Presented By- NATASHA SIDDIQUE ID NO:- 2009-1-10-176
The Pyramids of Egypt Built: From about 2700 to 2500 B.C. Location: Giza, Egypt, on west bank of Nile River near Cairo History: The Egyptian Pyramids are the oldest and only surviving member of the ancient wonders. Of the 10 pyramids at Giza, the first three are held in the highest regard. The first, and largest, was erected for the Pharaoh Khufu. Known as the Great Pyramid, it rises about 450 feet (having lost about 30 feet off the top over the years) and covers 13 acres. It's believed to have taken 100,000 laborers about 20 years to build the mammoth Khufu pyramid, using an estimated 2.3 million blocks. By one theory, crews dragged or pushed limestone blocks up mud-slicked ramps to construct the royal tombs. Many scholars think the pyramid shape was an important religious statement for the Egyptians, perhaps symbolizing the slanting rays of the sun. Some speculate the sloping sides were intended to help the soul of the king climb to the sky and join the gods. Today the Great Pyramid stands in it's place just as it did 100 or 1000 or 2000 years ago. The surfafe of the pyramids is, of course a little damaged, but inside everything is the same. At least the rooms are the same. All of the treasures and mummys found inside are either (unfortunately)stolen by graverobbers of safely put away in museums.
The Colossus of Rhodes Built: Early 200s B.C. Location: Near harbor of Rhodes, a Greek island in Aegean Sea History: The Greek sculptor Chares and his shop worked 12 years to build a giant bronze statue in honor of the sun god Helios. The statue, celebrating the unity of Rhodes' three city-states, is believed to have stood on a promontory overlooking the water. At approximately 120 feet, the bronze Colossus stood almost as high as the Statue of Liberty in the United States. Interior stone blocks and iron bars supported the hollow statue. Just 56 years after it was built, a strong earthquake destroyed it. Becausein AD 656 a scrap metal dealer bought the pieces and had them melted down, almose nothing is left of the statue. There are only numerous legends and storys. The harbour is a great tourist magnet nowerdays because once a great statue stood in that place.
The Pharos (Lighthouse) of Alexandria Built: About 304 B.C. Location: On ancient island of Pharos in harbor of Alexandria, Egypt History: Upon its completion, the Alexandria lighthouse -- commonly estimated to have been about 400 feet high -- was one of the tallest structures on Earth. The Greek architect Sostratus designed it during the reign of King Ptolemy II. The Pharos guided sailors into the city harbor for 1,500 years and was the last of the six lost wonders to disappear. Earthquakes toppled it in the 14th century A.D. An Arab traveler made notes in 1166 that provide intricate details on the structure. From his writing, archaeologists have deduced that the lighthouse was constructed in three stages. At the top, a mirror reflected sunlight during the day, and a fire guided sailors at night. The structure was so famous that the word "pharos" came to mean lighthouse in French, Italian and Spanish In November 1996, a team of divers searching the Mediterranean Sea claimed to have found the ruins of the fabled lighthouse of Pharos.
The Statue of Zeus Built: About 435 B.C. Location: Ancient Greek city of Olympia History: In about 435 B.C., the city of Olympia -- where the first Olympic Games were held in 776 B.C. -- built a temple to honor the god Zeus. Many considered the Doric-style temple too simple, so a lavish 40-foot statue of Zeus was commissioned for inside. Athenian sculptor Phidias created an ivory Zeus seated on a throne, draped in a gold robe. Zeus had a wreath around his head and held a figure of his messenger Nike in his right hand, and a scepter in his left. Eventually, wealthy Greeks decided to move the statue to a palace in Constantinople (present-day Istanbul, Turkey). Their effort prolonged its life, as fire later devastated the Olympia temple. However, the new location couldn't keep Zeus eternally safe: a severe fire destroyed the statue in 462 A.D. All that remains in Olympia are the temple's fallen columns and the foundation of the building. The tools wich Phidias used to craft the statue are also safely in a museum for the future generations to see.
The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus Built: About 353 B.C. Location: In what is now south-western Turkey History: This enormous white marble tomb was built to hold the remains of Mausolus (Mausollos), a provincial king in the Persian Empire, and his wife, Artemisia . Greek architects Satyrus and Pythius designed the approximately 135-foot-high tomb, and four famous Grecian sculptors added an ornamental frieze (decorated band) around its exterior. There were 36 columns holding the pyramid on top of the mausoleum. Word of the grandeur of the finished structure spread though the ancient world, and the word "mausoleum" came to represent any large tomb. The monument was damaged by an earthquake in the early 15th century and eventually disassembled. Only the foundation and some pieces remain. The British Museum in London has several of the mausoleum's sculptures. The polished stone and marble blocks of the Mausoleum can be spotted within the walls of a castle in Bodrum. Some of the sculptures survived and are today on display at the British Museum in London. These include fragment of statues and many slabs of the frieze showing the battle between the Greeks and the Amazons. At the site of the Mausoleum itself, only the foundation remains of the once magnificent Wonder.
The Temple of Artemis (Diana) at Ephesus Built: About 550 B.C. Location: In Greek city of Ephesus, on west coast of modern Turkey History: The great Ionian city of Ephesus was chosen as the site for one of the largest and most complex temples built in ancient times. The Temple of Artemis (Diana) had a marble sanctuary and a tile-covered wooden roof. Conceived by architect Chersiphron and his son, Metagenes, the temple's inner space featured a double row of at least 106 columns, each believed to be 40 to 60 feet high. The foundation was approximately 200 feet by 400 feet. The original temple burned in 356 B.C. and was rebuilt on the same foundation. Fire devastated the second temple in 262 A.D., but its foundation and some debris have survived. The British Museum in London counts some of the second temple's sculptures among its treasures. Only ruins are left today. They are a great subject for historians and archaeologists.
The Hanging Gardens of Babylon Built: About 605 B.C. Location: In Babylon near modern-day Baghdad, Iraq History: These gardens -- which may be only a fable -- are said to have been laid out on a brick terrace by King Nebuchadnezzar II for one of his wives. According to the writings of a Babylonian priest, they were approximately 400 feet square and 75 feet above the ground. His account says slaves working in shifts turned screws to lift water from the nearby Euphrates River to irrigate the trees, shrubs and flowers. Only legends are left of the gardens. There is no physical evidence of the gardens, but many people still search for them and artists keep making reconstructions of the long lost paradise-garden.