History Of Astronomy (Complete)
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  • Image: http://www.damninteresting.net/content/pioneer10.jpg
  • Image: http://www.super70s.com/Super70s/Tech/Space/Missions/images/Pioneer10-Jupiter%5B320%5D.jpgInfo: http://www.solarviews.com/eng/pn10-11.htm
  • Image: http://teacherknowledge.wikispaces.com/file/view/PioneerPlaqueholding.jpg/30290049/PioneerPlaqueholding.jpgInfo: http://www-pw.physics.uiowa.edu/pioneer/other/plaque.html

Transcript

  • 1. History of Astronomy
    Ancient Cultures to Isaac Newton
  • 2. Early Civilizations
    A practical approach
    Predicting seasons
    Navigation
  • 3. Aristotle and the Greek View: Geocentric Model
    Geo- Earth
    Centric- Centered
    The earth is a motionless sphere at the center of the Universe.
    Explained the apparent motion of the sun, moon and stars.
  • 4.
  • 5. Planets
    Greek astronomers observed that certain celestial objects do not follow a predictable path like the moon, sun, and stars.
    Called these objects Planets (Greek word planetes means wanderer)
    The observable motion of Planets is that they change speed and even loop back and forth relative to the stars.
  • 6. Retrograde Motion
    Motion of planets in “backwards” or westward loops is known as Retrograde Motion.
  • 7. Ptolemy (140 A.D.)
    A more complex model of the Universe/Solar System was needed to explain Retrograde Motion.
    Ptolemy suggests that planets orbit the Earth in a large circular orbits but also follow a small circular orbit around an imaginary point.
    These small orbits were known as Epicycles
  • 8. The Copernican Revolution: Heliocentric Model
    Ptolemaic Model survived for 13 centuries
    Copernicus suggested that the Earth is a planet and spins on its axis and orbits the Sun.
    Heliocentric- Sun Centered
    This accounts for the apparent motion of the sun and stars.
    The realization that Earth is not at the center of the universe is now know as the Copernican Revolution.
    What about Retrograde motion of the planets?
  • 9. Just like when you pass another car on the highway.
  • 10. Galileo Galilei
    Used the telescope to view objects in the sky (1609).
    Observations of celestial objects supported the Heliocentric Model of the solar system.
  • 11. Galileo’s Observations
    The terrain of the Moon, Sunspots, the moons of Jupiter
    Phases of Venus
  • 12. Johannes Kepler
    A student of Tycho Brahe, Kepler used the precise data of his mentor to develop three simple laws that describe the motion of planets.
  • 13. History of Astronomy1923 – February 9, 1971
    By The Big Bangers
    (Sean Frazier, Danny Duvall, Andrew D., and Zach Tarr)
  • 14. Yuri Gagarin
    Entered Air Force Group 1 in 1960, on March 7.
    April 12, 1961, Became first man to enter space aboard the Vostok 1 spacecraft.
    Flight Time: 0.0750 days
    Made Commander of Cosmonaut group in 1963
    In 1968 he completed the Zhukovskiy Military Academy, but died during a MiG-15 training mission.
  • 15.
  • 16. Alan Shepard
    Alan Shepard was from East Derry, New Hampshire. After he got out of school in 1950, he got into a naval academy.
    In 1959 NASA invited Shepard to join six others for project mercury.
    On May 5, 1961, Shepard piloted Freedom 7 to become the 2nd person and the 1st American in space.
    Shepard was scheduled to command the first Gemini but couldn’t due to an inner ear condition that would go on to keep him out of space for six years.
    In 1971 47 year old Alan Shepard, the oldest astronaut in the program, lead the Apollo XIV mission to the moon .
    He returned and went on to retire from the navy and from NASA.
  • 17. “I must admit maybe I am a piece of
    history after all” – Alan Shepard
  • 18. Sputnik
    Launched on October 4th, 1957
    About the size of a beach ball (22.8 inches in diameter)
    Weighed 183.9 lbs
    The launch started “The Space Age” and the race between U.S. and U.S.S.R.
    Fear arose due to the Soviet Union now having the ability to launch ballistic missiles long distances. We were also in somewhat of a quarrel with Cuba, who had nuclear warheads, and were allies with the Soviet Union at the time.
    As soon as Sputnik was launched, U.S. Defense department immediately started funding a U.S. satellite project. The Explorer was thus created and launched on January 31st, 1958.
    Because of the launching of Sputnik, the U.S. Congress created the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (N.A.S.A.) on October 1st, 1958
  • 19. Apollo 11
    Launched on July 16, 1969 at 1:32 p.m., from Kennedy Space Center in Florida.
    The crew consisted of Commander Neil Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins, and Lunar Module Pilot Buzz Aldrin.
    Landed on the moon on July 20th, 1969 at 8:17 p.m.
    30 lunar orbits
    Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon. This is when he said his famous words, "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind."
    Millions of people watched the astronauts walk on the moon from Earth on their TV’s.
    Lunar Sample Mass: 47.5 lbs
  • 20.
  • 21. Hubble
    Funding for a space telescope was first proposed in 1923.
    Although the Hubble was launched in 1990, it was a land telescope at first, and was able to view galaxies outside of ours for the first time.
    At first, the Hubble had a major flaw, and was not able to take very accurate pictures, which was soon realized and fixed by the replacing of one of its many lenses.
    All of the pictures that were on the backgrounds of the previous slides were taken by the Hubble…
  • 22. Space Shuttle Challenger
    • Background
    • 23. Nine succesfull flights
    • 24. Launch delayed six days
    • 25. Mission
    • 26. Cargo Flight
    • 27. TISP
    • 28. Crew
    • 29. Michael J. Smith, Francis R. Scobee, Ronald E. McNair, Ellison S. Onizuka, Sharon Christa McAuliffe, Gregory B. Jarvis, Judith A. Resnik
  • Disaster
    What went wrong?
    O-Ring failure
    Too cold
    Aftermath
    Mass devestation
    Confusion
  • 30. Christa McAuliffe
    Bio
    Grew up in space age, always fascinated by it
    School teacher – Concord High School
    First mission in space
    Reason for flying
    Chosen for TISP
    Memorial
    Buried in Concord
    Christa McAuliffe Center – Workshops and planetarium
    Library
  • 31. Works Cited
    Greene, Nick. “Challenger Disaster - A NASA Tragedy.” about.com. The New York Times Company, 2010. Web. 12 Feb. 2010. <http://space.about.com/‌cs/‌challenger/‌a/‌challenger.htm>.
    - - -. “Christa McAuliffe - Space Shuttle Challenger Astronaut - Teacher.” About.com. The New York Times Company, n.d. Web. 11 Feb. 2010. <http://space.about.com/‌cs/‌deceasedastronaut/‌a/‌mcauliffe.htm>.
    Naden, Corinne J., and Rose Blue. Christa McAuliffe. N.p.: n.p., 1991. Print.
  • 32. The U.S. Mariner 10
  • 33. Mercury
    The Mariner 10 took the first to visit (as of 2003) and take pictures of Mercury
  • 34. The Mariner has come up with little but, the most information we have on Mercury
    Took 3 flybys in 1974-75
    Was the 7th successful launch of the Mariner spacecrafts
    Was the first spacecraft to use gravitational pull to get from one planet to another
  • 35. http://ser.sese.asu.edu/merc.html
    http://www.super70s.com/Super70s/Tech/Space/Missions/Mariner_10.asp
  • 36. Voyager
  • 37. Voyagers 1/2
    Launched 1977
    Voyager mission to Jupiter/Saturn
    Into Deep Space and beyond
    Nuclear Powered Battery
    Farthest man-made object from earth
    1,592 lbs
  • 38. Currently in Heliosheath
    2x farther than pluto from sun
  • 39. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a3/790106-0203_Voyager_58M_to_31M_reduced.gif
  • 40. US Viking Probes
    1975
  • 41.
    • The Viking Probes were two probes,
    called Viking 1 and Viking 2, and were
    designed to take information from Mars
    • Viking 1 and 2 were launched in
    August and September, 1975
    • The Probes landed on Mars in 1976
    • 42. The soil was discovered to be mostly silicon and iron, and the atmosphere was shown to be mostly carbon dioxide
    • 43. Mars was shown to be much colder than Earth; its temperature rises only to 70 degrees F at the equator and can drop to -166 degrees F at night
    Carl Sagan with a Viking Lander
  • 44.
    • One of the main missions of the Viking Probes was to investigate if there was any life on Mars
    • 45. Each Lander had instruments on board and scooped soil samples, but no evidence of life was found
    • 46. The Viking Probes took many photographs of the surface of Mars (shown below) and discovered that the sky was pink, and not dark blue like scientists had predicted (a result of the red dust particles in the atmosphere)
    • 47. Viking 2 worked until 1980, and Viking 1 sent
    images until 1982
  • 48. Works Cited
    http://library.thinkquest.org/J0112188/viking_probes.htm
    http://pds.jpl.nasa.gov/planets/welcome/viking.htm
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/ethanhein/2800095502/
    http://nineplanets.org/spacecraft.html
    http://www.spacetoday.org/SolSys/Mars/MarsExploration/MarsVikings.html
  • 49. Pioneer 10
    1972
  • 50. Pioneer 10…
    was launched on March 2nd, 1972
    was the first object designed to
    leave our solar system, and passed
    through the Asteroid Belt in 4 months
    reached Jupiter on December 3rd,
    1973, where it took the first close-up
    photos of the planet and collected other data
    has continued to travel across the galaxy, and sent data
    for over 30 years before it was too distant to transmit a
    signal
  • 51. The Pioneer Plaque
    Eric Burgess and Richard Hoagland approached Dr. Carl Sagan (pictured above) and gave him the idea to attach a gold plaque to the Pioneer 10. It was designed so that, if found by extraterrestrial life, it could convey that there was intelligent life on our planet. It depicts a man and a woman, as well as our solar system, with a satellite pointing to Earth.
  • 52. Works Cited
    http://www.solarviews.com/eng/pn10-11.htm
    http://www.super70s.com/Super70s/Tech/Space/Missions/images/Pioneer10-Jupiter%5B320%5D.jpg
    http://www-pw.physics.uiowa.edu/pioneer/other/plaque.html
    http://teacherknowledge.wikispaces.com/file/view/PioneerPlaqueholding.jpg/30290049/PioneerPlaqueholding.jpg
  • 53. Astronomy1986- Now
    By KC, Alex, and Kristen
  • 54. The Galileo Probe
    • Launched on October 18,1989 on Atlantis
    • 55. Explored Jupiter and its moons from December 1995 to September 21, 2003
    • 56. The spacecraft was deliberately plunged into Jupiter’s atmosphere to protect the discovery of a possible ocean beneath the crust on Jupiter’s moon Europa
  • 57. The Galileo Project: Achievements
    • 1st spacecraft to fly by an asteroid
    • 58. 1st to discover a moon of an asteroid (Dactyl orbiting Ida)
    • 59. 1st to measure Jupiter’s atmosphere with a probe
    • 60. 1st to conduct long-term observations of the Jovian System from orbit
    • 61. Found evidence of subsurface saltwater on Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto
    • 62. Revealed volcanic activity on Io
  • 63. Col. Eileen Collins*First Woman Shuttle Commander*
    • Selected in 1990 by NASA
    • 64. Became an astronaut in 1991
    • 65. Originally assigned to Orbiter engineering support
    • 66. Served as pilot on STS-63 (February 3-11, 1995) and STS-84 (May 15-24, 1997), and was the commander on STS-93 (July 22-27, 1999) and STS-114 (July 26 to August 9, 2005)
    • 67. Collins has logged over 872 hours in space.
    • 68. Retired from NASA in May 2006.
  • 69. Constellation
    • Constellation is America’s plan to return to the moon and then to mars
    • 70. The program is being ended by Obama
    • 71. If the program were to go through it would eventually lead up to a moon base giving America a space colonization and military advantage
  • 72. Mars Pathfinder
    • Built to explore Mars and to prove a rover could be placed on mars at a low cost.
    • 73. Lasted until September of 1997
    • 74. Sent back 17000 pictures and 15 chemical analyses.
  • 75. Hubble Space Telescope
  • 76. Dr. Hubble
    • Hubble is the first space telescope
    • 77. NASA named it after American Astronomer Edwin P. Hubble
    • 78. Dr. Hubble confirmed an expanding universe
    • 79. Cost of launch is 1.5 billion dollars.
  • 80. Chris Cassidy
    • Accepted by NASA in 2004
    • 81. Born January 4th, 1970 in Salem Mass.
    • 82. Considers York Maine to be his home town
    • 83. Served 10 Years as a U.S. Navy Seal.
    • 84. Volunteered for a 180 mile charity kayak to raise money for Special Operations Warrior Foundation
  • Works Cited
    • http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/galileo/?CFID=30013625&CFTOKEN=55197149
    • 85. http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/collins.html
    • 86. http://www.ceo.wa.edu.au/home/carey.peter/astronomy.jpg
    • 87. http://lasp.colorado.edu/~bagenal/3750/ClassNotes/Class23/ida_dactyl.jpg
    • 88. http://freepages.misc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~nielsp/233/photos/astronomy/htm/galileo-spacecraft.jpg
    • 89. http://www.raumfahrer.net/raumfahrt/spaceshuttle/images/sts-114_crew.jpg
    • 90. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f2/Eileen_Collins,_early_NASA_portrait.jpg