I am hoping that you walk away with an understanding of some of the barriers that need to be overcome in promoting technology integration in your schools. I plan to outline some strategies, based on research, of ways to integrate technology, and provide you with examples of what we’ve done at Grafton High School. Finally, I will share some benefits of some web 2.0 tools and give you a starting point for bringing some of the tools to your schools.
How many of you have heard the term Digital Native by Marc Prensky? What do you think he means by digital natives and digital immigrants? According to a 2006 survey by the Pew Internet & American Life Project, “today’s youth thrive on multimedia, multitasking, and social environments for every aspect of their lives except education” (Rosen, 2010, p. 3). Alan November noted that when students enter school, they often had to “power down.” When students were asked what would make their learning easier, students’ most common response was “…let me use my own devices and tools in the school day” (Project Tomorrow, 2009, p. 8). My two boys are definitely little digital natives. My three year old asks “can I play on the ipad?” and is able to go get the ipad, turn it on, and play his game without assistance from me. He grabs my laptop and puts it on his lap and says, “I’m checking my e-mail.” My 5 year old can navigate to his favorite games on PBS kids online and when I don’t have an answer about something, he says…why don’t you just go look it up on google?
This is an excellent video that I showed to our faculty at the beginning of the year, which spurred on a discussion and we also showed part of it to our school committee.
Can anyone describe to me what they think web 2.0 stands for? Why is it called 2.0? Has anyone heard of web 3.0? Web 2.0 is a trend in the use of web technology that aims to facilitate creativity, information sharing, and most notably, collaboration among users The main difference between web 1.0 and web 2.0 is that the communications are two way. When we started using the Internet, it was predominantly to go find and search for information. Now with web 2.0 tools, users are going to use the Internet for sharing information and collaboration. It is the expanding capacity of web 2.0 tools that our students use outside of school.
Let’s brainstorm at your tables what some of the barriers you face in the integration of technology in your schools. There are two main barriers to technology integration that we as leaders need to overcome: 1 st Order barriers and 2 nd Order Barriers (Yang & Huang, 2008) Full technology integration will not occur unless you can overcome both types of barriers (Hixon & Buckenmeyer, 2009). Scheduling: When classes are limited to one hour, then teaches have less time to incorporate technology (Becker, 2000). Access to Technology: Lack of infrastructure to support technology use. Not having access to computers in classes. (Inan & Lowther, 2010). Time: Lack of preparation time to prepare to use technology in lessons (Yang & Huang, 2007) Support: Lack of adequate technical support when things break down (Hew & Brush, 2007). Leads to lack of teacher confidence (Cuban, Kirkpatrick, & Peck, 2000). Leadership: Lack of active leadership and development of a vision is a significant barrier to integration.
Teacher Technology Skills: Computer proficiency by teachers is one of the most significant factors that affect integration (Inan & Lowther, 2010). Hard for teachers to stay up-to-date with technology because it is always changing (Zhao & Frank, 2003). Most technology use in classrooms are for low-level tasks, rather than high-level learning tasks (Ertmer, 2005). Some teachers do not integrate higher levels of technology use, because it means giving up some of their control (Hixon & Buckenmeyer, 2009). Teacher Beliefs and Attitudes Teacher beliefs and attitudes about technology play a significant role in the integration of technology (Becker, 2000; Ertmer, 2005). Many teachers do not understand how technology can be used within their own curricular areas (Franklin, Turner, Kariuki, & Duran, 2001). Fear that integrating technology will take away from the need to focus on mastering content standards (Becker, 2000).
Schedule: Longer class period or blocks will lead to higher integration (Becker, 2000) Access: Easy availability of technology will increase use (Zhao & Frank, 2003) Access to computers in the classroom increases use for higher level purposes (Tondeaur, Valcke, & van Braak, 2008) Distribute technology throughout classrooms, rather than relying on central locations (Becker, 2000). Time: Time must be provided for teachers to meet with mentors, as well as to be trained in the use of the technologies. Support: Mentor teachers with technical skills assist with ongoing and as-needed support (Franklin et al, 2001) Professional development at the center of technology integration goals (Tondeaur et al, 2008). Technology training must be related to their content area, as well as consistent with teacher needs (Hew & Brush, 2007; Hixon & Buckenmeyer, 2009). Leadership: School principals impact technology by creating a shared vision and promoting innovation (Anderson & Dexter, 2005; Ertmer & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, 2010); Tondeaur et al, 2008). Effective professional development for technology needs a strong commitment by the principal.
Teacher Technology Skills Teachers need a sense of control of technology (Robinson, 2005). Teachers need to feel levels of success to help build confidence (Ertmer & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, 2010; Robinson, 2005). Teachers need to see how technology can enhance their content areas and relate to student learning (Franklin, et al, 2001). Teacher Beliefs and Attitudes: More innovative thinkers and constructivist views by teachers (Hixon & Buckenmeyer, 2009; Tondeaur, Valcke, & van Braak, 2008). Teachers need to see the relevance of technology use to student learning (Robinson, 2005). Leaders need to encourage teachers to experiment and take risks with new technologies (Ertmer & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, 2010). Teachers need to observe the successful use and integration of technology by their colleagues (Ertmer, 2005). Teachers should be a part of the development of a shared school vision of technology integration (Robinson, 2005; yang & Huang, 2008).
All of the research shows that in order for successful implementation of technology by teachers, there needs to be strong technology leadership from the principal. The principal needs to develop a shared vision, as well as model use of technology. I’ll give you a story…..An administrative team of principals was being asked by the superintendent to consider using blogs as a means of communicating with parents. One of the principals asked the superintendent “Will you be doing a blog too?” The superintendent responded “Oh, no…not me!” Needless to say, none of the principals started implementing blogs. The modeling must come from the top leadership.
The greatest change that started us on the right track was the policy change, which allowed students to use electronic devices in the classroom with teacher permission for educational purposes. This change came from numerous conversations with teachers. Throughout the year, an introduction of 21 st century skills was provided to the faculty and our new website “ SchoolFusion ” allowed teachers to set up classroom webpages, post assignments and online discussions. We gave the teachers TIME to work on the websites and we clarified expectations for minimal use of the website.
In year two, we really honed in on 21 st century skills and technology integration. By allowing students the ability to use their electronic devices in the halls and the cafeteria, we created an environment where the use of electronic devices is part of the culture, and with that, it increased usage within classrooms. We increased access by WiFi throughout the building and also access to new tools, such as webcams, flipcams, ipod touches, and ipads. We provided ongoing training through collaboration workshops. I’ve listed the workshops by month on the right hand side. In August, I introduced some very basic types of tools for technology integration. My goal was to increase teacher confidence in use and to build their feelings of self-efficacy as the year went on. We made technology integration one of our school improvement goals, which helped with developing a shared vision. In all of our evaluations, we made sure to bring up the use of technology and brainstorm new ideas. Each week I sent out a Friday Focus blog, which was about various educational topics. One of the topics was
Our goals for the 2011-2012 school year are shifting towards providing more information about other 21 st century learning skills, so the focus is not entirely on technology. Although, we will continue to add in more technology trainings, but it will not be as intense as this year. In order to expand 21 st century learning for teachers, I created an online course in 21 st century skills and will be creating one on the use of web 2.0 tools. To model some of the social networking capabilities that are out there, we are creating a Facebook page for our school and also will start sending out tweets about events. We will have a book study of 21 st century tools as an option for teachers and we plan to look at curriculum to integrate 21 st century skills into our current guides. Finally, we will have a video that we show to the entire district that is about 21 st century learning in Grafton.
At the end of this presentation, I have some links to full lists of web 2.0 tools. This list includes many of the tools that we are currently using in our school that I recommend.
Now I’m going to try to show you some examples of web 2.0 tools that are easy to use and give you many examples of how it can be used.
Press F5 or use the tool bar to enter presentation mode in order to see the poll. http://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choice_polls/LTU2MjYxODc1OQ If you like, you can use this slide as a template for your own voting slides. You might use a slide like this if you feel your audience would benefit from the picture showing a text message on a phone. In an emergency during your presentation, if the poll isn't showing, navigate to this link in your web browser:
MSSAA web 2.0 presentation
Web 2.0 for Administrators: For beginners … from a beginner By Maureen Cohen Assistant Principal Grafton High School MSSAA 2011 Summer Conference [email_address] GHSAPrincipal
Goals <ul><li>To provide an overview on web 2.0, barriers to integration, and suggested strategies to overcome technology integration </li></ul><ul><li>To outline technology integration steps at Grafton High School </li></ul><ul><li>To share benefits of using Web 2.0 tools such as: Wordle, Podcasts, Blogs, Glogster, Voicethread, Slideshare, Prezi and Online Polling </li></ul><ul><li>To offer web 2.0 resources to bring back to your school </li></ul>
Who are our students? Digital Natives <ul><li>Tech Savvy </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-taskers </li></ul><ul><li>Instant Gratification </li></ul><ul><li>Less concerns with privacy issues </li></ul><ul><li>Online contributors </li></ul><ul><li>“ Let me use my own devices and tools in the school day” (Project Tomorrow, 2009, p. 8). </li></ul>
Have you been paying attention? <ul><li>Pay Attention </li></ul>
The Power of Web 2.0 <ul><li>Web 2.0 is a trend in the use of World Wide Web technology and web design that aims to facilitate creativity, information sharing, and most notably, collaboration among users. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Wikis, Blogs, Games, Podcasts, Videocasts, Social-networking sites </li></ul>
“ A school’s technology efforts are seriously threatened unless key administrators become active technology leaders in a school” (Anderson & Dexter, 2005, p. 74). The educational leader’s new mission “must now include designing and implementing new strategies to help teachers recognize, understand, and integrate technology with teaching and learning in the classroom” (Creighton, 2003, p. 2). The Principal as Technology Leader
Why Wordle? <ul><li>Easy entry point—builds confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Capture key points </li></ul><ul><li>Compare/contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm </li></ul><ul><li>Compare for bias </li></ul><ul><li>Poetry in words </li></ul><ul><li>Word art </li></ul><ul><li>Getting to know students </li></ul><ul><li>Speeches analyzed </li></ul><ul><li>MA Frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.wordle.net/ create </li></ul>Example: Grafton District Guiding Beliefs Below
Why Podcast/Videocast? <ul><li>Allows for learning at learner ’s own pace </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforces information previously presented </li></ul><ul><li>Anyplace, anytime learning possible </li></ul><ul><li>Student-created podcasts </li></ul><ul><li>Critical thinking + synthesis + digital media </li></ul><ul><li>Can create a global audience for students </li></ul><ul><li>Students studying even when not in class </li></ul><ul><li>Experiences through participation—listen and then respond </li></ul><ul><li>Flipped Classroom Model: </li></ul><ul><li>http ://youtu.be/ 2H4RkudFzlc </li></ul>
Examples of Blogs at GHS <ul><li>Physics: “Angry Birds…is it good physics?” </li></ul><ul><li>English: Sharing First Person Singulars </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Science: Is the Internet changing the way we think? </li></ul><ul><li>Math: Solving Equations—Why is process so important? </li></ul><ul><li>Law: Wikileaks, Act of Deviance? </li></ul><ul><li>French: L ’histoire de notre classe </li></ul><ul><li>Art: Analysis of Artwork </li></ul><ul><li>Phys Ed: Have you ever had an experience where exercise helped your mental state of mind? Explain. </li></ul><ul><li>English: Philosophy of Composition </li></ul>
Why Online Polling? <ul><li>Great way to engage students in answering questions and checking for understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>Done live in classroom or posted on web pages. </li></ul><ul><li>Students answer via text, web, or Twitter </li></ul><ul><li>Results can be put into a PowerPoint </li></ul>
<ul><li>http://www.slideshare.net/rbyrnetech/best-of-the-web-2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Slideshare allows the user to find presentations on just about any topic. </li></ul><ul><li>A great resource for administrators who want to quickly learn about a new web 2.0 topic </li></ul><ul><li>The slideshare presentation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best of the Web 2010 </li></ul></ul>Why Slideshare?
<ul><li>Glogster allows students of all ages to create an online poster or webpage that contains multimedia elements such as text, audio, video, images, graphs, drawings, and data. </li></ul><ul><li>Why use paper and markers when you can create posters online? </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes creativity </li></ul>Why Glogster? Examples: Freedom Riders-- http://aingri1.edu.glogster.com/freedomriders/ Frog Dissection-- http://tehescmarts.edu.glogster.com/frog-dissection/
<ul><li>You create your ideas on a whiteboard campus and you put your images and videos to create a presentation. You can zoom in and out. </li></ul><ul><li>Can see the whole story and the details. </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting and engaging for students. </li></ul><ul><li>Prezi Example: 15 Must Have Web Tools </li></ul>Why Prezi? <ul><li>http://prezi.com/suoreasmdbh9/15-must-have-web-tools-for-teachers / </li></ul>
References <ul><li>Anderson, R.E. and Dexter, S. (2005). Technology leadership: An empirical investigation of </li></ul><ul><li>prevalence and effect. Educational Administration Quarterly , 41:1, 48-82. DOI: 1 0.1177/0013161X04269517. </li></ul><ul><li>Becker, (2000). Findings from teaching, learning, and computing survey: Is Larry Cuban right?[paper]. School Technology Leadership Conference of the Council of Chief State School Officers. Washington, D.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Creighton, T. (2003). The principal as technology leader. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Cuban, L., Kirkpatrick, H. and Peck, C. High access and low use of technologies in high school classrooms: Explaining an apparent paradox. American Educational Research Journal, 35: 813. DOI: 10.3102/00028312038004813. </li></ul><ul><li>Ertmer, P.A. (2005). Teacher pedagogical beliefs: The final frontier in our quest for technology </li></ul><ul><li>integration. Educational Technology Research Development, 53:4, pp. 25-39. </li></ul><ul><li>Ertmer, P.A. and Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A.T. (2010). Teacher technology change: How knowledge, confidence, beliefs, and culture intersect. Journal of Research on Technology in Education , 42:3, 255-284. </li></ul><ul><li>Flanagan, L. & Jacobson, M. (2003). Technology leadership for the 21 st century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>principal. Journal of Educational Administration. 41:2. DOI: 10.1108/09578230310464648 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Franklin, T., Turner, S., Kariuki, M. and Duran, M. (2001). Mentoring overcomes barriers to </li></ul><ul><li>technology integration. Journal of Computing in Teacher Education , 18:1, pp. 26-31. </li></ul>
References Gillard, S. and Bailey, D. (2007). Technology in the classroom: Overcoming obstacles, reaping rewards. The International Journal of Learning, 14:1, 87-93. Hixon, E. and Buckenmeyer, J. (2009). Revisiting technology integration in schools: Implications for professional development. Computers in the Schools, 26: 130-146. DOI: 10.1080/07380560902906070. Inan, F.A. and Lowther, D.L. (2010). Factors affecting technology integration in K-12 classrooms: a path model. Educational Technology Research Development , 58: 137- 154. DOI: 10.1007/s11423-009-9132-y. Keengwe, J., Onchwari, G. and Wachira, P. (2008). Computer technology integration and student learning: Barriers and promise. Journal of Science Educational Technology , 17: 560-565. DOI: 10.1007/s10956-08-9123-5. Leng, N.W. (2008). Transformational leadership and the integration of information and communications technology into teaching. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher . 17:1, pp. 1-14. Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. T., Glazewski, K.D., Newby, T.J. and Ertmer, P.A. (2010). Teacher value beliefs associated with using technology: Addressing professional and student needs. Computers and Education , 55: 1321-1355. Robinson, L.K. (2005). Examining perceptual barriers to technology: A study on the diffusion of educational technology and education reform. International Journal of Information and Communication Technology Education, 1:3, pp. 47-59.
References Tan, S.C. (2010). Technology leadership: Lessons from empirical research. In C.H. Steel, M.J. Keppell, P. Gerbic & S. Housego (Eds.), Curriculum, technology & transformation for an unknown future. Proccedings ascilite Sydney 2010. pp. 891-895. Retrieved from: http://ascilite.org.au/conferences/sydney10/procs/Seng_chee_tan-concise.pdf Tondeaur, J., Valcke, M. and van Braak, J. (2008). A multidimensional approach to determinants of computer use in primary education: teacher and school characteristics. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning , 24: 494-506. DOI: 10.111/j.1365- 2729.2008.00285.x Yang, S.C. and Huang, Y.-F. (2007). A study of high school English teachers’ behavior, concerns and beliefs in integrating information technology into English instruction. Computers in Human Behavior, 24: 1085-1103. Zhao, Y. and Frank, K.A. (2003). Factors affecting technology uses in schools: An ecological perspective. American Educational Research Journal . 40:4, pp.807-840. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3699409.