Cold War: Superpowers Face OffLearning Objectives1. Analyze the main objectives of both the UnitedStates and the Soviet Union in the post war era,and decide which country best achieved theirgoals.2. Develop a chart that shows U.S. and Soviet actionsprior to the Cold War, and determine whichcountry was most responsible for the conflict.3. Create a political cartoon depicting capitalism orcommunism from the perspective of the opposingcountry.
Yalta: 4 Zones, Reparations, Free ElectionsBerlin Airlift: East Germany, East BerlinUSSR Builds A Buffer in East- ‘Satellite Nations’Iron Curtain Divides East and West EuropeA Different World War For Two Countries…Policy of Containment $$$$Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan $$Rival Alliances- NATO vs. WARSAWUnited Nations Formed (Prevent Aggressors)Communism vs. Capitalism Bring The World to ‘Brinksmanship’Cold War: Superpowers Face Off
U.S. Actions Soviet ActionsMarshall PlanAid to Greece & TurkeyContainment PolicyTruman DoctrineBerlin AirliftNo Free ElectionsReparations $$$Control of East EuropeBerlin Blockade
The U.S. Wanted To… The Soviets Wanted To…Give Nations Self-Determinationin ElectionsGain Access to Raw materialsand Markets for its IndustriesRebuild European Governmentsto Ensure Stability for U.S.MarketsReunite GermanyEncourage Communism in OtherCountries As Part of the WorldStruggle Between Workers andWealthyRebuild It’s EconomyControl East Europe to BalanceU.S. Control of WestKeep Germany Divided & Weakso it Would Never Attack
Communists Take Power in ChinaLearning Objectives1. Understand how the Chinese civil war andthe ultimate Communist takeover led toincreased Cold War tensions between theU.S. and the Soviet Union.2. Make a two column chart that shows thecauses and effects of the Communistrevolution in China.3. Sketch a recreation of a typical Chinesepeasant commune created by Mao Zedongin 1958.
Kickoff Question: Communists Take Power in China
Jiang Jieshi (So) vs. Mao Zedong (Nor)Soviet Union and China End ‘Relationship’Japan Leaves China = North / South Civil WarContainment ($) Fails! North Wins, 2 China’sChiang’s Gov. Corrupt, Zedong Helps PoorMao Gave Land to Peasants, ‘Communes’Communal Dorms, Dining, & Living = FailedMao and ‘Red Guards’ Try Cultural RevolutionU.S. Supports Nationalist Jiang w/ $$$$Mao Zedong Attempts to Make China a World PowerCommunists Take Power in China
Causes EffectsNationalists andCommunists face off in aChinese Civil War.Communist Forces Led ByMao Zedong Won SupportBy Winning Over PeasantPopulation10 % of the PopulationControlled 70 % of theFarmland.Mao Zedong Divided LandAmong Peasants andForced Many to Live inCollective Communes.Communist Party Wantedto Create Social Equalityin China.The Young “Red Guard”Army Attempted to DefeatMao’s Enemies. This Ledto Even More Instability.
Connecting The Notes: Communists Take Power inChina
Exit Slip Question: Communists Take Power in China
Containment: Stop Spread of Communism1964-1975: Guerilla Warfare, Bad South Gov…Korean War = Back and Forth 3 Year StalemateChina Helps North Korea, US Leaves 1953North=Communist, South=Western InfluenceFrance Leaves Vietnam 1954…Domino Theory?N. Vietnam Communist, S. Vietnam Dictator1975 Leave Vietnam- 58,000 U.S. Troops Dead38thParallel Line Divides KoreaContainment Policy Leads to Death and Two Stalemate WarsWars in Korea and Vietnam
Neither SideGained anAdvantageSoviet-supportedNorth VietnameseWon the warU.S. and SovietInvolvementStemmed fromCold WarLand wasDestroyedMillions Died
Connecting The Notes: Wars in Korea and Vietnam
Kickoff Question: The Cold War Divides the World
1stIndustrialized 2ndCommunist 3rdDevelopingIran-U.S. Supports Shah, Ayatollah = Anti-WestInfluence?: Back Wars, Spy, Military Aid, $$$$Cuba- Fidel Castro = Nationalize Economy“Hot Spots” = Democracy or Communism?U.S. Trained Anti-Castro Exiles: Bay of PigsSoviets Respond by Building Missiles in CubaAyatollah (Iran) v. Saddam (Iraq)=Support BothUnstable Areas: Latin America, Asia, AfricaDemocracy vs. Communism: Struggle for Influence in Various Hot SpotsThe Cold War Divides the World
The two superpowers triedto win allies by givingfinancial aid to othernations. For instance, Egypttook aid from the SovietUnion to build the AswanHigh Dam.Fearing the enemy might begaining an advantage, eachside spied on the other.One famous incident wasthe Soviet downing of a U.S.U-2 spy plane in 1960.To gain the support of othernations, both the SovietUnion and the United Statesentered into alliances. Twoexamples of this were NATOand the Warsaw Pact.Both superpowers usedpropaganda to try to winsupport overseas. Forexample, Radio Free Europebroadcast radio programsabout the rest of the worldinto Eastern Europe.The policy of brinkmanshipmeant going to the brink ofwar to make the other sideback down. One example isthe Cuban Missile Crisis.The word surrogate meanssubstitute. Although theUnited States and the SovietUnion did not fight eachother directly, they foughtindirectly by backingopposing sides in manysmaller conflicts.
Connecting The Notes: The Cold War Divides the World
Exit Slip Question: The Cold War Divides the World
1950s & 1960s- Eastern Europe Protests USSRNixon Visits China and USSR: SALT I TreatyBrezhnev (Strict) Replaces Khrushchev (Weak)Brezhnev Invades Czech (Becoming too Weak)1956- Hungary Protests Communism- DefeatedSoviets and Chinese End Their AllianceU.S. Détente (less tensions) NOT BrinkmanshipReagan Moves Away from Détente PolicyNikita Khrushchev: Destalinization CampaignThe Cold War ‘Stabilizes’ Under New Leadership in U.S. & Soviet UnionThe Cold War Thaws
Kickoff Question: The Collapse of the Soviet Union
Brezhnev Dies 1982: Who Takes Over USSR?Boris Yeltsin Gains Support of ParliamentChurches Open, Prisoners Released, Free PressReform Economy? Perestroika Policy…Gorbachev Glasnost Policy: Promote OpennessSmall Business Ok & Managers Gain AuthorityDemocratization: Open Political SystemsGorbachev Attempts Coup, Fails, Comm. OverMikhail Gorbachev- Young, Energetic, NewGorbachev’s Failed Attempt at a Communist Coup - USSR CollapsesThe Collapse of the Soviet Union
= OpennessChurches OpenedPolitical Prisoners ReleasedBanned Authors AllowedTo Publish Books AgainOkay for Reporters toCriticize Officials= Economic RestructuringManagers of Farms andFactories Could MakeMore Decisions onTheir OwnPeople Could Open SmallPrivate BusinessesTried to PreserveCommunismGradual Opening of thePolitical SystemElection of a New Group ofLawmakersCommunist Party No LongerChose All Candidates
Connecting The Notes: The Collapse of the Soviet Union
Exit Slip Question: The Collapse of the Soviet Union