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Argumentation
 

Argumentation

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    Argumentation Argumentation Presentation Transcript

    • Making a convincing argument
    • Persuasive Aim is used to accomplish one of two basic purposes:  1) To change the reader’s attitudes or beliefs.  2) To get the reader to do something.
    • Logical Persuasive Arguments are built on an opinion supported by reasons and evidence.
    • Reasons Reasons tell why everyone should accept an opinion as true. Ex: A ban on smoking in public places would reduce the risk of developing lung cancer via secondhand smoke inhalation.
    • Evidence - Facts & statistics -are strong because it’s hard to argue with the facts.  Ex: Prolonged exposure to secondhand smoke increases one’s risk of developing cancer by 55%. - Expert testimony- statements made by experts in the field are convincing.  Ex: “The risk of developing lung cancer from secondhand smoke is significant,” said Dr. Jim Williams, a leading pulmonary oncologist at Johns Hopkins Medical Research Center.
    • Logical fallacies are statements that sound logical and factual, but they’re not.
    • Hasty Generalization is coming to a conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence. Ex: All of my friends whose parents smoke have asthma and are certain to develop lung cancer as a result.
    • Name Calling is attacking the person who holds the view rather than the view itself. Ex: Mayor Smith is calling for restaurant and bars to ban smoking, but he recently was arrested for DWI and cannot be trusted.
    • Either/or is describing a situation as though there were only two choices when there may actually be several. Ex: Either smoking be banned in public places, or citizens are doomed to die slow, painful deaths.
    • False Cause and Effect asserting that because Event B followed Event A, A caused B. Ex: Since Arlington banned smoking in restaurants and bars, my favorite restaurant chain went out of business two weeks later.
    • should reinforce logical arguments, not replace them.
    • Loaded Words are words that are heavy with emotional connotations. Ex: Smokers endanger the lives of innocent children and sentence them to lives riddled with health problems.
    • Glittering Generalities  A type of loaded words, they are so strongly positive that they “glitter” and make you feel good. Ex: Smoking a Camel after a satisfying meal---it’s the American way.
    • Bandwagon Appeal the belief that something should be done because the majority of people do it (or wish to do it). Ex: 20 of the 30 major U.S. cities have already enacted a ban on public smoking and Dallas shouldn’t be the last.
    • Testimonials when a celebrity endorses a product unrelated to his or her field of expertise. Ex: Tony Hawk supports the ban on smoking in public places.
    • • appealing mostly to logic (facts & expertise) • keeping emotional appeals to a minimum • avoiding all fallacies