c) adaptability, and d) ratooning ability. These breeding objectives are lined up with the varietal prototype that growers are requiring for the Guatemalan sugarcane industry. At CENGICAÑA, genetic variability is generated through conventional breeding, establishing, mostly, bi-parental crosses using selected parents. New parents are incorporated each subsequent crossing campaign. The new parents are selected from elite varieties introduced from other sugarcane breeding programs in the world. The introduced varieties are obtained through specific agreements based on exchanging CG elite varieties and foreign varieties. The selection program is based on an outline that guides the development of specific varieties for specific altitudinal zones or varieties with specific early or late maturity pattern. The selection program is based on five stages of selection,  Héctor Orozco is Agr. Eng., M.Sc., Leader of CENGICAÑA’s Sugarcane Breeding and Selection Program; José Luis Quemé is Agr. Eng., Ph.D., Plant breeder; Werner Ovalle is Agr. Eng., M.Sc., Plant pathology and Fredy Rosales Longo is Agr. Eng, M.Sc., Plant breeder, CENGICAÑA.  
  59. 59. 47 which begin with an original population of near 180,000 stools in the stage I, and finishes up with three to five promising varieties in stage V. The stage V or semi-commercial field trial of CENGICAÑA´s program is the validation stage, and based on the evaluation results in this stage, varieties for commercial use are released. The variety releasing procedure consists in a Technical Report about the performance of the variety in the stage V in terms of sugar yield, disease resistance, agronomic characteristics and adaptability after three crops: plantcane, first and second ratoon. Due to the CENGICAÑA’s varieties program has released several varieties and because some of them are in commercial scale, a new activity, which is called New Varieties Development, has been initiated. In this project breeders and growers from the mills, design the mill variety composition, based mainly on the concept of specific adaptability of commercial varieties and the availability of the new ones. A second part of the project involves the discussion of information about the varieties performance in accordance to the planned variety composition. The information is shared and discussed for each mill; additionally this information is also shared among all mills in a Variety Forum every two years. GERMPLASM In sugarcane breeding, the germplasm collection constitutes the biological basis for the creation of new cultivars. The collections serve as sources of genetic variability, which exploitation and utilization allow obtaining new and more productive cultivars, with high sugar content, suitable agronomic characteristics, and resistance to main pests and diseases. Typically, collections include basic germplasm (Saccharum's species and related genera) and Saccharum spp. hybrids. The basic germplasm collection is in the sugarcane world collection, which is replicated in two locations of the world: one is in India and the other one is in the United States of America. The world collection is formed mostly of basic germplasm, such is the case of the world collection in Miami, Florida, with 1,394 accessions coming from the following species of sugarcane and related grasses: Saccharum officinarum (397), S. barberi (58), S. sinense (42), S. robustum (85), S. spontaneum (348), Saccharum spp. (229), commercial hybrids (193), Erianthus (23), Narenga (1) and Miscanthus (18) (Ming et al., 2006).
  60. 60. 48 Sugarcane breeding programs throughout the world have their own collections that have been used for the development of these cultivars. In general, the use of basic germplasm in these collections has been low. The total number of accessions or cultivars is reported as follows: Australia (4,220), Brazil (3,736); The United States of America (5,020); Barbados (2,567); Cuba (3,386); India (3,979); and Fiji (6,000) accessions (INICA, 2003). In addition to genetic material, the conformation of a germplasm collection involves quarantine measures on the introduced plants control, in order to avoid the introduction or dissemination of quarantine interest plagues. General concepts of sugarcane cytogenetics Sugarcane belongs to the Saccharum genus, which at the same time is member of the Andropogonae tribe, and this one is part of the Poaceae family. In this genus there are six species: S. spontaneum, S. robustum, S. officinarum, S. barbieri, S. sinense y S. edule. It is believed, though, that the last three species have an interspecific or intergeneric background (D’Hont et al., 1998). On the other hand, the molecular evidence is not enough to maintain the “species” status for S. barberi y S. sinense (Ming et al., 2006). The modern sugarcane (Saccharum spp. Hybrids) is a genetically complex crop. That is the reason why, its breeding in the traditional way (inbreeding and hybridization) is problematic. Modern sugarcane cultivars (Saccharum spp. Hybrids) have taken the place of traditional cultivars of S. officinarum and some clones of S. spontaneum (Grivet et al., 2004). Molecular Cytogenetics The sugarcane species are characterized by their small and numerous chromosomes (35 to more than 200) (Ming et al., 2006). Several studies about molecular cytogenetics (D’Hont et al., 1998; Grivet et al., 2004; Edmé et al., 2005; Babu, 2006; Piperidis et al., 2010) and about gene mapping (Da Silva et al., 1993; al Janabi et al., 1993; Grivet et al., 1994) have established the approximate size of the genome of S. spontaneum, which is between 3.05 and 5.31 pg (picograms, 1pg=987 Mbp). The genome size of S. officinarum is between 6.32 and 6.66 pg. Some commercial sugarcane cultivars (Saccharum spp hybrids) from Canal Point show genomes sizes which oscillate between 6.30 and 7.5 pg (Edmé et al., 2005). Modern sugarcane cultivars show from 70% to 80% of chromosomes derived from S. officinarum, whereas 10% to 20% comes from S. spontaneum; and a very few chromosomes are product of the specific genetic recombination of those two species (Ming et al, 2006; Le Cunff et al., 2008).
  61. 61. 49 What is the basic chromosomes number in Sugarcane? In plants, there are species that have more than one set of chromosomes on its haploid form (n). In polyploids “X” is used for designating the number of monoploid set of chromosomes. “X” is used to indicate the monoploid set of the haploid or gametic chromosome number (n). Therefore, the haploid number (n) and the chromosome monoploid (x) number of one basic diploid species are the same (Allard, 1980). For sugarcane, Sreenivasan et al., (1987) have revised the different proposals for the basic chromosome number for a set of them (1x), these proposals are summarized as follows: X=5, 6, 8, 10, 12. In S. officinarum, it has been determined that the total of chromosomes is 2n = 10x = 80. Clones with a greater number of chromosomes, are regarded atypical or hybrids (Sreenivasan et al., 1987). For S. officinarum with the main cytotypes 2n = 60-80, the most likely basic chromosomes number is x = 10 (D’Hont et al., 1998; Butterfield et al., 2001; Ming et al., 2006). S. spontaneum shows a wide range on its chromosomes number, 2n = 36 to 2n = 128, with five main cytotypes: 2n = 64, 80, 96, 112 and 128. Through the use of immunofluorescence, D’Hont et al., (1998), in 18s-25s rDNA and 5S rDNA genes, have determined their physical location in the chromosomes of the different cytotypes of S. spontaneum. With this information it was found that the total number of chromosomes is proportional to the number of sites of the rDNA physically mapped. From this study, consequently, it was derived that the basic number for a set of chromosomes for S. spontaneum is x = 8. The S. officinarum x S. spontaneum hybrids Modern sugarcane cultivars (Saccharum spp. hybrids) are derived from interspecific crossings between S. officinarum (2n=8x=80) a domesticated high sugar producing species, which is also called “noble cane” with S. spontaneum a wild relative (2n=5x=40 to n=16x=128) (Sreenivasan et al., 1987; Butterfield et al., 2001; Ming et al., 2006; Le Cunff et al., 2008). The interspecific hybrids, especially those that involve S. officinarum as female parent and S. spontaneum as the male parent, have a triploid (AAB) number of chromosomes, which are related to their parents, for example, a cross between S. officinarum (2n=10x=80) and S. spontaneum (2n=8x=112), results in hybrids containing 2n=136 chromosomes (40+40 from S. officinarum plus 56 from S. spontaneum; that is 2n+n) (Sreenivasan et al., 1987). These hybrids are characterized by its low sugar content, slim stalks, high fiber content, high
  62. 62. 50 ratooning ability and by their high resistance levels against biotic and abiotic stresses. To minimize the negative effects coming from S. spontaneum and to maximize the ability to retain the sucrose from S. officinarum, a series of backcrosses were made between the interspecific hybrids and the female parent, S. officinarum (Fig. 1). This process drives to the “nobilisation” of the original Saccharum spp. hybrids (Sreenivasan et al., 1987). This was a turning point in the sugarcane breeding. The result of the backcrosses was an offspring provided with 2n+2 gametes. The next generations coming from subsequent backcrosses only showed gametes reduction. The continuous backcrosses drove to the chromosome losses in the resultant offspring, in other words, the aneuploidy (Sreenivasan et al., 1987; Butterfield et al., 2001; D’Hont et al., 1998). That’s why, modern sugarcane cultivars are highly polyploids (~12x) and aneuploids with ~120 chromosomes (Le Cunff et al., 2008; Grivet et al., 2004). Figure 1. Pedigree of POJ 2878 and POJ 2725 (Purseglove 1972; Sreenivasan et al., 1987) The interspecific hybridization in the Saccharum genus was initiated by Dutch plant breeders in the Java Island, around 1885. As an outcome of this job, there was obtained the POJ-2725 and POJ-2878 cultivars. These two cultivars have significantly contributed as parents for many modern cultivars throughout the world in the latest 100 years, especially POJ-2878 cultivar. Similarly, the cultivar Co205 was obtained in the Coimbatore breeding program in India (Sreenivasan et al., 1987; Purseglove, 1972). S. officinarum  Bandjarmasim  Hitarm  2n=10x=80 X Loethers  natural  hybrid  2n=99 S. officinarum  Black Cheribon  2n=10x=80 X         first  nobilisation S. spontanem  Glagah  2n=8x=112 POJ 100  2n=89 x            second  nobilisation Kassoer  2n=136 POJ  100 X EK2 POJ 2364  2n=148 S. officinarum  EK 28 2n=119 X                      third nobilisation POJ 2725 y POJ 2878  2n=119
  63. 63. 51 Variety Introductions and quarantine CENGICAÑA's sugarcane breeding and selection program, as well as other sugarcane breeding programs throughout the world (MSIRI 2006 and BSES 2007) is emphasizing in the introduction of new varieties from breeding programs from other countries. These varieties are elite and they are obtained through special variety exchange agreements. The elite varieties in this context are those that performs better than the Standard varieties in each program The objectives of these introductions in CENGICAÑA´s sugarcane breeding and selection program were established since the beginning of the program (Orozco et al., 2004 y 2008) as follows: a) widening the genetic base by using the foreign varieties as parents in the crossing scheme and b) testing the introduced varieties in the selection program for potential commercial use. Since 1992 CENGICAÑA has introduced 1300 elite varieties from 12 breeding programs. The contribution of these introductions is significant, if it is considered that in the future, there will be more restrictions for germplasm exchange among the different sugarcane breeding programs. The introduced varieties are treated in a local quarantine system. The aim of CENGICAÑA´s quarantine is to reduce the risk of introducing sugarcane crop pathogens, which are not found in the country or new strains of pathogens already present in the country. The quarantine system consists of two stages: closed quarantine and open quarantine. The closed quarantine is located in Guatemala City, in a greenhouse made of aluminium and glass, which has anti-aphid-mesh-protected windows and internal split rooms for the isolation of the introduced plants according to their origin. The introduced seed stalks are cut in one eye setts and four of these are planted in 25Lt pots, containing a substrate composed of soil, sand and, organic matter. Irrigation and fertilization are applied to obtain normal plant development. The plants are evaluated every two months in order to detect infections for smut (Ustilago scitaminea H Syd & P. Syd), Leaf scald (Xanthomonas albilineans), Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV), and others (Ovalle, 1997). When symptoms of any disease are found in a pot, the pot is isolated and the plants are dried and
  64. 64. 52 burned. After a period of about eight to twelve months, the disease-free varieties are cut and moved into the open quarantine. The objective of the open quarantine is to allow the disease-free introduced varieties grow in field conditions in an area located 300 Km away from the commercial sugarcane fields. The field planting gives the chance to observe infections that were not detected in the closed quarantine. The open quarantine takes 12 months, with two crop cycles of six months each and with evaluations at the end of each cycle. Symptomatic varieties infected with the above mentioned diseases are eliminated from the field by pulling them out of the soil and letting them dry for burning. Disease-free varieties that successfully undergo quarantine period are prepared to be sent to Guatemala's sugarcane growing area in the southern pacific so they can be incorporated in the stage II of selection in the CENGICAÑA's breeding and selection program. Germplasm collection CENGICAÑA's Variety Program counts with a germplasm collection called the National Collection, which consists of 2,040 accessions or cultivars, most of them Saccharum spp. hybrids. The accessions or cultivars were generated by different breeding programs throughout the world, such as: United States (initials CP and L), Barbados (B), Puerto Rico (PR), Mexico (MEX), Brazil (RB and SP), Colombia (CC), Ecuador (ECU), Cuba (C, Ha My and others), India (Co), Australia (Q), Thailand (MPT), Mauritius (M), Guatemala (CG) and others. The collection was established according to: a) preserve, expand, and use the variability for breeding purposes, b) identify suitable cultivars for commercial exploitation, and c) hold a genetic seed- cane source to initiate the increase of any cultivar of specific interest. The National Collection is established at the CENGICAÑA’s Sugarcane Field Station Camantulul (300masl). The area is in a safe place, with suitable soil characteristics, which allows proper management in irrigation, fertilization, pest control, weed and others. The collection is renewed every 3 or 4 years, and the previous plantation is left at least for one year, while the new plantation is established successfully.