Shifting Focus:
The Role of Appreciative Inquiry
in Organizational Development


            M. Melissa Genova
           ...
Overview

The main objective of this study is to measure
the effectiveness of Appreciative Inquiry (AI)
against the tradit...
What is Appreciative Inquiry
 Appreciative Inquiry (AI) is a form of organizational
  development (OD) that looks to make...
Appreciative Inquiry
“4D” Process
                          DISCOVERY

                      “What gives life?”
          ...
Appreciative Inquiry vs.
    The Traditional OD Process
                                 Appreciative Inquiry
    Traditio...
Appreciative Inquiry Builds
      Bridges Between Cultures
AI was used to build an alliance between:
    •Monsanto – A pub...
Appreciative Inquiry
       Improves Output of
       Cross-Functional Teams
Groups of cross functional teams were studied...
Does Appreciative Inquiry
        Live Up To It’s Reputation?
The research:
•A meta-case analysis was conducted to substan...
Measures

The studies discussed have used the following measures to study the
effects of Appreciative Inquiry:

•Questionn...
Method
Participants selected for this study are employees at Bits and Bytes, Inc., an
IT solutions company in New York:

•...
Employee Morale Survey
   EMPLOYEE MORALE SURVEY
   This is a survey for the employees of Bits and
   Bytes, Inc. This sur...
Analysis

•Each intervention was applied over a three month time span.
•At the end of the three month period, the Employee...
Bibliography
Bushe, G. R., & Kassam, A. F. (2005, June). When Is Appreciative Inquiry Transformational? A
    Meta-Case An...
In Conclusion

Thank you for your time and attention.

Questions?

marym618@gmail.com
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880 Research Project

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Shifting Focus: The Role of Appreciative Inquiry in Organizational Development

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  • Great presentation! I have always loved the subject of AI and one of my favorite books is Enlightened Leadership which focuses on AI in leadership. Thanks for a very informative presentation. -Tracy
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  • MMG Good Job
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  • 4 d PROCESS...very interesting; and nice slide packaging
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  • great job..love the voice as always!

    Jason Harman
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  • thanks for introducing me to AI...i've always wanted to know more about it....now i really want to know...thanks for peeking my curiosity further MMG....
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880 Research Project

  1. 1. Shifting Focus: The Role of Appreciative Inquiry in Organizational Development M. Melissa Genova 24 April 2009 Research Concepts and Skills Clemson University HRD 880
  2. 2. Overview The main objective of this study is to measure the effectiveness of Appreciative Inquiry (AI) against the traditional, deficit-based approach of organizational development (OD) with regard to increasing employee morale.
  3. 3. What is Appreciative Inquiry  Appreciative Inquiry (AI) is a form of organizational development (OD) that looks to make improvements by focusing on strengths rather than deficits within organizations.  AI is the opposite of the traditional “problem – solving” or “deficit – based” approaches.  AI was created in the late 1980’s by David Cooperrider and his colleagues at Case Western Reserve University (Davis, n.d., p.355).  The theory of Appreciative Inquiry is strongly influenced by concepts from the fields of Sociology, Psychology and Biology.
  4. 4. Appreciative Inquiry “4D” Process DISCOVERY “What gives life?” (the best of what is) Appreciating DREAM DESTINY “What might be?” AFFIRMATIVE “How to empower, learn, and (What is the world calling for?) adjust/improvise?” TOPIC CHOICE Envisioning Results Sustaining DESIGN “What should be – the ideal?” Co-constructing As adapted from Cooperrider and Whitney, 2005, p.30
  5. 5. Appreciative Inquiry vs. The Traditional OD Process Appreciative Inquiry Traditional OD Process  Search for solutions that  Define the problem Fix what’s broken already exist.   Amplify what is working  Focus on decay  Focus on life giving  What problems are you forces having?  What is working well around here? Hall & Hammond, 1998
  6. 6. Appreciative Inquiry Builds Bridges Between Cultures AI was used to build an alliance between: •Monsanto – A publicly held multinational corporation based in the US •MAHYCO – A research-based family business based in India The companies were paired up and two groups were formed: •AI Group – Used AI strategies to build teams •ME Group – Used more formal, traditional methods End results: •When surveyed, the AI group had a 72% rate of response vs. 50% from the ME group. •75% of AI participants had made progress on their project since the intervention took place. •92% of the AI group reported positive results from the intervention. •93% recommended further use of this method as an alliance building tool. Miller, Fitzgerald, Murrell, Preston & Ambekar, 2005
  7. 7. Appreciative Inquiry Improves Output of Cross-Functional Teams Groups of cross functional teams were studied on their ability to problem solve using the following approaches: •Creative Problem Solving (CPS) – Focus on problems •Appreciative Inquiry (AI) – Focus on what works Results: •As predicted, the groups utilizing AI had far higher scores than their counterparts who used CPS. •While both groups reported increases in the levels of group potency, the AI groups reported higher levels of post-task group potency as well as a greater degree of group potency from task initiation to task completion. •The second hypothesis, that the AI groups would report higher group identification than their counterparts, was also found to be true. Peelle III, 2006
  8. 8. Does Appreciative Inquiry Live Up To It’s Reputation? The research: •A meta-case analysis was conducted to substantiate the claim that AI is a catalyst of positive, transformational change within organizations. •Twenty cases in which AI was utilized were reviewed. Results: •Surprisingly only 35% of the cases yielded transformational outcomes. •What the study identified further was, in the cases that were transformational, had two specific themes in common: •A focus on changing how people think instead of what people do. •A focus on supporting self-organizing change processes that flow from new ideas. Bushe & Kassam, 2005
  9. 9. Measures The studies discussed have used the following measures to study the effects of Appreciative Inquiry: •Questionnaires administered before and after the study. •A series of tests: •GP0 – Group potency instrument (pre-test) •GI – The identification instrument (mid-point) •GP1 – Post-task group potency instrument (end). •Meta-case Analysis
  10. 10. Method Participants selected for this study are employees at Bits and Bytes, Inc., an IT solutions company in New York: •Out of six departments, two were selected for this study based on initial results obtained from a modified version of the Employee Morale Survey (Thapar, 2005). •To obtain a similar baseline, the two departments with the closest scores were chosen for the study. •The departments were labeled Department A and Department B. •Department A was chosen to receive the deficit-based intervention approach where their top three problems were the focus. •Department B was chosen to receive the AI intervention tool where problems were not mentioned. Instead, strengths were the focus.
  11. 11. Employee Morale Survey EMPLOYEE MORALE SURVEY This is a survey for the employees of Bits and Bytes, Inc. This survey is intended to give management guidance as to improve the workplace environment. This survey is to be answered anonymously. Ratings Please give your assessment of Bits and Bytes, Inc. on the following matters, by circling one of the numbers from one to ten (one being awful, and ten being great) 1. Compensation to employees: 1 2 3 4 5 2. Opportunity for advancement: 1 2 3 4 5 3. Benefits: 1 2 3 4 5 4. Friendly work environment: 1 2 3 4 5 5. Training: 12345 6. Supervision: 1 2 3 4 5 7. Culture: 12 3 4 5 8. Job security: 1 2 3 4 5 9. Flexibility in performing job: 1 2 3 4 5 10. Overall satisfaction with job: 1 2 3 4 5
  12. 12. Analysis •Each intervention was applied over a three month time span. •At the end of the three month period, the Employee Morale Survey was administered again to gauge improvement in morale amongst each of the departments. •The ending results were compared to the initial results and any changes in morale were recorded and analyzed.
  13. 13. Bibliography Bushe, G. R., & Kassam, A. F. (2005, June). When Is Appreciative Inquiry Transformational? A Meta-Case Analysis [Electronic version]. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 41 (2), pp. 161-181. Cooperrider, D. L., & Whitney, D. K. (2005). Appreciative inquiry: A positive revolution in change [Electronic version]. Retrieved February 16, 2009 from http://www.primarygoals.org/Readings/AppreciativeInquiry/PosRevInChange.pdf Davis, C. (n.d.). Appreciative Inquiry - A tool for transformational learning [Electronic version]. Faculty Guidebook, 355-358. Retrieved February 16, 2009 from https://www.madison.tec.wi.us/cetl/resources/archive/efgb/pdf/3/3_2_4.pdf Hall, J., & Hammond, S. (1998). What is appreciative inquiry [Electronic version]. Inner Edge Newsletter, 1-10. Retrieved February 16, 2009 from http://www.gaacademiccoach.com/Research/Appreciative%20Inquiry%20Hammond%20and%20 Hall.pdf Miller, M. G., Fitzgerald, S. P., Murrell, K. L., Preston, J., & Ambekar, R. (2005). Appreciative inquiry in building a transcultural strategic alliance. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 41(1), 91-110. doi:10.1177/0021886304273060 Peelle III, H. E. (2006). Appreciative inquiry and creative problem solving in cross-functional teams. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 42(4), 447-467. doi:10.1177/0021886306292479 Thapar, M. (2005, December 3). Use this Form to Evaluate Your Employees or Yourself. Retrieved April 7, 2009, from http://ezinearticles.com/?Use-this-Form-to-Evaluate-Your-Employees-or- Yourself&id=106688
  14. 14. In Conclusion Thank you for your time and attention. Questions? marym618@gmail.com

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