Ergonomics (new trends)
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  • FACTS ABOUT ERGONOMICS

Ergonomics (new trends) Ergonomics (new trends) Presentation Transcript

  • NEW TRENDS IN INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING ERGONOMICS
  • What is Ergonomics? - a field of study dealing with the comfort and safety of the human body by adjusting tools, work stations and work processes to fit the worker.
  •  Human-Machine Relationship -how humans can be best integrated with machines to maximize safety & task performance.
  •  Human-Machine Relationship  Office Ergonomics -the branch of ergonomics dealing with the office environment. -the aim of ergonomics is to minimize the mismatch that occurs between the person and the job or match the capabilities of humans and the requirements of the job they are expected to perform.
  •  Human-Machine Relationship  Office Ergonomics  Alexander Technique - It guides you to do all your normal physical activities like sitting, standing, etc without tensing your body. It is NOT AN EXERCISE or a TREATMENT, but IT EDUCATES you to improve the quality of your life.
  •  Human-Machine Relationship  Office Ergonomics  Alexander Technique  Psychosocial & Organizational Aspect of Work -What is a psychosocial factor? Psychosocial factors are those factors that affect a person psychologically or socially. What are psychosocial risk factors? Psychosocial risk factors are things that may affect workers' psychological response to their work and workplace conditions (including working relationships with supervisors and colleagues).
  •  Human-Machine Relationship  Office Ergonomics  Alexander Technique  Psychosocial & Organizational Aspect of Work  Ergonomic Injuries -Ergonomic injuries, often called musculoskeletal disorders, affect the muscles, tendons, nerves, ligaments, joints and/or blood vessels. Ergonomic injuries are typically caused by or made worse with repeated exertions, awkward positions and / or forceful movements.
  • WORKPLACE INJURY PRECAUTIONS  Safety Training  Understanding Job Risks  Following Safety Precautions  Preventing Common Injuries
  • Ergonomic Factors to Consider      Does it suit your body size? Does it also suit all other users? Can you see and hear all you need to easily? Do you understand all information presented? Do errors occur frequently, and is it easy to recover from them?  Des the equipment or system cause discomfort if you use it for any length of time?
  •  Is it convenient to use?  Is it easy to learn to use?  Is it compatible with other systems in use?  Could any of these aspects be improved?  Do other users have similar reactions?
  • Identifying Problems  Causes of accident & near misses may be attributable to people being:  Unable to see important displays;  Unable to reach controls;  Unable to work in a comfortable position;  Overloaded with to much information at one time;  Inattentive because there is too little to do or too little variety  Medical and absences records may also reveal problems with particular jobs or tasks
  • Solutions  Risks can be reduced by changes to designs of workstations, tools and work organization  Simple solutions are often better  Involve and consult the workforce  Monitor remedial actions to ensure effectiveness
  • Office Ergonomics the branch of ergonomics dealing with the office environment. It aims to minimize the mismatch that occurs between the person and the job or match the capabilities of humans and the requirements of the job they are expected to perform.
  • Sources of injury in the office •Falls •Repetitive movements. • The way you sit or stand (posture). • Bending over, lifting heavy objects, or using pressure or force. • Working with vibrating tools.
  • Facts About Ergonomics • The average person working at a keyboard can perform 50,000 to 200,000 keystrokes a day • Overexertion, falls & RMI are the most common cause of workplace injury • An average of 125,000 back injuries due to improper lifting each year. • Muscles overuse results in tiny tears in the muscles and scarring; these contribute to inflammation and muscle stiffness
  • What causes Nerve Compression or Entrapment? 1) Repeated motions 2) Tight muscles 3) Inflammation of surrounding tissues 4) Misalignment of the nerve
  • What are 4 Common Nerve injuries? I. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome: brachial plexus compression d/t muscle tightness side of neck from poor head position or slumped posture. S/Sx: numbness/tingling in hand, made worse w/overhead activities or cradling phone b/w ear and shoulder
  • Nerve injuries II. Radial tunnel syndrome: compressed radial nerve @ outside of elbow d/t repetitive wrist & finger extension or turning of forearm S/Sx: Sensations from elbow to base of thumb w/ wrist weakness a common sx
  • Nerve injuries III. Cubital tunnel syndrome: ulnar nerve compression inside of the elbow d/t repetitive bending of elbow or resting your elbow on a hard surface S/Sx: numbness or tingling and inside of arm w/ tingling to ring & little fingers
  • Nerve injuries IV. Carpal tunnel syndrome: compression of median nerve at level of carpal tunnel Where is carpal tunnel? Formed @ wrist by ligament over the carpal bones in hand S/Sx: numbness or tingling in thumb, index, or middle finger & ½ of ring finger
  • Correct & Incorrect Techniques
  • Ergonomics Standards General Ergonomics Standards Office Ergonomics Standards
  • Ergonomics Standards Vehicle Ergonomics Standards Thermal Ergonomics Standards
  • Ergonomics Standards Machine Ergonomics Standards Human System Interaction Ergonomics Standards
  • New ISO standard on the basic principles of ergonomics ISO 26800:2011, Ergonomics – General approach, principles and concepts “A substantial number of ergonomics standards have been developed to cover specific issues and different application domains, but ISO 26800:2011, Ergonomics – General approach, principles and concepts, will serve as an umbrella reference for all such standards and provide an integrated framework bringing together the basic principles and concepts of ergonomics in one document, and thus providing a high-level view of the way in which ergonomics is applied“ Georg Krämer, Chair of ISO Technical Committee
  • ISO 26800:2011, Ergonomics – General approach, principles and concepts ISO 26800 describes these fundamental principles in order to improve safety, performance and usability (effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction), while safeguarding and enhancing human health and wellbeing, and improving accessibility, e.g. for elderly persons and persons with disabilities.
  • ISO 26800:2011, Ergonomics – General approach, principles and concepts The intended users of this standard are designers, ergonomists and project managers, as well as managers, workers, consumers and procurers. Its specific goal is to facilitate task performance, safeguard and enhance the safety, health and well-being of the worker, or the user/operator of products/equipment, by optimizing tasks, equipment, services, and the environment.
  • ISO 26800:2011, Ergonomics – General approach, principles and concepts This standard deals with • the ergonomic approach, • the principles of ergonomics • the concepts of ergonomics, and • the ergonomics-oriented design process and conformity.
  • ISO 26800:2011, Ergonomics – General approach, principles and concepts ISO 26800:2011, Ergonomics – General approach, principles and concepts, was developed by ISO technical committee ISO/TC 159, Ergonomics, subcommittee SC 1
  • Five Changing Trends in Managing Workplace Ergonomics REACTIVE APPROACH 1. Getting Proactive Fifteen to leading companies are Today, the 30 years ago: The focus of most ergonomics programs was on MSD injuries. PROACTIVE.
  • Five Changing Trends in Managing Workplace Ergonomics 2. Integrating the Process Companies with effective ergonomics These improvement processes may include : programs tend to manage ergonomics as a process that is aligned with, or integrated Lean Manufacturing into, Six Sigma existing improvement processes. Continuous Improvement Safety Management Systems.
  • Five Changing Trends in Managing Workplace Ergonomics 3. Engaging Others and Shifting Ownership Management Leadership Two critical elements of safety and own workstations •They can adjust their environmental management systems: Traditionally, issafety professionals have Ergonomics The responsibilityan Engineering Discipline.driven for designing •Becomeimprovements in an effort to reduce members of an ergonomics or ergonomic workstations, processes, tools, and workflow injuries, but all along they have been the wrong resides with engineers (process, industrial, and safety do this. and people toteam involved in assessing and facilities engineers, as well as space planners product designers). improving conditions Employee Involvement •Participate in a Kaizen event.
  • Five Changing Trends in Managing Workplace Ergonomics 4. Moving Upstream •Consistently addressing ergonomics in the design phase of new processes, equipment, layouts, and products is a common practice of advanced organizations. •The greatest value of good upstream design is the reduced cost of making changes. •Progressive leading companies have integrated design criteria in their phase gate review process and hold projects and people accountable for designing workplaces and tasks with low exposure to MSD risk factors.
  • Five Changing Trends in Managing Workplace Ergonomics 5. Addressing the Office •The biggest trend in managing office ergonomics has1980’s - later, Ergonomics were in-person been the movement toward EmployeeThirty years Office we are a bit smarter: driven isAssessments and Workplace •There less dependency on evaluations by EHS staff, chair fitting rooms,in-person lots Changes. solutions for each person, and of custom assessments. classroom training. •Workstations and chairs have a full range of •By providing online training and selfadjustability. assessments, employersisare enabling and •Office workstation design based on computer empowering individuals to take the first use. steps in adjustingfocuses workstations to fit •Employee training their on enabling people to them. and adjust their own workstations. assess
  • COMMON ISSUES AND BARRIERS: Two common challenges with managing ergonomics that companies at all levels of program maturity have experienced: Funding for training and engineering solutions. Failure to use or meet established ergonomic design standards.
  • 10 Principles of Ergonomics • • • • • • • • • • Work in Neutral Postures Reduce Excessive Force Keep Everything in Easy Reach Work at Proper Heights Reduce Excessive Motions Minimize Fatigue and Static Load Minimize Pressure Points Provide Clearance Move, Exercise, and Stretch Maintain a Comfortable Environment
  • Other Fields of Ergonomics
  • • • • • • Cognitive Ergonomics Participative Ergonomics Behavioral Based Ergonomics Ergonomics of Innovation The ergonomics of dishonesty
  • Cognitive Ergonomics studies cognition in work settings, in order to optimize human well-being and system performance  focuses on the fit between human cognitive abilities and limitations and the machine, task, environment
  • Cognitive ergonomics aim to enhance performance of cognitive tasks by: user-centered design of human-machine interaction and human-computer interaction design of information technology systems that support cognitive tasks development of training programs work redesign to manage cognitive workload and increase human reliability
  • Participative Ergonomics Resources and Support: • time for the program to develop • time to develop and implement solutions • financial resources to make meaningful changes in the workplace • management support for the individuals on the ergonomics team.
  • • Behavioral Based Ergonomics • Ergonomics of Innovation How to make it successful? • think about how to build upon a successful blend of existing ideas rather than develop the newest and most radical ones. • set a public, inspiring, and difficult goal, and then break it down into manageable chunks. • improve the chances that innovative ideas will spread by encouraging our organizations to identify possible ways to help others understand and apply new products, systems, and procedures. • The Ergonomics of Dishonesty
  • Participatory Ergonomics A Path to Sustainable Ergonomics
  • Participatory Ergonomics? Two extremes to foster ergonomics:  Top-Down “Push”  Bottom-Up “Pull”
  • Top-Down “Push”
  • Bottom-Up “Pull”
  • In practice, it’s push-and-pull that leads to success and sustainability
  • The role of the Ergonomist:  Leadership & participation  Gaining respect & approval from leadership  Gaining respect & approval from associates & stakeholders  Providing ergonomics expertise  Developing repeatable, sustainable processes  Pushing & pulling as needed
  • Examples of Participatory Ergonomics:
  • Breakthroughs in Ergonomics Engineering
  • RAMSIS • Special functions are the realistic replay of international body data, as well as efficient analysis for visibility, comfort and ergonomics formulations. With RAMSIS, package and design studies can be extensively dealt with throughout the construction phase of the vehicle. JACK • Vis Jack is fundamentally a static human factors analysis tool. DELMIA Human • leading Digital Human Modeling application, lifelike human manikin model with the capability of evaluating Ergonomics and Human Factors at all levels of Product Lifecycle Management (PLM): Virtual Design, Manufacturing & Maintainability Use of CAD Tools
  • RAMSIS
  • JACK
  • DELMIA HUMAN
  • Common Features with Computer-Aided Ergonomic Modeling Apps:
  • Iteration of the Analysis with Different Models
  • Innovations in Technology
  • The Leap Dimensions 3 by 1 by 0.3 inches Range 8 cubic feet Price $70 Availability February 2013
  • • Brookstone Virtual Keyboard • • • • turns any flat surface into a touchscreen QWERTY keypad. 1.5-inch Bluetooth accessory low-power laser projector displays the keyboard internal infrared-filtered camera sensor monitors the typist's fingers. Virtual Keyboard $100
  • Ergonomics and Human Factors New Trends in Sports Product Design
  •  a thermoset silicone rubber which is great for forming grips, handles, mounts and seals, and can be shaped by hand with great effect. Sugru
  • It bonds very well to most materials (including itself)  The material can be finished to a high standard if care is taken  It has good thermal and strength properties  The material has three main benefits over other comparable products:
  • For ergonomists, sugru has the potential to form a new part of the methods and techniques used to inform design decisions, especially for co-design purposes. Thus, providing it is used appropriately, sugru has the potential to greatly improve the user experience of many products.
  •  developed for the British cycling team. Loughborough University, Adidas and Team GB worked on the development of heated trousers… Battery Powered ‘Hot Pants’
  •  It’ll slow the decline in muscle temperature between warm-up and the start of an event which, as a result, increased cyclist event performance i.e. sprint power.
  •  Lightweight (1lb 2oz), moulded, and with high density foam, developed by Morrant International that only include two straps on the lower leg. Morrant Cricket Pads
  •  It frees up the knee joint for running and lunging movements, and reduces the weight of the personal protective equipment being worn/carried by the batsman whilst still offering the same level of protection.
  • New Ergonomically Engineered AntiFatigue Mat
  • heavy duty rubber anti-fatigue modular matting system  The unique composition of anti-fatigue matting is an ergonomic pattern and a cushioning underlay which stimulates continuous micro-movements of the feet minimizing blood pooling in the legs. 
  • The Skywalker HD™ has an ergonomic bubble that stimulates blood flow and prevents fatigue in standing workers.  The mat surface is augmented with a grit pattern for additional anti-slip properties and combined with bevelled safety edges, the Skywalker HD™ also contributes to preventing slips, trips and falls in the workplace. 
  •  A 13 mm thick worker platform with an ergonomic bubble pattern for maximum anti-fatigue comfort in dry industrial environments.
  • Resistant to most industrial oils. The unique design and craftsmanship make the mat easy to handle and easy to install. Heavy duty rubber compound for industrial strength.
  • AntiFatigue Anti-slip Heavy foot Traffic Insulation Modular Protection