Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Solar system classification
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Solar system classification

510
views

Published on

Published in: Technology

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
510
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto My Very Energetic Mother Just Served Us Nine Pizzas
  • 2. Your Parents’ Solar System
  • 3. Facts Are Not Knowledge • Memorization, not understanding • Factoids • Highlights differences • Little or no relevance • Little or no “big picture”
  • 4. Sun Rocky Planets Asteroid Belt Giant Planets Kuiper Belt Oort Cloud The 21st Century Solar System
  • 5. Families of the Solar System • Classes of similar objects – Size – Composition – Orbit size – Orbit shape – Orbit inclination – Moons – Rings
  • 6. Hollywood’s View of the Asteroid Belt
  • 7. Scientific View of the Asteroid Belt 960 million miles Hundreds of thousands of asteroids … … about a million miles apart!
  • 8. Sizes of the Giant Planets and Earth
  • 9. Kuiper Belt
  • 10. Oort Cloud • Billions of icy minor planets – comet nuclei • Roughly spherical out to 50,000 AU • Predicted by Jan Oort • Explains long-period comets
  • 11. Figure 1a: Comet Semimajor Axis Distribution 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 -0.004 -0.002 0.000 0.002 0.004 0.009 0.020 0.042 0.088 0.185 0.390 1 / a (1/AU) NumberofComets Short PeriodLong Period Orbital Period: 200 years 7 years
  • 12. Sedna
  • 13. Sedna • Orbit 76 – 840 AU • Very red color • Outer Kuiper Belt? • Inner Oort Cloud? • Planet at 70 AU?
  • 14. Families of the Solar System • Classification • Structure of the solar system – Similar objects lie in similar regions • Clues to solar system formation and evolution
  • 15. Rocky Planets Giant Planets
  • 16. Sun Rocky Planets Asteroid Belt Giant Planets Kuiper Belt Oort Cloud
  • 17. Sun Oort Cloud Mercury Venus Earth Mars Asteroid Belt Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Kuiper Belt
  • 18. Science Out Changes May View Established Models As Basic Justified Standards Until New Knowledge Bears
  • 19. Sometimes Over Coals My Very Energetic Mother Also Boils Jumbo Shrimp Using Nine Kettles Bubbling
  • 20. The Inevitable Question …
  • 21. Why is Pluto No Longer a Planet?
  • 22. Planet Pluto January 23, 1930 January 29, 1930
  • 23. The Incredible Shrinking Planet • Lowell’s Planet X – 7 times Earth • 1940’s – 1 times Earth • 1980 – 0.1 times Earth • 1985 – 0.002 times Earth
  • 24. Double Take: Charon • 1978 – James Christy (USNO) observations to refine Pluto’s orbit • Notices elongated images, deduces moon • 1985 – Charon occults Pluto, confirms existence • Refined sizes and masses – tiny
  • 25. Pluto/Charon
  • 26. Pluto Triton Titan Callisto Ganymede Moon Io Europa Mercury Rhea Iapetus Titania Oberon Pallas Vesta Hygeia Mimas Enceladus Miranda Proteus Ceres Tethys Dione Ariel Umbriel Charon
  • 27. Kuiper Belt • 1930 – Leonard mentions possibility of trans- Plutonian objects • 1943 – Kenneth Edgeworth postulates objects beyond Pluto • 1951 – Gerard Kuiper predicts that a massive Pluto would disperse small objects into a belt • 1980 – Fernandez predicts ‘comet belt’ that resembles what was eventually found
  • 28. Kuiper Belt Objects • 1992 – Jewitt & Luu find QB1 • Distance of 42 AU • First (third?) object discovered in the Kuiper Belt
  • 29. Kuiper Belt
  • 30. More and more KBOs • Large searches for KBOs ensued • Hundreds discovered within a decade • Over 1200 discovered so far • Over 70,000 predicted – diameters > 100 km – orbits 30-50 AU
  • 31. Pluto Defenders • Pluto is different from the KBOs • Pluto is bigger than the KBOs • Pluto has a moon, Charon
  • 32. Pluto/Charonorbits withinKuiperBelt
  • 33. KBO SizeComparison
  • 34. Binary KBOs • About 10% of KBOs are binaries
  • 35. Eris & Dysnomia (2003 UB313)
  • 36. Eris &DysnomiaSanta & Rudolph Easterbunny
  • 37. Pluto vs the Kuiper Belt • Orbit similar to KBOs • Size similar to KBOs • KBO companions common • Composition similar to KBOs
  • 38. Pluto vs the Kuiper Belt • Orbit similar to KBOs • Size similar to KBOs • KBO companions common • Composition similar to KBOs Pluto has found its family!!
  • 39. IAU Definition – August 2006 • IAU defines “planet” 1. Orbits the Sun 2. Upper mass limit • not massive enough to produce fusion • Deuterium fusion occurs at about 15x Jupiter’s mass 3. Lower mass limit • Massive enough for gravity to make it spherical • About 500 miles in diameter 4. Dominates its orbit • Dwarf planets meet 1, 2, 3, but not 4
  • 40. Other Planetary Systems? • Solar system alone is category of one
  • 41. Beta Pictoris
  • 42. We Are Not Alone • Lots of dust disks found • Proplyds – proto-planetary disks • Kuiper Belt sized and larger • Some substructure seen
  • 43. Planets around Other Stars • Cannot see directly (yet) • Detect via gravitational pull on star – Wobble – Periodic shift of spectral lines – Monitor for many years (several orbits) – Giant planets detectable
  • 44. Planets around Other Stars • Current count (May 2006) – 162 planetary systems – 188 planets – 19 multiple planet systems • At least 15% of sun-like stars have planets