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Solar system classification
 

Solar system classification

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    Solar system classification Solar system classification Presentation Transcript

    • Mercury
      My
      Venus
      Very
      Earth
      Energetic
      Mars
      Mother
      Jupiter
      Just
      Saturn
      Served
      Uranus
      Us
      Neptune
      Nine
      Pluto
      Pizzas
    • Your Parents’ Solar System
    • Facts Are Not Knowledge
      Memorization, not understanding
      Factoids
      Highlights differences
      Little or no relevance
      Little or no “big picture”
    • The 21st Century Solar System
      Sun
      Rocky Planets
      Asteroid Belt
      Giant Planets
      Kuiper Belt
      Oort Cloud
    • Families of the Solar System
      Classes of similar objects
      Size
      Composition
      Orbit size
      Orbit shape
      Orbit inclination
      Moons
      Rings
    • Hollywood’s View of the Asteroid Belt
    • 960 million miles
      Hundreds of thousands of asteroids …
      … about a million miles apart!
      Scientific View of the Asteroid Belt
    • Sizes of the Giant Planets and Earth
    • Kuiper Belt
    • Oort Cloud
      Billions of icy minor planets – comet nuclei
      Roughly spherical out to 50,000 AU
      Predicted by Jan Oort
      Explains long-period comets
    • Sedna
    • Sedna
      Orbit 76 – 840 AU
      Very red color
      Outer Kuiper Belt?
      Inner Oort Cloud?
      Planet at 70 AU?
    • Families of the Solar System
      Classification
      Structure of the solar system
      Similar objects lie in similar regions
      Clues to solar system formation and evolution
    • Rocky Planets
      Giant Planets
    • Sun
      Rocky Planets
      Asteroid Belt
      Giant Planets
      Kuiper Belt
      Oort Cloud
    • Sun
      Mercury Venus Earth Mars
      Asteroid Belt
      Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune
      Kuiper Belt
      Oort Cloud
    • Science
      May View Established Models
      As Basic
      Justified Standards Until New
      Knowledge Bears
      Out Changes
    • Sometimes
      My Very Energetic Mother
      Also Boils
      Jumbo Shrimp Using Nine
      Kettles Bubbling
      Over Coals
    • The Inevitable Question …
    • Why is Pluto No Longer a Planet?
    • Planet Pluto
      January 23, 1930
      January 29, 1930
    • The Incredible Shrinking Planet
      Lowell’s Planet X – 7 times Earth
      1940’s – 1 times Earth
      1980 – 0.1 times Earth
      1985 – 0.002 times Earth
    • Double Take: Charon
      1978 – James Christy (USNO) observations to refine Pluto’s orbit
      Notices elongated images, deduces moon
      1985 – Charon occults Pluto, confirms existence
      Refined sizes and masses – tiny
    • Pluto/Charon
    • Umbriel
      Mimas
      Ariel
      Iapetus
      Hygeia
      Miranda
      Proteus
      Pallas
      Tethys
      Dione
      Vesta
      Oberon
      Ceres
      Charon
      Rhea
      Titania
      Enceladus
      Io
      Mercury
      Europa
      Moon
      Triton
      Titan
      Ganymede
      Callisto
      Pluto
    • Kuiper Belt
      1930 – Leonard mentions possibility of trans-Plutonian objects
      1943 – Kenneth Edgeworth postulates objects beyond Pluto
      1951 – Gerard Kuiper predicts that a massive Pluto would disperse small objects into a belt
      1980 – Fernandez predicts ‘comet belt’ that resembles what was eventually found
    • Kuiper Belt Objects
      1992 – Jewitt & Luu find QB1
      Distance of 42 AU
      First (third?) object discovered in the Kuiper Belt
    • Kuiper Belt
    • More and more KBOs
      Large searches for KBOs ensued
      Hundreds discovered within a decade
      Over 1200 discovered so far
      Over 70,000 predicted
      diameters > 100 km
      orbits 30-50 AU
    • Pluto Defenders
      Pluto is different from the KBOs
      Pluto is bigger than the KBOs
      Pluto has a moon, Charon
      Wrong!
    • Pluto/Charon orbits within Kuiper Belt
    • KBO Size Comparison
    • Sidebar: Is the Moon a Moon?
      Earth
      Moon
    • Binary KBOs
      About 10% of KBOs are binaries
    • Eris & Dysnomia (2003 UB313)
    • Easterbunny
      Eris & Dysnomia
      Santa & Rudolph
    • Pluto vs the Kuiper Belt
      Orbit similar to KBOs
      Size similar to KBOs
      KBO companions common
      Composition similar to KBOs
    • Pluto vs the Kuiper Belt
      Orbit similar to KBOs
      Size similar to KBOs
      KBO companions common
      Composition similar to KBOs
      Pluto has found its family!!
    • IAU Definition – August 2006
      IAU defines “planet”
      Orbits the Sun
      Upper mass limit
      not massive enough to produce fusion
      Deuterium fusion occurs at about 15x Jupiter’s mass
      Lower mass limit
      Massive enough for gravity to make it spherical
      About 500 miles in diameter
      Dominates its orbit
      Dwarf planets meet 1, 2, 3, but not 4
    • Other Planetary Systems?
      Solar system alone is category of one
      ???
    • Beta Pictoris
    • We Are Not Alone
      Lots of dust disks found
      Proplyds – proto-planetary disks
      Kuiper Belt sized and larger
      Some substructure seen
    • Planets around Other Stars
      Cannot see directly (yet)
      Detect via gravitational pull on star
      Wobble
      Periodic shift of spectral lines
      Monitor for many years (several orbits)
      Giant planets detectable
    • Planets around Other Stars
      Current count (May 2006)
      162 planetary systems
      188 planets
      19 multiple planet systems
      At least 15% of sun-like stars have planets