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Transcript

  • 1. Making a convincing argument
  • 2. Persuasive Aim
    • is used to accomplish one of two basic purposes:
    • 1) To change the reader’s attitudes or beliefs.
    • 2) To get the reader to do something.
  • 3. Logical Persuasive Arguments
    • are built on an opinion supported by reasons and evidence .
  • 4. Reasons
    • Reasons tell why everyone should accept an opinion as true.
    • Ex: A ban on smoking in public places would reduce the risk of developing lung cancer via secondhand smoke inhalation.
  • 5. Evidence
    • Facts & statistics -are strong because it’s hard to argue with the facts.
    • Ex: Prolonged exposure to secondhand smoke increases one’s risk of developing cancer by 55%.
    • Expert testimony- statements made by experts in the field are convincing.
    • Ex: “The risk of developing lung cancer from secondhand smoke is significant,” said Dr. Jim Williams, a leading pulmonary oncologist at Johns Hopkins Medical Research Center.
  • 6. Logical fallacies are statements that sound logical and factual, but they’re not.
  • 7. Hasty Generalization
    • is coming to a conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence.
    • Ex: All of my friends whose parents smoke have asthma and are certain to develop lung cancer as a result.
  • 8. Name Calling
    • is attacking the person who holds the view rather than the view itself.
    • Ex: Mayor Smith is calling for restaurant and bars to ban smoking, but he recently was arrested for DWI and cannot be trusted.
  • 9. Either/or
    • is describing a situation as though there were only two choices when there may actually be several.
    • Ex: Either smoking be banned in public places, or citizens are doomed to die slow, painful deaths.
  • 10. False Cause and Effect
      • asserting that because Event B followed Event A, A caused B.
      • Ex: Since Arlington banned smoking in restaurants and bars, my favorite restaurant chain went out of business two weeks later.
  • 11. should reinforce logical arguments, not replace them.
  • 12. Loaded Words
    • are words that are heavy with emotional connotations.
    • Ex: Smokers endanger the lives of innocent children and sentence them to lives riddled with health problems.
  • 13. Glittering Generalities
    • A type of loaded words, they are so strongly positive that they “glitter” and make you feel good.
    • Ex: Smoking a Camel after a satisfying meal---it’s the American way.
  • 14. Bandwagon Appeal
    • the belief that something should be done because the majority of people do it (or wish to do it).
    • Ex: 20 of the 30 major U.S. cities have already enacted a ban on public smoking and Dallas shouldn’t be the last.
  • 15. Testimonials
    • when a celebrity endorses a product unrelated to their field of expertise.
    • Ex: Tony Hawk and Miley Cyrus support the ban on smoking in public places.
  • 16.
    • appealing mostly to logic (facts & expertise)
    • keeping emotional appeals to a minimum
    • avoiding all fallacies