FamilyBackground Julius bornapprox. July 12, 100 BC Mother: Aurelia Father: Gaius Julius Caesar Noble family history, little wealth or power. The month “July” is named for Caesar.
The Early Years He was betrothed to a wealthy young woman, Cossutia, but the union was called off. At 18, he married Cornelia, the daughter of a member of the Popular faction instead (there were two factions: Popular and Optimate). They had a child named Julia (Caesar’s only legitimate child). Caesar went into hiding when the Optimate dictator, Sulla, ordered him to divorce his wife and he refused. Sulla died in 78 BC, and Caesar returned to Rome to begin a career as an orator and lawyer. Awarded the civic crown for saving the life of a citizen in battle.
Pirates of 75 BC Caesar was kidnapped on his way to Greece by Sicilian Pirates. When told that they meant to ask for 20 talents for his return, he insisted that he was worth 50 (a “talent” is 71 pounds of gold). He warned them that he would find and crucify them after his release. True to his word, he tracked down the pirates and crucified them.
Alliances elected to military tribune (elected by In 72 BC he was are formed the plebians to protect their interests). His wife Cornelia passed away in 69 BC and he married Pompeia, the granddaughter of Sulla. In 68/67 BC Caesar elected to the Senate. 65 elected curuleaedile (responsible for building maintenance and rule enforcement) 63 - elected pontifusmaximus (in Greek, literally means “greatest bridge maker”) 63 BC- he divorced Pompeia 60 BC- the first Triumvirate was formed: Caesar, Pompey the Great, and Marcus Crassus.
Alliances and Life Continued 59 BC - Caesar’s daughter (Julia) married Pompey the Great to strengthen their alliance. 59 BC - Caesar married Calpurnia (daughter of a leading member of Popular faction). 58 BC - Goes to Gaul 54 BC – Goes to Britain Julia died in 54 BC in childbirth.
Triumvirate Falls Crassus was killed by the Parthians in 54 BC In 52 BC Pompey movedthatOptimate faction because without Julia and Crassus there is nothing to links Pompey to Caesar. In 49 BC Caesar led armies across the Rubicon River--automatic civil war against Pompey. Caesar andloss of in a public split--neither without Pompey honor and dignity, could yield He then returned to Rome where he was elected consul (highest military and civil position).
Mid life Power 48 BC- Caesar travelled to Pharsalus to battle Pompey. Though outnumbered Caesar led his men to victory. All Roman citizens captured were pardoned, including Brutus. Pompey escaped to Egypt.
Military Expansion 48 BC- Caesar landed in Alexandria and was presented with Pompey’s head. Cleopatra persuades Caesar to help her gain rule in Egypt. June 23, 47 BC- Cleopatra established as a client ruler in alliance with Rome. Caesar left Rome. Cleopatra gave birth to a son, Caesarion, who she claimed belonged to Caesar. It was after defeating Pharnaces in Asia Minor that Caesar coined the phrase “veni, vidi, vici” which means “I came, I saw, I overcame”
Celebration and Revolution Back in Rome he settled the problems that were caused by Antony’s mismanagement July 25, 46 BC the unchallenged Caesar celebrated four splendid triumphs, over Gauls, Egyptians, Pharnaces, and Juba, and he sent for Cleopatra. In the position of dictator, Caesar would announce his decisions to the Senate and had them entered on the record without debate of vote. April, 45 BC the sons of Pompey led a revolt in Spain and Caesar had to go himself to gain victory.
Death March 15, 44BC Caesar attended the last meeting of the Senate. 60 conspirators, with concealed daggers in their togas, struck Caesar no less than 23 times as he stood at the base of Pompey’s statue. The conspirators underestimated Mark Antony, who had a whole legion behind him, as well as the keys to Caesar’s money boxes and his will.