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The Search for Authenticity
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The Search for Authenticity

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In tourism, authenticity has been studied from many different angles, for example, to understand guests’ perceived authenticity at tourist city attractions and at staged cultural performances in …

In tourism, authenticity has been studied from many different angles, for example, to understand guests’ perceived authenticity at tourist city attractions and at staged cultural performances in indigenous villages, or how tourists discuss existential/experiential authenticity in cultural restaurant experiences. Most research on authenticity has been performed in cultural settings, and there is still much to understand about tourist experience perceptions in natural landscapes, like the rainforest in Costa Rica or the grasslands in Kansas, as well as the role of experience design and planning in these settings.

Published in: Services, Spiritual, Business

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  • The theory of progression of economic value explains how economies tend to follow a succession from the offering of commodities, toward the offering of goods, and services. In addition to these offerings, Pine & Gilmore proposed two more, the offering of experiences, and more recently, transformations.
  •  Commodities (extracted from the earth and then exchanged in the market)
  • Goods (tangible things manufactured from commodities)
  • Services (intangible activities delivered on behalf of individual customers).
  • Experiences (memorable events that engage individuals in an inherently personal way)
  • Transformations (effectual outcomes that guide customers to change some dimension of self)
  • People trying to make a difference buying organic or fair trade coffee.
  • The experiences happen inside us, and therefore they are unique for each individual. People however, want to perceive that what they are paying for is real, not a fake… There are five genres of perceived authenticity, each one connected to the five economic offerings, and related to different aspects of design of places, objects, and activities:
  • The experiences happen inside us, and therefore they are unique for each individual. People however, want to perceive that what they are paying for is real, not a fake… There are five genres of perceived authenticity, each one connected to the five economic offerings, and related to different aspects of design of places, objects, and activities:
  • The experiences happen inside us, and therefore they are unique for each individual. People however, want to perceive that what they are paying for is real, not a fake… There are five genres of perceived authenticity, each one connected to the five economic offerings, and related to different aspects of design of places, objects, and activities:
  • Commodities –Natural authenticity. People tend to perceive as authentic that which exists in its natural state in or of the earth, remaining untouched by human hands; not artificial or synthetic.
  • Goods –Original authenticity. People tend to perceive as authentic that which possesses originality in design, being the first of its kind, never before seen by human eyes; not a copy or imitation.
  • Services –Exceptional authenticity. People tend to perceive as authentic that which is done exceptionally well, executed individually and extraordinarily by someone demonstrating human care; not unfeelingly or disingenuously performed.
  • Experiences –Referential authenticity. People tend to perceive as authentic that which refers to some other context, drawing inspiration from human history, and tapping into our shared memories and longings; not derivative r trivial.
  • Transformations –Influential authenticity. People tend to perceive as authentic that which exerts influence on other entities, calling human beings to a higher goal and providing a foretaste of a better way; not inconsequential or without meaning.
  • Transcript

    • 1. The Search for Authenticity in Tourism and Conservation Ventures Marisol Mayorga mmayorga @ksu.edu May 2014
    • 2. In this globalized world, how does your organization
    • 3. The issue
    • 4. The issue • As globalization advances, cultures become homogenized.
    • 5. The issue • As globalization advances, cultures become homogenized. • Places look like any other, languages disappear, and multinationals are omnipresent.
    • 6. The issue • As globalization advances, cultures become homogenized. • Places look like any other, languages disappear, and multinationals are omnipresent. • Authentic experiences are harder to find for a tourism market that increasingly seeks them out.
    • 7. Overview • The Concept of Authenticity. Why now? • Customer Sensibilities • The Progression of Economic Value • The Offering and Perception of Authenticity • Landscape of Authenticity • Implications for Protected Areas • Interpretation and Authenticity
    • 8. The Concept of Authenticity. Why Now?
    • 9. Today, customers want experiences that: Feel real Fashion self-image Feel trustworthy
    • 10. • Pay for experiences that feel real, authentic. • Deal less with technology, more with “real people” Feel real
    • 11. • Create their own social reality through self- expression • Adjust the perception of authenticity to self- image of different generations Fashion self-image
    • 12. • Trust in transparency of social institutions (business, education, government, charity, church) Feel trustworthy
    • 13. Customer Sensibilities “What customers buy must reflect who they are and who they aspire to be in relation to how they perceive the world.”
    • 14. Customer Sensibilities Economic output Commodities (Agrarian) Goods (Industrial) Services Experience Business imperative Supply Control Improve Render Customer sensibility Availability Cost Quality Authenticity Added by Pine & GilmoreTraditional Model
    • 15. The Progression of Economic Value Extract commodities Make goods Deliver services Stage experiences Guide transformations (Render authenticity) (Improve quality) (Control costs) (Supply availability) Added by Pine & GilmoreTraditional Model
    • 16. Extract commodities
    • 17. Make goods
    • 18. Deliver services
    • 19. Coffee Shop, Café Britt Costa Rica
    • 20. Coffee Tour, Café Britt Costa Rica
    • 21. Stage experiences
    • 22. Guide Transformations
    • 23. The Offering and Perception of Authenticity
    • 24. Landscape of Authenticity • Organizations offer five genres of perceived authenticity
    • 25. Landscape of Authenticity • Organizations offer five genres of perceived authenticity • Each one is connected to the economic offerings (commodities, goods, services, experiences transformations)
    • 26. Landscape of Authenticity • Organizations offer five genres of perceived authenticity • Each one is connected to the economic offerings (commodities, goods, services, experiences transformations) • They are related to the design of places, objects, and activities
    • 27. Commodities – Natural authenticity Goods – Original authenticity Services – Exceptional authenticity Experiences – Referential authenticity Transformations – Influential authenticity Landscape of Authenticity
    • 28. Commodities –Natural authenticity. Natural state in or of the earth, remaining untouched by human hands; not artificial or synthetic. Kew Botanical Garden England
    • 29. Goods –Original authenticity. Originality in design, being the first of its kind, never before seen by human eyes; not a copy or imitation. Fort Jesus, Kenia
    • 30. Services –Exceptional authenticity. Done exceptionally well, by someone demonstrating human care; not unfeelingly or disingenuously performed. Fort Jesus, Kenia
    • 31. Experiences –Referential authenticity. Refers to other context, drawing inspiration from human history, tapping into our shared memories. Tower fo Belem, Portugal
    • 32. Transformations – Influential authenticity. Exerts influence, calling human beings to a higher goal; not inconsequential or without meaning. Cross made out of bullet case, Liberia
    • 33. Implications for Touristic and Conservation Venues
    • 34. • Appling all five genres is not always possible, not even desirable. • A (well executed) combination, however, might appeal to the desire for authenticity.
    • 35. Interpretation and Authenticity
    • 36. Commodities – Natural authenticity Goods – Original authenticity Services – Exceptional authenticity Experiences – Referential authenticity Transformations – Influential authenticity
    • 37. Commodities – Natural authenticity Goods – Original authenticity Services – Exceptional authenticity Experiences – Referential authenticity Transformations – Influential authenticity Connections, meanings Design, management
    • 38. Commodities – Natural authenticity Goods – Original authenticity Services – Exceptional authenticity Experiences – Referential authenticity Transformations – Influential authenticity •Authenticity on tourists’ overall experience plays an important role to influence the customers’ visitation choices
    • 39. Experiences – Referential authenticity Transformations – Influential authenticity •Interpretation could play a fundamental role revealing the authenticity of a place, for the audience to create connections and meanings.
    • 40. The Search for Authenticity in Tourism and Conservation Ventures Marisol Mayorga mmayorga @ksu.edu May 2014