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  • 1. Chemistry: The Study of Change
     
  • 2. Chemistry: A Science for the 21st Century
    • Health and Medicine
    • 3. Sanitation systems
    • 4. Surgery with anesthesia
    • 5. Vaccines and antibiotics
    • 6. Energy and the Environment
    • 7. Fossil fuels
    • 8. Solar energy
    • 9. Nuclear energy
    1.1
  • 10. Chemistry: A Science for the 21st Century
    • Materials and Technology
    • 11. Polymers, ceramics, liquid crystals
    • 12. Room-temperature superconductors?
    • 13. Molecular computing?
    • 14. Food and Agriculture
    • 15. Genetically modified crops
    • 16. “Natural” pesticides
    • 17. Specialized fertilizers
    1.1
  • 18. testedmodified
    The scientific method is a systematic approach to research
    A hypothesis is a tentative explanation for a set of observations
    A law is a concise statement of a relationship between phenomena that is always the same under the same conditions.
    1.3
  • 19. Chemistry is the study of matter and the
    changes it undergoes
    Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass.
    A substance is a form of matter that has a definite composition and distinct properties.
    water, ammonia, sucrose, gold, oxygen
    1.4
  • 20. soft drink, milk, solder
    cement,
    iron filings in sand
    A mixture is a combination of two or more substances in which the substances retain their distinct identities.
    Homogenous mixture – composition of the mixture is the same throughout.
    Heterogeneous mixture – composition is not uniform throughout.
    1.4
  • 21. magnet
    distillation
    Physical means can be used to separate a mixture into its pure components.
    1.4
  • 22. Fractional Distillation Apparatus
    12.6
  • 23. An element is a substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemicalmeans.
    • 113 elements have been identified
    • 24. 82 elements occur naturally on Earth
    gold, aluminum, lead, oxygen, carbon
    • 31 elements have been created by scientists
    technetium, americium, seaborgium
    1.4
  • 25. Scandium
    Titanium
    Vanadium
    Chromium
    Manganese
    Iron
    Cobalt
    Nickel
    Copper
    22.2
  • 26.
  • 27. Water (H2O)
    Glucose (C6H12O6)
    Ammonia (NH3)
    A compound is a substance composed of atoms of two or more elements chemically united in fixed proportions.
    Compounds can only be separated into their pure components (elements) by chemical means.
    1.4
  • 28. 1.4
  • 29. gas
    solid
    liquid
    Three States of Matter
    1.5
  • 30. sugar dissolving
    in water
    ice melting
    hydrogen burns in air to form water
    Physical or Chemical?
    A physical change does not alter the composition or identity of a substance.
    A chemical change alters the composition or identity of the substance(s) involved.
    1.6
  • 31. Extensive and Intensive Properties
    An extensive property of a material depends upon how much matter is is being considered.
    An intensive property of a material does not depend upon how much matter is is being considered.
    1.6
  • 36. weight = c x mass
    A 1 kg bar will weigh
    on earth, c = 1.0
    1 kg on earth
    on moon, c ~ 0.1
    0.1 kg on moon
    Matter - anything that occupies space and has mass.
    mass – measure of the quantity of matter
    SI unit of mass is the kilogram (kg)
    1 kg = 1000 g = 1 x 103 g
    weight – force that gravity exerts on an object
    1.7
  • 37. Volume – SI derived unit for volume is cubic meter (m3)
    1 cm3 = (1 x 10-2 m)3 = 1 x 10-6 m3
    1 dm3 = (1 x 10-1 m)3 = 1 x 10-3 m3
    1 L = 1000 mL = 1000 cm3 = 1 dm3
    1 mL = 1 cm3
    1.7
  • 38. mass
    density =
    volume
    A piece of platinum metal with a density of 21.5 g/cm3 has a volume of 4.49 cm3. What is its mass?
    m
    m
    d =
    d =
    V
    V
    Density – SI derived unit for density is kg/m3
    1 g/cm3 = 1 g/mL = 1000 kg/m3
    = 21.5 g/cm3 x 4.49 cm3 = 96.5 g
    m = d x V
    1.7
  • 39. nitric acid
    HNO3
    carbonic acid
    H2CO3
    H2SO4
    sulfuric acid
    An acid can be defined as a substance that yields
    hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water.
    HCl
    • Pure substance, hydrogen chloride
    • 40. Dissolved in water (H+ Cl-), hydrochloric acid
    An oxoacid is an acid that contains hydrogen, oxygen, and another element.
    HNO3
    2.7
  • 41. 2HCl (aq) + Mg (s) MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g)
    2HCl (aq) + CaCO3 (s) CaCl2 (aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O (l)
    Acids
    Have a sour taste. Vinegar owes its taste to acetic acid. Citrus
    fruits contain citric acid.
    Cause color changes in plant dyes.
    React with certain metals to produce hydrogen gas.
    React with carbonates and bicarbonates to produce carbon
    dioxide gas
    Aqueous acid solutions conduct electricity.
    4.3
  • 42. pH – A Measure of Acidity
    Solution Is
    pH = 7
    neutral
    acidic
    pH < 7
    basic
    pH > 7
    15.3
  • 43. 2.7
  • 44. sodium hydroxide
    NaOH
    potassium hydroxide
    KOH
    Ba(OH)2
    barium hydroxide
    A base can be defined as a substance that yields
    hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water.
    2.7
  • 45. Bases
    Have a bitter taste.
    Feel slippery. Many soaps contain bases.
    Cause color changes in plant dyes.
    Aqueous base solutions conduct electricity.
    4.3
  • 46. Salts
    A salt, is defined as the product formed from the neutralization reaction of acids and bases. Salts are ionic compounds composed of cations (positively charged ions) and anions (negative ions) so that the product is electrically neutral (without a net charge)
  • 47. acid + base salt + water
    HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) NaCl (aq) + H2O
    H+ + Cl- + Na+ + OH- Na+ + Cl- + H2O
    H+ + OH- H2O
    Neutralization Reaction
    4.3
  • 48. 2.7
  • 49. Solution
    Solvent
    Solute
    A solution is a homogenous mixture of 2 or more substances
    The solute is(are) the substance(s) present in the smaller amount(s)
    The solvent is the substance present in the larger amount
    H2O
    Soft drink (l)
    Sugar, CO2
    Air (g)
    N2
    O2, Ar, CH4
    Pb
    Sn
    Soft Solder (s)
    4.1
  • 50. Heterogeneous Mixtures
    Colloidal dispersions
    • Colloids are mixtures in which the particles of one or more components have at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 10 nm, larger than those in a solution but smaller than those in a suspension.
    • 51. Colloids are the same as suspensions, except they don’t leave sediments
    • 52. In general, a colloid or colloidal dispersion is a substance with components of one or two phases.
    • 53. It creates the Tyndall effect when light passes through it. A colloid will not settle. Jelly, milk, blood, paint, fog, shampoo, and glue are examples of colloid dispersions.
  • Tyndall Effect
  • 54. Classification of Colloids
  • 55. Suspension 
    • is a heterogeneous fluid containing solid particles that are sufficiently large for sedimentation
    • 56. Usually they must be larger than 1
    Coarse Mixture
    • a coarse mixture is a mixture of substances which when you mix all substances you can see the ingredients or substances that are mixed it is not dissolved.
  • Atoms, Molecules and Ions
  • 57. Dalton’s Atomic Theory (1808)
    Elements are composed of extremely small particles called atoms. All atoms of a given element are identical, having the same size, mass and chemical properties. The atoms of one element are different from the atoms of all other elements.
    Compounds are composed of atoms of more than one element. The relative number of atoms of each element in a given compound is always the same.
    Chemical reactions only involve the rearrangement of atoms. Atoms are not created or destroyed in chemical reactions.
    2.1
  • 58. 2
    Law of Multiple Proportions
    2.1
  • 59. 16 X
    8 Y
    +
    8 X2Y
    Law of Conservation of Mass
    2.1
  • 60. A
    X
    Mass Number
    Element Symbol
    Z
    Atomic Number
    1
    2
    3
    H (D)
    H (T)
    H
    1
    1
    1
    235
    238
    U
    U
    92
    92
    Atomic number (Z) = number of protons in nucleus
    Mass number (A) = number of protons + number of neutrons
    = atomic number (Z) + number of neutrons
    Isotopes are atoms of the same element (X) with different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei
    2.3
  • 61. 2.3
  • 62. 14
    11
    C
    C
    6
    6
    How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in
    How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in
    ?
    ?
    Do You Understand Isotopes?
    6 protons, 8 (14 - 6) neutrons, 6 electrons
    6 protons, 5 (11 - 6) neutrons, 6 electrons
    2.3
  • 63. Isomers - are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formula. Isomers do not necessarily share similar properties unless they also have the same functional groups.
  • 64. Isobars
    Isobars are defined as the atoms or ions having same atomic mass but different atomic numbers. They are generally formed by subsequent beta emissions in which the atomic number changes by one unit but the atomic mass remains almost same as the mass of beta particles are negligible as compared to neutrons or protons.
    Example: 54Cr and 54Fe, 112Cd and 112Sn are isobars.
  • 65. Allotropes
    Different forms of the same element in the same physical state
    Examples: O3 and O2 ; Diamond and Graphite
  • 66.
  • 67. Noble Gas
    Halogen
    Alkali Earth Metal
    Period
    Group
    Alkali Metal
    2.4
  • 68. Chemistry In Action
    Natural abundance of elements in Earth’s crust
    Natural abundance of elements in human body
    2.4
  • 69. H2
    H2O
    NH3
    CH4
    A molecule is an aggregate of two or more atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical bonds
    A diatomic molecule contains only two atoms
    H2, N2, O2, Br2, HCl, CO
    A polyatomic molecule contains more than two atoms
    O3, H2O, NH3, CH4
    2.5
  • 70. 11 protons
    11 electrons
    11 protons
    10 electrons
    Na+
    Na
    17 protons
    18 electrons
    17 protons
    17 electrons
    Cl-
    Cl
    An ion is an atom, or group of atoms, that has a net positive or negative charge.
    cation – ion with a positive charge
    If a neutral atom loses one or more electrons
    it becomes a cation.
    anion – ion with a negative charge
    If a neutral atom gains one or more electrons
    it becomes an anion.
    2.5
  • 71. A monatomic ion contains only one atom
    Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, O2-, Al3+, N3-
    A polyatomic ion contains more than one atom
    OH-, CN-, NH4+, NO3-
    2.5
  • 72. How many protons and electrons are in ?
    How many protons and electrons are in ?
    27
    78
    3+
    2-
    Al
    Al
    13
    34
    Do You Understand Ions?
    13 protons, 10 (13 – 3) electrons
    34 protons, 36 (34 + 2) electrons
    2.5
  • 73. 2.5
  • 74. 2.6
  • 75. molecular
    empirical
    H2O
    A molecular formula shows the exact number of atoms of each element in the smallest unit of a substance
    An empirical formula shows the simplest
    whole-number ratio of the atoms in a substance
    H2O
    CH2O
    C6H12O6
    O3
    O
    N2H4
    NH2
    2.6
  • 76. ionic compounds consist of a combination of cations and an anions
    • the formula is always the same as the empirical formula
    • 77. the sum of the charges on the cation(s) and anion(s) in each formula unit must equal zero
    The ionic compound NaCl
    2.6
  • 78. 2 x +3 = +6
    3 x -2 = -6
    1 x +2 = +2
    2 x -1 = -2
    1 x +2 = +2
    1 x -2 = -2
    Formula of Ionic Compounds
    Al2O3
    Al3+
    O2-
    CaBr2
    Ca2+
    Br-
    Na2CO3
    Na+
    CO32-
    2.6
  • 79. 2.6
  • 80. 2.7
  • 81. Molecular compounds
    • nonmetals or nonmetals + metalloids
    • 82. common names
    H2O, NH3, CH4, C60
    • last element ends in ide
    2.7
  • 83. TOXIC!
    Laughing Gas
    Molecular Compounds
    HI
    hydrogen iodide
    NF3
    nitrogen trifluoride
    SO2
    sulfur dioxide
    N2Cl4
    dinitrogen tetrachloride
    NO2
    nitrogen dioxide
    N2O
    dinitrogen monoxide
    2.7
  • 84. 2.7