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Jerusalem

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Jerusalem Jerusalem Presentation Transcript

  • What were the Crusades? The Crusadeswerea seriesof religiouswarsduring theMiddleAges.Most crusadesinvolvedbattles betweenChristianandMuslimarmiesfor controlof the‘HolyLands’ – an area of landin the Middle East, centredaroundJerusalem, whichis important to bothreligions.
  • Jerusalemtoday:
  • Jerusalemis important to all three Abrahamicreligions: Christianity: it is the place where Christ was crucified and buried. It also has significance in a number of prophesies and in relation to the Second Coming of Jesus. Judaism:it was the capital of the ancient Jewish kingdom until 73CE, when the Romans conquered the city and expelled the Jewish population. The most sacred temple of Judaism was located on the Temple Mount Islam:it was the place where the prophet Mohammed was taken to heaven, leaving behind a footprint on a rock (now the Dome of the Rock).
  • The“PsalterMap” (circa.1250CE), showingJerusalem at the centreof the world. One ofthe earliest mapswhichdepicts Jerusalemas the centreofcivilisation.
  • A mapcreatedby Heinrich Büntingin 1581, againshowingJerusalemas the centreof theknownworld:
  • Sketchof Jerusalem,dated1487CE:
  •  In many ways the importance of Jerusalem came as a result of the Crusades, rather than being a direct cause of the Crusades themselves (maps depicting Jerusalem as the centre of the world only became popular well after the capture of the city during the First Crusade).  Jerusalem became very important to European Christians during the Middle Ages ~ it was seen as the centre of religion and civilisation, and a “land of milk and honey”.  The conflict over Jerusalem that began with the Crusades still has repercussions throughout the world today.
  • Routeof theFirstCrusade:
  • Medieval Europe priorto the First Crusade: Divided:Europe is divided into many different kingdoms, each ruled over by a different person, with little to unify them. Dangerous:This was a violent time, as these kingdoms were often at war with one another. Much of Europe was also quite lawless, with robbers and vagabonds attacking travellers. Religious:Many people were fearful of hell and believed devoutly in the Christian faith. However, the church lacked leadership, as three different Popes vied for power (one in France, on in the Holy Roman Empire (i.e. Germany) and one in Rome).
  • Medieval Europe priorto the First Crusade: Divided:Europe is divided into many different kingdoms, each ruled over by a different person, with little to unify them. Dangerous:This was a violent time, as these kingdoms were often at war with one another. Much of Europe was also quite lawless, with robbers and vagabonds attacking travellers. Religious:Many people were fearful of hell and believed devoutly in the Christian faith. However, the church lacked leadership, as three different Popes vied for power (one in France, on in the Holy Roman Empire (i.e. Germany) and one in Rome).
  • TheFirstCrusadebeganaftera speechbyPopeUrbanII (the Popelocatedin Rome– thehead of theRomanCatholicChurch) in 1095at a placecalled Clermont. Thiswas a call-to-arms,asking all Christians,regardlessof their country,tomarchtotheMiddle East,attacktheMuslim‘infidels’ andcaptureJerusalem.
  • PopeUrban’sspeechsucceeded.Wordspreadquickly,andsoonthousandsof people– frompoorpeasantstorichknightsandnobles- joinedtheFirstCrusade. TheCrusaderarmycomprisedof approximately35,000men - thelargestfighting forceEuropehadseensincethefallof theRomanEmpire.
  • TheFirstCrusade capturedseveral Muslimcitiesbeforelayingsiegeto Jerusalemin1099. ChristianforcescapturedJerusalem andtheMusliminhabitantswere massacred.
  • TheFirstCrusadesucceededin capturingJerusalem,and several ‘CrusaderKingdoms’were establishedin theMiddleEast. These events started centuries of religious wars in the Middle East and across Europe, known as the Crusades. There were, in total, nine ‘numbered’ Crusades launched against the Holy Lands, and countless other, smaller crusades that were launched against people in both the Middle East and around Europe itself. The successes of the Crusades were short lived. Jerusalem was recaptured by Muslims under the command of the general Saladin in 1187, and the crusades came to an end with the failure of the Ninth Crusade in 1272.