Mercury
Venus
Earth
Mars
Jupiter
Saturn
Uranus
Neptune
Pluto
My
Very
Energetic
Mother
Just
Served
Us
Nine
Pizzas
Your Parents’ Solar System
Facts Are Not Knowledge
• Memorization, not understanding
• Factoids
• Highlights differences
• Little or no relevance
• L...
Sun
Rocky
Planets
Asteroid Belt
Giant
Planets
Kuiper Belt
Oort Cloud
The 21st Century Solar System
Families of the Solar System
• Classes of similar objects
– Size
– Composition
– Orbit size
– Orbit shape
– Orbit inclinat...
Hollywood’s View of the Asteroid Belt
Scientific View of the Asteroid Belt
960 million miles
Hundreds of
thousands of
asteroids …
… about a million
miles apart!
Sizes of the Giant Planets and Earth
Kuiper Belt
Oort Cloud
• Billions of icy minor
planets – comet nuclei
• Roughly spherical out to
50,000 AU
• Predicted by Jan Oort
• E...
Figure 1a: Comet Semimajor Axis Distribution
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
-0.004
-0.002
0.000
0.002
0.004
0.009
0.020
0.042
0...
Sedna
Sedna
• Orbit 76 – 840 AU
• Very red color
• Outer Kuiper Belt?
• Inner Oort Cloud?
• Planet at 70 AU?
Families of the Solar System
• Classification
• Structure of the solar system
– Similar objects lie in similar regions
• C...
Rocky Planets Giant Planets
Sun
Rocky
Planets
Asteroid Belt
Giant
Planets
Kuiper Belt
Oort Cloud
Sun
Oort Cloud
Mercury Venus Earth Mars
Asteroid Belt
Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune
Kuiper Belt
Science
Out Changes
May View Established Models
As Basic
Justified Standards Until New
Knowledge Bears
Sometimes
Over Coals
My Very Energetic Mother
Also Boils
Jumbo Shrimp Using Nine
Kettles Bubbling
The Inevitable Question …
Why is Pluto No Longer a
Planet?
Planet Pluto
January 23, 1930 January 29, 1930
The Incredible Shrinking Planet
• Lowell’s Planet X – 7 times Earth
• 1940’s – 1 times Earth
• 1980 – 0.1 times Earth
• 19...
Double Take: Charon
• 1978 – James Christy (USNO) observations to
refine Pluto’s orbit
• Notices elongated images, deduces...
Pluto/Charon
Pluto
Triton
Titan
Callisto
Ganymede
Moon
Io
Europa
Mercury
Rhea
Iapetus
Titania
Oberon
Pallas
Vesta
Hygeia
Mimas
Enceladu...
Kuiper Belt
• 1930 – Leonard mentions possibility of trans-
Plutonian objects
• 1943 – Kenneth Edgeworth postulates object...
Kuiper Belt Objects
• 1992 – Jewitt & Luu
find QB1
• Distance of 42 AU
• First (third?) object
discovered in the
Kuiper Be...
Kuiper Belt
More and more KBOs
• Large searches for KBOs ensued
• Hundreds discovered within a decade
• Over 1200 discovered so far
• ...
Pluto Defenders
• Pluto is different from the KBOs
• Pluto is bigger than the KBOs
• Pluto has a moon, Charon
Pluto/Charonorbits withinKuiperBelt
KBO SizeComparison
Binary KBOs
• About 10% of KBOs are binaries
Eris & Dysnomia (2003 UB313)
Eris &DysnomiaSanta & Rudolph
Easterbunny
Pluto vs the Kuiper Belt
• Orbit similar to KBOs
• Size similar to KBOs
• KBO companions common
• Composition similar to K...
Pluto vs the Kuiper Belt
• Orbit similar to KBOs
• Size similar to KBOs
• KBO companions common
• Composition similar to K...
IAU Definition – August 2006
• IAU defines “planet”
1. Orbits the Sun
2. Upper mass limit
• not massive enough to produce ...
Other Planetary Systems?
• Solar system alone is category of one
Beta Pictoris
We Are Not Alone
• Lots of dust disks found
• Proplyds – proto-planetary disks
• Kuiper Belt sized and larger
• Some subst...
Planets around Other Stars
• Cannot see directly (yet)
• Detect via gravitational pull on star
– Wobble
– Periodic shift o...
Planets around Other Stars
• Current count (May 2006)
– 162 planetary systems
– 188 planets
– 19 multiple planet systems
•...
Solar system classification
Solar system classification
Solar system classification
Solar system classification
Solar system classification
Solar system classification
Solar system classification
Solar system classification
Solar system classification
Solar system classification
Solar system classification
Solar system classification
Solar system classification
Solar system classification
Solar system classification
Solar system classification
Solar system classification
Solar system classification
Solar system classification
Solar system classification
Solar system classification
Solar system classification
Solar system classification
Solar system classification
Solar system classification
Solar system classification
Solar system classification
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Solar system classification

748 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
748
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
29
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
8
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Solar system classification

  1. 1. Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto My Very Energetic Mother Just Served Us Nine Pizzas
  2. 2. Your Parents’ Solar System
  3. 3. Facts Are Not Knowledge • Memorization, not understanding • Factoids • Highlights differences • Little or no relevance • Little or no “big picture”
  4. 4. Sun Rocky Planets Asteroid Belt Giant Planets Kuiper Belt Oort Cloud The 21st Century Solar System
  5. 5. Families of the Solar System • Classes of similar objects – Size – Composition – Orbit size – Orbit shape – Orbit inclination – Moons – Rings
  6. 6. Hollywood’s View of the Asteroid Belt
  7. 7. Scientific View of the Asteroid Belt 960 million miles Hundreds of thousands of asteroids … … about a million miles apart!
  8. 8. Sizes of the Giant Planets and Earth
  9. 9. Kuiper Belt
  10. 10. Oort Cloud • Billions of icy minor planets – comet nuclei • Roughly spherical out to 50,000 AU • Predicted by Jan Oort • Explains long-period comets
  11. 11. Figure 1a: Comet Semimajor Axis Distribution 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 -0.004 -0.002 0.000 0.002 0.004 0.009 0.020 0.042 0.088 0.185 0.390 1 / a (1/AU) NumberofComets Short PeriodLong Period Orbital Period: 200 years 7 years
  12. 12. Sedna
  13. 13. Sedna • Orbit 76 – 840 AU • Very red color • Outer Kuiper Belt? • Inner Oort Cloud? • Planet at 70 AU?
  14. 14. Families of the Solar System • Classification • Structure of the solar system – Similar objects lie in similar regions • Clues to solar system formation and evolution
  15. 15. Rocky Planets Giant Planets
  16. 16. Sun Rocky Planets Asteroid Belt Giant Planets Kuiper Belt Oort Cloud
  17. 17. Sun Oort Cloud Mercury Venus Earth Mars Asteroid Belt Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Kuiper Belt
  18. 18. Science Out Changes May View Established Models As Basic Justified Standards Until New Knowledge Bears
  19. 19. Sometimes Over Coals My Very Energetic Mother Also Boils Jumbo Shrimp Using Nine Kettles Bubbling
  20. 20. The Inevitable Question …
  21. 21. Why is Pluto No Longer a Planet?
  22. 22. Planet Pluto January 23, 1930 January 29, 1930
  23. 23. The Incredible Shrinking Planet • Lowell’s Planet X – 7 times Earth • 1940’s – 1 times Earth • 1980 – 0.1 times Earth • 1985 – 0.002 times Earth
  24. 24. Double Take: Charon • 1978 – James Christy (USNO) observations to refine Pluto’s orbit • Notices elongated images, deduces moon • 1985 – Charon occults Pluto, confirms existence • Refined sizes and masses – tiny
  25. 25. Pluto/Charon
  26. 26. Pluto Triton Titan Callisto Ganymede Moon Io Europa Mercury Rhea Iapetus Titania Oberon Pallas Vesta Hygeia Mimas Enceladus Miranda Proteus Ceres Tethys Dione Ariel Umbriel Charon
  27. 27. Kuiper Belt • 1930 – Leonard mentions possibility of trans- Plutonian objects • 1943 – Kenneth Edgeworth postulates objects beyond Pluto • 1951 – Gerard Kuiper predicts that a massive Pluto would disperse small objects into a belt • 1980 – Fernandez predicts ‘comet belt’ that resembles what was eventually found
  28. 28. Kuiper Belt Objects • 1992 – Jewitt & Luu find QB1 • Distance of 42 AU • First (third?) object discovered in the Kuiper Belt
  29. 29. Kuiper Belt
  30. 30. More and more KBOs • Large searches for KBOs ensued • Hundreds discovered within a decade • Over 1200 discovered so far • Over 70,000 predicted – diameters > 100 km – orbits 30-50 AU
  31. 31. Pluto Defenders • Pluto is different from the KBOs • Pluto is bigger than the KBOs • Pluto has a moon, Charon
  32. 32. Pluto/Charonorbits withinKuiperBelt
  33. 33. KBO SizeComparison
  34. 34. Binary KBOs • About 10% of KBOs are binaries
  35. 35. Eris & Dysnomia (2003 UB313)
  36. 36. Eris &DysnomiaSanta & Rudolph Easterbunny
  37. 37. Pluto vs the Kuiper Belt • Orbit similar to KBOs • Size similar to KBOs • KBO companions common • Composition similar to KBOs
  38. 38. Pluto vs the Kuiper Belt • Orbit similar to KBOs • Size similar to KBOs • KBO companions common • Composition similar to KBOs Pluto has found its family!!
  39. 39. IAU Definition – August 2006 • IAU defines “planet” 1. Orbits the Sun 2. Upper mass limit • not massive enough to produce fusion • Deuterium fusion occurs at about 15x Jupiter’s mass 3. Lower mass limit • Massive enough for gravity to make it spherical • About 500 miles in diameter 4. Dominates its orbit • Dwarf planets meet 1, 2, 3, but not 4
  40. 40. Other Planetary Systems? • Solar system alone is category of one
  41. 41. Beta Pictoris
  42. 42. We Are Not Alone • Lots of dust disks found • Proplyds – proto-planetary disks • Kuiper Belt sized and larger • Some substructure seen
  43. 43. Planets around Other Stars • Cannot see directly (yet) • Detect via gravitational pull on star – Wobble – Periodic shift of spectral lines – Monitor for many years (several orbits) – Giant planets detectable
  44. 44. Planets around Other Stars • Current count (May 2006) – 162 planetary systems – 188 planets – 19 multiple planet systems • At least 15% of sun-like stars have planets

×