History Of Astronomy (Complete)


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  • Image: http://www.damninteresting.net/content/pioneer10.jpg
  • Image: http://www.super70s.com/Super70s/Tech/Space/Missions/images/Pioneer10-Jupiter%5B320%5D.jpgInfo: http://www.solarviews.com/eng/pn10-11.htm
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  • History Of Astronomy (Complete)

    1. 1. History of Astronomy<br />Ancient Cultures to Isaac Newton<br />
    2. 2. Early Civilizations<br />A practical approach<br />Predicting seasons<br />Navigation<br />
    3. 3. Aristotle and the Greek View: Geocentric Model<br />Geo- Earth<br />Centric- Centered<br />The earth is a motionless sphere at the center of the Universe. <br />Explained the apparent motion of the sun, moon and stars.<br />
    4. 4.
    5. 5. Planets<br />Greek astronomers observed that certain celestial objects do not follow a predictable path like the moon, sun, and stars.<br />Called these objects Planets (Greek word planetes means wanderer)<br />The observable motion of Planets is that they change speed and even loop back and forth relative to the stars. <br />
    6. 6. Retrograde Motion<br />Motion of planets in “backwards” or westward loops is known as Retrograde Motion.<br />
    7. 7. Ptolemy (140 A.D.)<br />A more complex model of the Universe/Solar System was needed to explain Retrograde Motion. <br />Ptolemy suggests that planets orbit the Earth in a large circular orbits but also follow a small circular orbit around an imaginary point. <br />These small orbits were known as Epicycles <br />
    8. 8. The Copernican Revolution: Heliocentric Model<br />Ptolemaic Model survived for 13 centuries<br />Copernicus suggested that the Earth is a planet and spins on its axis and orbits the Sun.<br />Heliocentric- Sun Centered<br />This accounts for the apparent motion of the sun and stars.<br />The realization that Earth is not at the center of the universe is now know as the Copernican Revolution.<br />What about Retrograde motion of the planets?<br />
    9. 9. Just like when you pass another car on the highway. <br />
    10. 10. Galileo Galilei<br />Used the telescope to view objects in the sky (1609). <br />Observations of celestial objects supported the Heliocentric Model of the solar system.<br />
    11. 11. Galileo’s Observations <br />The terrain of the Moon, Sunspots, the moons of Jupiter<br />Phases of Venus<br />
    12. 12. Johannes Kepler<br />A student of Tycho Brahe, Kepler used the precise data of his mentor to develop three simple laws that describe the motion of planets. <br />
    13. 13. History of Astronomy1923 – February 9, 1971<br />By The Big Bangers <br />(Sean Frazier, Danny Duvall, Andrew D., and Zach Tarr)<br />
    14. 14. Yuri Gagarin<br />Entered Air Force Group 1 in 1960, on March 7.<br />April 12, 1961, Became first man to enter space aboard the Vostok 1 spacecraft.<br /> Flight Time: 0.0750 days<br />Made Commander of Cosmonaut group in 1963<br />In 1968 he completed the Zhukovskiy Military Academy, but died during a MiG-15 training mission.<br />
    15. 15.
    16. 16. Alan Shepard<br />Alan Shepard was from East Derry, New Hampshire. After he got out of school in 1950, he got into a naval academy.<br />In 1959 NASA invited Shepard to join six others for project mercury.<br />On May 5, 1961, Shepard piloted Freedom 7 to become the 2nd person and the 1st American in space. <br />Shepard was scheduled to command the first Gemini but couldn’t due to an inner ear condition that would go on to keep him out of space for six years.<br />In 1971 47 year old Alan Shepard, the oldest astronaut in the program, lead the Apollo XIV mission to the moon .<br />He returned and went on to retire from the navy and from NASA.<br />
    17. 17. “I must admit maybe I am a piece of<br /> history after all” – Alan Shepard<br />
    18. 18. Sputnik<br />Launched on October 4th, 1957<br />About the size of a beach ball (22.8 inches in diameter)<br />Weighed 183.9 lbs<br />The launch started “The Space Age” and the race between U.S. and U.S.S.R.<br />Fear arose due to the Soviet Union now having the ability to launch ballistic missiles long distances. We were also in somewhat of a quarrel with Cuba, who had nuclear warheads, and were allies with the Soviet Union at the time.<br />As soon as Sputnik was launched, U.S. Defense department immediately started funding a U.S. satellite project. The Explorer was thus created and launched on January 31st, 1958.<br />Because of the launching of Sputnik, the U.S. Congress created the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (N.A.S.A.) on October 1st, 1958 <br />
    19. 19. Apollo 11<br />Launched on July 16, 1969 at 1:32 p.m., from Kennedy Space Center in Florida. <br />The crew consisted of Commander Neil Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins, and Lunar Module Pilot Buzz Aldrin.<br />Landed on the moon on July 20th, 1969 at 8:17 p.m. <br />30 lunar orbits<br />Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon. This is when he said his famous words, "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." <br />Millions of people watched the astronauts walk on the moon from Earth on their TV’s.<br />Lunar Sample Mass: 47.5 lbs<br />
    20. 20.
    21. 21. Hubble<br />Funding for a space telescope was first proposed in 1923. <br />Although the Hubble was launched in 1990, it was a land telescope at first, and was able to view galaxies outside of ours for the first time.<br />At first, the Hubble had a major flaw, and was not able to take very accurate pictures, which was soon realized and fixed by the replacing of one of its many lenses.<br />All of the pictures that were on the backgrounds of the previous slides were taken by the Hubble…<br />
    22. 22. Space Shuttle Challenger<br /><ul><li>Background
    23. 23. Nine succesfull flights
    24. 24. Launch delayed six days
    25. 25. Mission
    26. 26. Cargo Flight
    27. 27. TISP
    28. 28. Crew
    29. 29. Michael J. Smith, Francis R. Scobee, Ronald E. McNair, Ellison S. Onizuka, Sharon Christa McAuliffe, Gregory B. Jarvis, Judith A. Resnik</li></li></ul><li>Disaster<br />What went wrong?<br />O-Ring failure<br />Too cold<br />Aftermath<br />Mass devestation<br />Confusion<br />
    30. 30. Christa McAuliffe<br />Bio<br />Grew up in space age, always fascinated by it<br />School teacher – Concord High School<br />First mission in space<br />Reason for flying<br />Chosen for TISP<br />Memorial<br />Buried in Concord<br />Christa McAuliffe Center – Workshops and planetarium<br />Library<br />
    31. 31. Works Cited<br />Greene, Nick. “Challenger Disaster - A NASA Tragedy.” about.com. The New York Times Company, 2010. Web. 12 Feb. 2010. <http://space.about.com/‌cs/‌challenger/‌a/‌challenger.htm>.<br />- - -. “Christa McAuliffe - Space Shuttle Challenger Astronaut - Teacher.” About.com. The New York Times Company, n.d. Web. 11 Feb. 2010. <http://space.about.com/‌cs/‌deceasedastronaut/‌a/‌mcauliffe.htm>.<br />Naden, Corinne J., and Rose Blue. Christa McAuliffe. N.p.: n.p., 1991. Print.<br />
    32. 32. The U.S. Mariner 10<br />
    33. 33. Mercury<br />The Mariner 10 took the first to visit (as of 2003) and take pictures of Mercury<br />
    34. 34. The Mariner has come up with little but, the most information we have on Mercury<br />Took 3 flybys in 1974-75<br />Was the 7th successful launch of the Mariner spacecrafts <br />Was the first spacecraft to use gravitational pull to get from one planet to another<br />
    35. 35. http://ser.sese.asu.edu/merc.html<br />http://www.super70s.com/Super70s/Tech/Space/Missions/Mariner_10.asp<br />
    36. 36. Voyager<br />
    37. 37. Voyagers 1/2<br />Launched 1977<br />Voyager mission to Jupiter/Saturn<br />Into Deep Space and beyond<br />Nuclear Powered Battery<br />Farthest man-made object from earth<br />1,592 lbs<br />
    38. 38. Currently in Heliosheath<br />2x farther than pluto from sun<br />
    39. 39. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a3/790106-0203_Voyager_58M_to_31M_reduced.gif<br />
    40. 40. US Viking Probes<br />1975<br />
    41. 41. <ul><li>The Viking Probes were two probes,</li></ul>called Viking 1 and Viking 2, and were<br />designed to take information from Mars<br /><ul><li>Viking 1 and 2 were launched in</li></ul>August and September, 1975<br /><ul><li>The Probes landed on Mars in 1976
    42. 42. The soil was discovered to be mostly silicon and iron, and the atmosphere was shown to be mostly carbon dioxide
    43. 43. Mars was shown to be much colder than Earth; its temperature rises only to 70 degrees F at the equator and can drop to -166 degrees F at night</li></ul>Carl Sagan with a Viking Lander<br />
    44. 44. <ul><li>One of the main missions of the Viking Probes was to investigate if there was any life on Mars
    45. 45. Each Lander had instruments on board and scooped soil samples, but no evidence of life was found
    46. 46. The Viking Probes took many photographs of the surface of Mars (shown below) and discovered that the sky was pink, and not dark blue like scientists had predicted (a result of the red dust particles in the atmosphere)
    47. 47. Viking 2 worked until 1980, and Viking 1 sent</li></ul>images until 1982<br />
    48. 48. Works Cited<br />http://library.thinkquest.org/J0112188/viking_probes.htm<br />http://pds.jpl.nasa.gov/planets/welcome/viking.htm<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/ethanhein/2800095502/<br />http://nineplanets.org/spacecraft.html<br />http://www.spacetoday.org/SolSys/Mars/MarsExploration/MarsVikings.html<br />
    49. 49. Pioneer 10<br />1972<br />
    50. 50. Pioneer 10…<br />was launched on March 2nd, 1972<br />was the first object designed to<br />leave our solar system, and passed<br />through the Asteroid Belt in 4 months<br />reached Jupiter on December 3rd,<br />1973, where it took the first close-up<br />photos of the planet and collected other data<br />has continued to travel across the galaxy, and sent data<br />for over 30 years before it was too distant to transmit a<br />signal<br />
    51. 51. The Pioneer Plaque<br />Eric Burgess and Richard Hoagland approached Dr. Carl Sagan (pictured above) and gave him the idea to attach a gold plaque to the Pioneer 10. It was designed so that, if found by extraterrestrial life, it could convey that there was intelligent life on our planet. It depicts a man and a woman, as well as our solar system, with a satellite pointing to Earth.<br />
    52. 52. Works Cited<br />http://www.solarviews.com/eng/pn10-11.htm<br />http://www.super70s.com/Super70s/Tech/Space/Missions/images/Pioneer10-Jupiter%5B320%5D.jpg<br />http://www-pw.physics.uiowa.edu/pioneer/other/plaque.html<br />http://teacherknowledge.wikispaces.com/file/view/PioneerPlaqueholding.jpg/30290049/PioneerPlaqueholding.jpg<br />
    53. 53. Astronomy1986- Now<br />By KC, Alex, and Kristen<br />
    54. 54. The Galileo Probe<br /><ul><li>Launched on October 18,1989 on Atlantis
    55. 55. Explored Jupiter and its moons from December 1995 to September 21, 2003
    56. 56. The spacecraft was deliberately plunged into Jupiter’s atmosphere to protect the discovery of a possible ocean beneath the crust on Jupiter’s moon Europa</li></li></ul><li>
    57. 57. The Galileo Project: Achievements<br /><ul><li>1st spacecraft to fly by an asteroid
    58. 58. 1st to discover a moon of an asteroid (Dactyl orbiting Ida)
    59. 59. 1st to measure Jupiter’s atmosphere with a probe
    60. 60. 1st to conduct long-term observations of the Jovian System from orbit
    61. 61. Found evidence of subsurface saltwater on Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto
    62. 62. Revealed volcanic activity on Io</li></li></ul><li>
    63. 63. Col. Eileen Collins*First Woman Shuttle Commander*<br /><ul><li>Selected in 1990 by NASA
    64. 64. Became an astronaut in 1991
    65. 65. Originally assigned to Orbiter engineering support
    66. 66. Served as pilot on STS-63 (February 3-11, 1995) and STS-84 (May 15-24, 1997), and was the commander on STS-93 (July 22-27, 1999) and STS-114 (July 26 to August 9, 2005)
    67. 67. Collins has logged over 872 hours in space.
    68. 68. Retired from NASA in May 2006. </li></li></ul><li>
    69. 69. Constellation <br /><ul><li> Constellation is America’s plan to return to the moon and then to mars
    70. 70. The program is being ended by Obama
    71. 71. If the program were to go through it would eventually lead up to a moon base giving America a space colonization and military advantage </li></li></ul><li>
    72. 72. Mars Pathfinder <br /><ul><li>Built to explore Mars and to prove a rover could be placed on mars at a low cost.
    73. 73. Lasted until September of 1997
    74. 74. Sent back 17000 pictures and 15 chemical analyses. </li></li></ul><li>
    75. 75. Hubble Space Telescope<br />
    76. 76. Dr. Hubble<br /><ul><li>Hubble is the first space telescope
    77. 77. NASA named it after American Astronomer Edwin P. Hubble
    78. 78. Dr. Hubble confirmed an expanding universe
    79. 79. Cost of launch is 1.5 billion dollars. </li></li></ul><li>
    80. 80. Chris Cassidy <br /><ul><li>Accepted by NASA in 2004
    81. 81. Born January 4th, 1970 in Salem Mass.
    82. 82. Considers York Maine to be his home town
    83. 83. Served 10 Years as a U.S. Navy Seal.
    84. 84. Volunteered for a 180 mile charity kayak to raise money for Special Operations Warrior Foundation</li></li></ul><li>Works Cited<br /><ul><li>http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/galileo/?CFID=30013625&CFTOKEN=55197149
    85. 85. http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/collins.html
    86. 86. http://www.ceo.wa.edu.au/home/carey.peter/astronomy.jpg
    87. 87. http://lasp.colorado.edu/~bagenal/3750/ClassNotes/Class23/ida_dactyl.jpg
    88. 88. http://freepages.misc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~nielsp/233/photos/astronomy/htm/galileo-spacecraft.jpg
    89. 89. http://www.raumfahrer.net/raumfahrt/spaceshuttle/images/sts-114_crew.jpg
    90. 90. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f2/Eileen_Collins,_early_NASA_portrait.jpg</li>