Virtual World Tutorial for I/ITSEC


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  • A lobby is an application whose primary purpose is to enable players to meet and arrange games. A lobby is in essence a collection of players and a collection of games. Each player may be in one or more games, and each game may contain one or more players. Players should be able to create, join, leave and start games, and they should be able to see which games are already available and which players are in the 'room', although this is simply a case of allowing the UI to see that data. A lobby should also fire events when players join or leave the server, or the state of a game changes (i.e. a new player joins, or it moves from setup to 'in play'), so that a UI can know when to update. Here is how you game Halo 3 Step 1 Shoot at the head. This is the first and most important skill you need to master in Halo 3. Step 2 Take cover. The best defense in Halo 3 is to expose as little of your body as possible so that your enemies have to hit a very small target. Step 3 Find your weapons of choice. There are several weapons in Halo 3 and none are necessarily better than the others. Step 4 Be cunning or erratic, whichever works best for you. Many Halo 3 players are going to tend toward being cautious, but there is something to be said about the player who plays with a controlled sense of chaos. Step 5 Learn the multiplayer maps. To be able to win consistently in multiplayer you need to get familiar with the maps. The best way to get familiar with the maps is to play them. Step 6 Remember your grenades. Grenades are powerful weapons in Halo 3 so don't forget you have them.
  • Definition from:
  • This includes but is not limited to user-generated content as in the Second LifeTM model.
  • This need not be measured in the thousands of users. Indeed, “massive” can refer more to density than to absolute size. A hundred users in a small environment (e.g., a building) can be more massive in the experience than several thousand users spread across an entire world, since the chances of encountering and interacting with another user are much higher. This solicitation does not specify a minimum number of users that must be in the VW; proposers must provide evidence that the existing number of users in the VW will be sufficient to research the behaviors of interest.
  • This can be either a 3- Dimensional (3D) thick client (e.g., World of WarcraftTM, Second LifeTM, etc.) or a 2-Dimensional (2D) browser-based client (e.g., Maple StoryTM, Travian, etc). While the means of interacting with other users can be voice or text chat, an environment which is exclusively or mostly text-based, with no graphical landscape (chat rooms, message boards, etc), is not considered a VW, for the purposes of the Reynard program.
  • Different VWs allow more or less degrees of freedom in customization of this representation. The user acts in the VW through the avatar. A challenge to VW acceptance by business and government is creating a trusted environment. This is especially true for sr. mgmt who often has viewed VWs as a frivolous game, a waste of time, a way to express deviant personalities that is not consistent with corporate behavior. One dimension to generating this trust is by having confidence of the digital identities for employees using VWs, that when I say I am Joe Smith, it really is me behind that avatar. So how do we create that trust and confidence in the avatars? There are four features we provide around digital identity that we believe will help enterprises and sr leadership have trust in VWs. The first is visual resemblence.
  • Persistence allows for continuing and growing social interactions, which themselves can serve as a basis for collaborative education.
  • This is commonly held to be the fundamental difference between MMOGs and VWs, but for the purposes of this solicitation this distinction is not relevant, so that World of WarcraftTM is just as much a VW as Second LifeTM.
  • The Internet is everywhere. 90% of the worlds population can have access to the Internet via landlines and 2.5 and 3rd Generation GSM (3G) coverage. The Internet is the starting place for virtual worlds because it defines how they distribute information and enable access.
  • Another way of understanding different learning media is how they fit into the activity-based taxonomy that DoD has established.
  • Different learning media have different costs and activity levels. Virtual worlds subsume all these technologies and methods into one common integrated environment.
  • For example, lectures and videos can be disseminated in virtual worlds.
  • Courseware base on the SCORM standard can be integrated into virtual worlds.
  • Simulations, scripting, and AI can be incorporated into virtual worlds that provide a level of interactivity and instructional cues In this example, soldiers can treat casualties on the ground, examine vital signs and apply tourniquets, bandages, injections, IVs
  • A virtual world enables free-play with the cues coming from the interaction of fellow students, role-players, and the environment.
  • The group will discuss.
  • What about other media costs? Here are some examples in comparison with virtual worlds. Most enterprise-grade teleconferencing systems charge $0.10 to $0.25 per person per minute which can equate to thousands of dollars of expense per employee every year. As the table shows, virtual worlds are slightly more expensive then web conferencing alone however most companies must pay extra to use a conference call or a VoIP system for the audio portion of their web conference.
  • DoD IA C&A Process Guidance (DIACAP) -- Health Information Privacy The Office for Civil Rights enforces the HIPAA Privacy Rule, which protects the privacy of individually identifiable health information, and the confidentiality provisions of the Patient Safety Rule, which protect identifiable information being used to analyze patient safety events and improve patient safety. Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) (20 U.S.C. § 1232g; 34 CFR Part 99) is a Federal law that protects the privacy of student education records. The law applies to all schools that receive funds under an applicable program of the U.S. Department of Education.
  • Accounting firm Ernst & Young has awarded $500,000 to North Carolina State University ’s accounting department – money the university says it will use to help develop a presence in the Second Life virtual community. Second LIfe, found at, is a 3-D virtual world where people interact with voice and text chatting. The site is used in business and educational circles, as well as for entertainment.
  • Good discussion of IP and Public Virtual Worlds at
  • Solutions: Testing, testing, testing Provision sufficient bandwidth Scale the groups (clumps) to match the bandwidth Use traffic shaping between server and client LAN to emphasize time sensitive data Consider rate and quality of service guarantees from network provider (e.g. MPLS) Run network monitoring and logging at all sites Don’t change network configuration after testing
  • Virtual World Tutorial for I/ITSEC

    1. 1. Virtual World Technologies for the 3D Internet Jon Watte Mike Macedonia
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>How virtual worlds differ from other forms of virtual learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>classroom; games; traditional simulation; video </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The pitfalls and opportunities inherent in implementing virtual world technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>what we’ve learned works and doesn’t work; where the cost goes; adoption impediments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What the different aspects to consider in a virtual world is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>openness vs. security, cost vs. scalability, technology vs. content, structured vs. free-form, interoperable vs. closed, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The approaches taken by different systems in delivering learning in a virtual world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(overview of Multiverse, OLIVE; Open Sim, Protosphere, Qwaq, Second Life) </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>At the conclusion of this tutorial you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enumerate the major ways in which virtual worlds differ from other virtual learning such as e-learning and distance learning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delineate the pitfalls and opportunities inherent in implementing virtual world technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define and describe the different axes along which a virtual world can be evaluated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Position the major current virtual world technologies along these evaluation axes </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Science Fiction Becoming Reality
    5. 5. What Is a Game? <ul><li>A game is a structured activity , usually undertaken for enjoyment and sometimes used as an educational tool. Games are distinct from work , which is usually carried out for remuneration , and from art , which is more concerned with the expression of ideas. However, the distinction is not clear-cut, and many games are also considered to be work (such as professional players of spectator sports/games) or art (such as jigsaw puzzles or games involving an artistic layout such as Mah-jongg solitaire ). </li></ul><ul><li>Key components of games are goals, rules , challenge , and interaction . Games generally involve mental or physical stimulation, and often both. Many games help develop practical skills , serve as a form of exercise , or otherwise perform an educational , simulational or psychological role. </li></ul>Wikipeadia
    6. 6. What is a Video Game Vs. Simulation? <ul><li>Video game: A virtual experience carefully designed to be entertaining (among other things) </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation: A recreation of key aspects of reality in a virtual environment </li></ul><ul><li>The two are not mutually exclusive </li></ul>Mike Van Lent
    7. 7. Other Key Components of Video Games and Military Simulations <ul><li>They have a beginning and an end (e.g. Chess) </li></ul><ul><li>They do not persist after play is done (e.g. America’s Army) </li></ul><ul><li>Network interaction is peer-to-peer or through a lobby </li></ul><ul><li>You can game the game (e.g., Halo 3) </li></ul>
    8. 8. What is a Virtual World? <ul><li>As defined by IARPA: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphical Landscape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avatars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persistent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Massive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Shared <ul><li>Changes made to the environment are theoretically viewable by any other user. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Massive <ul><li>A VW must have enough inhabitants for realistic patterns of human behavior and interaction to appear. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Graphical Landscape <ul><li>The primary means of interacting with the VW is generally through a rich graphical landscape using both verbal and non-verbal communication. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Avatars <ul><li>Users represent themselves through some form of visual representation. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Persistent <ul><li>A VW should have some “reality” that remains even when the user is logged off. This extends past merely saving state, because the state can evolve even when the user is not online. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Goals <ul><li>VWs may or may not have externally-defined goals. For example, World of Warcraft TM and similar game-themed VWs have “quests” or “missions” that are inserted by the developers. In contrast, Second LifeTM users must generate their own goals . </li></ul>
    15. 15. Intel’s Definition Source: Intel
    16. 16. How Do Virtual Worlds Differ From Other Forms of Virtual Learning? <ul><li>Classroom/lecture </li></ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul><ul><li>Courseware </li></ul><ul><li>Games </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional simulation </li></ul>
    17. 17. Virtual Worlds Reside On the Internet
    18. 18. Activity-based taxonomy <ul><li>Level 1 - Passive (student acts solely as a receiver of information). </li></ul><ul><li>Level 2 - Limited participation (student makes simple responses to instructional cues). </li></ul><ul><li>Level 3 - Complex participation (student makes a variety of responses using varied techniques in response to instructional cues). </li></ul><ul><li>Level 4 - Real-time participation (student is directly involved in a life-like set of complex cues and responses). </li></ul><ul><li>(Department of Defense, 2001) Development of Interactive Multimedia (Part 3 or 5 Parts) MIL-HDBK-29612-3 </li></ul>
    19. 19. Value Proposition Interactivity Cost I II III IV Lecture Courseware Virtual Simulation Live Field Exercise Virtual World
    20. 20. Level I <ul><li>Passive (student acts solely as a receiver of information) </li></ul>Video or Flash Based Web Content PowerPoint
    21. 21. Level II <ul><li>Limited participation (student makes simple responses to instructional cues). </li></ul>
    22. 22. Level III <ul><li>Level 3 - Complex participation (student makes a variety of responses using varied techniques in response to instructional cues). </li></ul>
    23. 23. Level IV <ul><li>Real-time participation (student is directly involved in a life-like set of complex cues and responses). </li></ul>
    24. 24. Other Applications of Virtual Worlds <ul><li>Media Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Group Meetings & Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Events </li></ul><ul><li>Team Project M anagement </li></ul>
    25. 25. Media Sharing Sharable Content Object Desktop Applications Microsoft PowerPoint White Board Video or Flash Based Web Content PowerPoint
    26. 26. Group Meetings & Collaboration <ul><li>Branded Rooms & Accessories </li></ul><ul><li>Identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personalized avatars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Profiles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Media Sharing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MS Powerpoint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop applications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Virtual Meeting Reservation System (VMRS) </li></ul><ul><li>Lotus Sametime Plug-in </li></ul>
    27. 27. Events <ul><li>3D Models </li></ul><ul><li>Event Roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presenter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Optimized Attendee Experience </li></ul>
    28. 28. Team Project Management <ul><li>Persistent Room </li></ul><ul><li>Screen placement optimized for team use </li></ul><ul><li>Team Documents </li></ul>
    29. 29. Now – a Didactic Experience <ul><li>Is VBS2 a game, simulation or a virtual world? </li></ul>
    30. 30. Are Virtual Worlds Effective? “ The participants were able to interact in ways that are quite similar to the ‘real life’ with role plays, assessing an interaction in video, making a presentation, participating in Q&A…The most amazing feature was that participants ‘stay with the program’ and stay interested instead of ‘multi-tasking’. ” Caroline Avey “ I could make my avatar express my thoughts and feelings when appropriate. I could walk up to the person I would like to talk to and it felt like they were actively listening to me.” Catherine Brumbaugh “ Several participants commented how this experience was more enjoyable then an audio based conference call even for just a meeting.” Bob Gerard
    31. 31. Value Proposition <ul><li>Requires visiting installed sites </li></ul><ul><li>Large download </li></ul><ul><li>Proven effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Easy entry for employees </li></ul><ul><li>Same as audio </li></ul><ul><li>Single media sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Pay extra for audio or VoIP calling </li></ul><ul><li>Poor participant attention span </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion context </li></ul><ul><li>No display of data </li></ul>Challenges <ul><li>Face-to-face like </li></ul><ul><li>Face-to-face like </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple media sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Appealing to Internet generation </li></ul><ul><li>Familiar </li></ul><ul><li>Ubiquitous </li></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive </li></ul><ul><li>Familiar </li></ul><ul><li>Ubiquitous </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived to be inexpensive </li></ul>Benefits Video Conferencing Virtual Worlds Web Conferencing Audio Conferencing <ul><li>$1000s </li></ul><ul><li>$60 to $167 </li></ul><ul><li>$500 to $1000s </li></ul>Costs (per person per year) <ul><li>$30 to $100 </li></ul>Enterprise Virtual Worlds Yield Immersive, Engaging, Interactive Experiences
    32. 32. Pitfalls and Opportunities <ul><li>The pitfalls and opportunities inherent in implementing virtual world technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>what we’ve learned works and doesn’t work; where the cost goes; adoption impediments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding your application </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network security and privacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Content development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual property (IP) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware and network performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interoperability </li></ul></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Understanding Your Application and Requirements <ul><li>Do you need physics simulation? </li></ul><ul><li>Is AI required? </li></ul><ul><li>What type of collaboration is required? </li></ul><ul><li>Is a record/replay capability needed? </li></ul><ul><li>What type of user? </li></ul><ul><li>Will you have to integrate with external models and simulations or other applications? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OneSAF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning Management Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Office </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How much control do you give your users vs. administrators? </li></ul><ul><li>What is your need for customization? </li></ul><ul><li>Need for real-world terrain? </li></ul>
    34. 34. Understanding Your Application and Requirements <ul><li>Live lectures in conjunction with PowerPoint? </li></ul><ul><li>Avatar-based role plays? </li></ul><ul><li>Asynchronous breakout sessions for team work, collaboration on lesson? </li></ul><ul><li>activities and exercises </li></ul><ul><li>Team presentations? </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom discussion, Q&A and interviews? </li></ul><ul><li>Live integration of video clips? </li></ul><ul><li>Voice integration? </li></ul>
    35. 35. Security and Privacy <ul><li>Content distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Behind the firewall or behind the firewall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Services vs. internal operations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Authentication of users and client software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lightweight Directory Access Protocol - LDAP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual world identities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hashing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-Authentication (USG) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Encryption of traffic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SSL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VPNs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Firewall and ports </li></ul><ul><li>User scripting </li></ul><ul><li>DIACAP/Networthiness Certification </li></ul><ul><li>HIPAA and FERPA </li></ul>
    36. 36. Content Development <ul><li>Generally the most expensive part of virtual world development </li></ul><ul><li>In-world tools (e.g. Second Life) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content can’t be reused outside of SL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commercial and free tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Google Sketchup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3DSMax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autocad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Google KMZ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data import/export </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collada </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legacy Content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OpenFlight </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Government standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SE CORE </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Intellectual Property <ul><li>Big questions to ask </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who owns the IP if it resides on in an external service? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who owns the IP if all the development is done “in-world”? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can I reuse content? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizations have much to gain from the leaps in technology behind multiplayer virtual worlds, but companies might be best advised to begin considering alternatives to public worlds now. Organizations can design, deploy, and maintain their own proprietary virtual universe solutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Public Virtual Worlds: Ready for Corporate Prime Time? </li></ul><ul><li> Sandy Carter </li></ul>
    38. 38. Hardware and Network Performance <ul><li>Network performance is a function of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System hardware (computers, routers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network topology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Big pipes going into smaller pipes you lose packets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External network traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selfish real-time competing applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. video and VOIP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denial of Service (DOS) attacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poorly configured sub-lans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Server performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scalability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As new client are added can processes be spread across more CPU’s/Cores </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network bandwidth both internal and external </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PC client performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Function of CPU and GPU </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graphics card memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physics simulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other applications that are running </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Interoperability <ul><li>Industry standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3DMax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KMZ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collada </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Government standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DIS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HLA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OneSAF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SECore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SCORM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>API’s </li></ul>
    40. 40. Technical Considerations
    41. 41. Overview of VW Technologies <ul><li>Major VWs used for “serious” purposes, in alphabetical order: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiverse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Olive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Sim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qwaq Web Forums </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second Life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Excluding World of Warcraft, Club Penguin, vMTV and others who have not seen any “serious” use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Although some people have meetings in WoW(!) </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Multiverse <ul><li>Proprietary software </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on enabling massive user counts for online games </li></ul><ul><li>Generally, servers hosted by Multiverse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Billing goes through Multiverse; they take a cut </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also possible to purchase a “copy” of the Multiverse technology, to host privately. </li></ul><ul><li>Requires custom development </li></ul><ul><li>Uses open source Ogre3D renderer with proprietary extensions for clients </li></ul><ul><li>Uses proprietary Java object database for servers </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on game systems </li></ul>
    43. 43. Olive <ul><li>Proprietary software </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally sold as Enterprise Installation scaling to massive user counts; also available as hosted offering. </li></ul><ul><li>Available “ready-made” content for a variety of situations (business, medical, school, army, …) </li></ul><ul><li>Strong collaboration and session review functionality. </li></ul><ul><li>Designed for integration with existing and third-party systems (DIS, GIS, MIS etc.). </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on supporting organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Army, Air Force, Medical, Educational, Commercial, … </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Open Sim <ul><li>Free Software (“copyleft”) simulation system </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to not protect content (only “free” content allowed) </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly based on reverse-engineered Second Life protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Generally attached to using the commercial or open source Second Life client </li></ul><ul><li>Developers can put in other kinds of simulations as desired </li></ul><ul><li>Requires both dedicated server hardware and specialized developers to create what you want </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on enabling research and development in VW technology </li></ul>
    45. 45. Protosphere <ul><li>Proprietary software </li></ul><ul><li>The platform is included when buying curriculum development from Proton Media </li></ul><ul><li>Does not scale to massive amounts of users </li></ul><ul><li>Proton Media does custom development for the platform </li></ul><ul><li>Some ready-made curricula may be available </li></ul><ul><li>Focus is on distance learning </li></ul>
    46. 46. Qwaq Web Forums <ul><li>Qwaq Web Forums is a combination of open source (Croquet) and proprietary software. </li></ul><ul><li>Works best on a LAN; remote access through VPN. </li></ul><ul><li>Strong collaboration and presentation tools. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally sold as a hosted service with user payments per month. </li></ul><ul><li>Works out of the box </li></ul><ul><li>Focus is on small team collaboration – on the order of 10 persons. </li></ul>
    47. 47. Second Life <ul><li>The spiritual successor of Active Worlds (one of the early user-built virtual worlds from the ’90s). </li></ul><ul><li>User expression and user-driven commerce. </li></ul><ul><li>Adult areas, “mainstream” areas and “teen” areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Client software is available as open source. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally hosted at Second Life data centers on a monthly basis, requires no dedicated servers at the users. </li></ul><ul><li>Currently in closed alpha test of enterprise installation versions. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on user-created content. </li></ul><ul><li>Built-in content creation tools, but very hard to import/export </li></ul>
    48. 48. Aspects of Virtual Worlds <ul><li>Five dimensions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Openness vs. security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology vs. content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured vs. free-form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interoperable vs. closed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open source vs. vendor supported </li></ul></ul>
    49. 49. Openness vs. Security <ul><li>Openness means “anyone can go anywhere and do anything” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great for development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works in a small, trusted environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Falls apart with scale, even in a trusted environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Security means what it sounds like </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy dictates who can do what </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes are recorded in an audit trail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Lock down” prevents any unintended changes </li></ul></ul>
    50. 50. Openness vs. Security Open Secure
    51. 51. Technology vs. Content <ul><li>Technology is what you can do in the world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If it’s not supported by the tech, there’s a brick wall </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology is expensive to develop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But it is typically shared by a lot of users/customers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kinds of technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modification </li></ul></ul>
    52. 52. Technology vs. Content <ul><li>Content is what you experience in the world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrain, avatars, animations, sounds, actions and anything else you can see. The role of technology is to enable the content. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Content is also expensive to develop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>And is typically not as shareable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some vendors offer “content packs” or ready-made content that may be useful. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vendors with user-generated content may have auctions or bazaars of existing content (for better or for worse) </li></ul></ul>
    53. 53. Technology vs. Content <ul><li>Kinds of content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avatars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NPC (“bot”) humans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrain, Culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PowerPoint, Web pages, Movies, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    54. 54. Technology and Content Technology Content
    55. 55. Structured vs. Free-form <ul><li>Free-form worlds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free-form worlds let users generally drop in and out as desired </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning is generally structured as “discoverable” activities within the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meetings and discussions are generally impromptu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare to a pen and notepad: It’s really flexible, and easy to use, but it doesn’t scale very far. </li></ul></ul>
    56. 56. Structured vs. Free-form <ul><li>Structured Worlds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users are generally in the world on a schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>While the world is persistent, the participation is task oriented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tasks can be a specific meeting, a specific learning objective, a specific simulation, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare to a printed book: once the initial hump is crossed, mass reach is cheap and easy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You generally want some of each </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which one you prioritize depends on needs and policy </li></ul></ul>
    57. 57. Structure vs. Free-form Structure Free Form
    58. 58. Interoperable vs. Closed <ul><li>You may want to “get there from here” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the world integrate with existing authentication? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the world integrate with existing IT infrastructure? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you re-use existing content, such as terrain databases, building drawings, simulators, etc.? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you tie the world to other running worlds? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you put data in, and take data out, to/from the real world? (GPS etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What analysis tools does the world work with? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does it use an open database schema, or a proprietary database? </li></ul></ul>
    59. 59. Interoperability (Current & Possible) Interoperable Closed
    60. 60. Open Source vs. Vendor Supported <ul><li>Open Source is free (as in “free beer”) if some college student or other volunteer needs the same thing as you need. </li></ul><ul><li>Open Source is expensive (requires in-house developers) as soon as your needs do not match volunteers. </li></ul><ul><li>Open Source has shown itself poor at generating content (terrain, avatars, vehicles, etc.), and OK at technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Vendor Supported means that the vendor is in the business of developing custom solutions. </li></ul><ul><li>“Adding on” to a vendor solution is generally cheaper than developing from scratch. </li></ul>
    61. 61. Open Source vs. Vendor Development Open Source Vendor Development
    62. 62. Summary <ul><li>How virtual worlds differ from other forms of virtual learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>classroom; games; traditional simulation; video </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The pitfalls and opportunities inherent in implementing virtual world technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>what we’ve learned works and doesn’t work; where the cost goes; adoption impediments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What the different aspects to consider in a virtual world is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>openness vs. security, cost vs. scalability, technology vs. content, structured vs. free-form, interoperable vs. closed, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The approaches taken by different systems in delivering learning in a virtual world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(overview of Multiverse, OLIVE, Open Sim, Protosphere, Qwaq, Second Life) </li></ul></ul>
    63. 63. Questions?
    64. 64. Backup