Body Image and Beauty Standards Arts and Entertainment Coverage
Key Term and Discussion How do you think mass media affects body image? Body Image A subjective picture of one ’s own physical appearance established by both self-observation and by noting the reaction of others
Media Exposure <ul><li>American teenagers consume10 hours and 45 minutes of media a day. </li></ul><ul><li>In terms of mediums of arts and entertainment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>31 hours a week watching TV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 hours a week reading magazines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 hours a week online </li></ul></ul>
How would you change this photograph to attract your audience? SCENARIO: You are the arts director of a popular entertainment magazine. You need a cover photo that will attract readers to your magazine over others.
Changes: Before and After Photoshop <ul><li>Bigger Bust </li></ul><ul><li>Tanner/ More Glowing Skin </li></ul><ul><li>Smoothed-out stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Underarm lines removed </li></ul><ul><li>Flab of skin on opposite shoulder removed </li></ul><ul><li>Removed Sock </li></ul><ul><li>More relaxed hands </li></ul>
“ This is all about capitalism. The exploitation of women’s bodies sells products, magazines, et cetera.” Lindy Devoken Former Executive Vice President of NBC Entertainment
A Vicious Cycle Representatives of entertainment media, such as Lindy Devoken, understand their impact on the media’s exploitation of women. However, in order to make a profit, they are often forced to continue this cycle.
Impact on Men <ul><li>It is common in society to focus on entertainment media’s impact on women, and all of the body image issues created for the female audience. What about men’s body image in media? In a documentary on cosmetic alteration called Beyond Plastic Surgery, it was made clear that “men are equally obsessed with self-observation and body perfection” (Webber 291). </li></ul><ul><li>Media plays a significant role in this self-image. “Conceptually, the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries are awash with the power of images and consumerism, so that the flooding of visual images through television, advertising, the internet and other forms of popular culture means that…men…experience greater awareness of body ideals and greater pressure to work toward, even if not to achieve fully, perfect bodies” (292). </li></ul><ul><li>Masculine Ideals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong, muscular bodies – biceps, shoulders, arms, chest, back, abs, calves) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ According to the documentary, this means that men are increasingly seeking silicone implants to simulate muscular contours and hardness (these include calf implants and abdominal silicone six packs)” (Webber 292). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical attractiveness – face and facial features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical conditioning – stamina, weight, energy level </li></ul></ul>
Key Term and Discussion What is the purpose of using Photoshop to edit an image? Why does mass media do this? Photoshop To alter (as a digital image) with computer software
Controversy: Photoshop <ul><li>On the cover of GQ in 2003: </li></ul><ul><li>Kate Winslet: </li></ul><ul><li>"The retouching is excessive. I do not look like that and more importantly I don't desire to look like that.” </li></ul><ul><li>"I actually have a Polaroid that the photographer gave me on the day of the shoot… I can tell you they've reduced the size of my legs by about a third. For my money it looks pretty good the way it was taken." </li></ul><ul><li>Magazine Editor, Dylan Jones: </li></ul><ul><li>"These pictures are not a million miles away from what she really looks like.” </li></ul><ul><li>"Kate is currently thinner than I have ever seen her, petite and sexy." </li></ul>
“ Imperfections” in Entertainment Media <ul><li>The media avoids natural beauty because focusing on this would not allow them to make as much money. In order to collect a profit, entertainment media finds ways to make people insecure. </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Weight </li></ul><ul><li>Height </li></ul><ul><li>Skin Color/ Type </li></ul><ul><li>Style/ Fashion </li></ul><ul><li>Natural body features: teeth, nose, eyes, mouth, chin, hair, etc. </li></ul>
Key Term and Effects From The Journal of Advertising: “… the idealized images conveyed by the media vehicles may engender a sense of displeasure in consumers with their current physical appearance… Advertisements then fill the emotional void by generating their own set of idealized images that, when read in context of the broader media universe, implicitly promise that the promoted product can move the consumer toward the ideal state. Individual consumers are subtly enticed to engage in an ongoing cycle of consumption in quest of the ever-elusive media ideals ” (Hirschman 44-45). Advertisement A public notice; especially one published in the press or broadcast over the air
“ A lot of advertising is based on making people feel anxious and feeling insecure. The effect is primarily subconscious. It is very harmful.” <ul><li>Jean Kilbourne </li></ul><ul><li>Filmmaker, Killing Me Softly </li></ul>
Body Image and Advertising <ul><li>The media uses this “ideal” beauty image to increase sales. Using this unrealistic image, entertainment media creates a standard for viewers who will go out and try to buy the products that will “give” them the image they see in the advertisement. </li></ul>A good example of this can be seen in the media’s creation of “makeover” shows such as ABC’S Extreme Makeover.
Effects of Advertising: Case Study on Media Exposure and Eating Habits Link to the study
Key Terms and Discussion Plastic surgery, recently, is viewed more as a purely cosmetic procedure. It was intended to be a reconstructive procedure, but due to media ’s attempt to normalize this dangerous and painful surgery, more people are spending their hard earned money to “correct” the imperfections in their faces and bodies. Plastic Surgery Surgery done to repair, restore, or improve lost, injured, defective, or misshapen body parts
Discussion: Teens and Plastic Surgery <ul><li>According to an article in ABC News, 13-year-old Nicolette Taylor was allowed to get a nose job after being teased by peers on Facebook. </li></ul><ul><li>Her father: “You send them to a good school, you buy them shoes…You’d get them braces, which we did. It’s that kind of thing.” </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion: </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the comment posed by her father. Is a nose job the same as allowing a teenager to get braces? Why or why not? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you agree with her parents decision to allow her to get plastic surgery? Why or why not? </li></ul><ul><li>What effect, if any, do you think media had on her decision? On the bullying by peers? </li></ul>“ Nearly 210,000 cosmetic plastic surgery procedures were performed on people age 13 to 19 in 2009, according to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. While adults tend to have plastic surgery to stand out from the crowd, teens tend to have surgery to change the parts of their body they believe are flawed so that they can fit in with their peers, experts say.” - ABC News article entitled “ Teens Choose Plastic Surgery to Boost Self Esteem ”
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