Lecture 1• Technology• The Meaning of Technology• The word technology derived from the Greek word “technologia”. Techne – art/craft and Logos – word/speech• During the 17th century.• Technology was claimed as the discussion on applied arts and objects/tools• Early 20th century.• Technology include the ways, processes and ideas on the whole production of an object.
Meaning Of Technology• In the middle of 20th century• Technology was refer as the activities where man change and manipulate its environment.• 21st century• Technology is a broad concept that deals with „usage and knowledge of tools and crafts‟ The ability to control and manipulate the environment. Knowledge that people used to extend human abilities to satisfy human needs and wants for human comfort.
WHO IS TECHNOCRAT•Technocrat is an advocate oftechnology, an expert in sometechnology especially one in managerialor administrative role.•An individual who makes decisionsbased solely on technical information( askilful scientist)
TECHNOCRAT CRITERIAS• A person who has been educated in science and technology.• Technologically trained.• Has power and authority either in the public or private sector.• Do the planning, a policy and decision maker.• Practice his skill and knowledge continuously
CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION OFDEVELOPMENT• From the verb „to develop‟ – to change gradually, progressing through a number of stages towards some sort of expansion improvement or completeness.• In 19th CENTURY.• The sociologist of the 19th century ( Auguste Comte, Emile Durkheim, Max Webber and Karl Marx) perceived development with the transformation of society or mankind from one stage to another according to their economic activities.• Example.• Auguste Comte:• Society transformed from primitive society – herding society – holticulture society – peasant society – industrial society – post industrial society.
Development – Early 20th Century• Development is considered as a social transformation. After the 2nd world war the colonial powers began to accept the need for social and economic development. It includes the non-economic sectors:• Education.• Health.• Transportation.• Moral and Values. Etc
Development from SocialPerspective• A concern of the well-being of individuals or group of peoples/societies.• A new concept of the state of development.• A. Concern with mankind.• B. Conceived as a state of human well-being rather than as the state of the national economy.• C. „Man-centered‟ development. There are two main ways.• 1. Increasing concern about the non-economic aspect of development.• 2.concern with the distribution of the benefits of development.• DUDLEY SEERS – „DEVELOPMENT‟ to refer both to the process of change and the state resulting from this process.
Development From SecularPerspective DUDLEY SEERS WROTE: The questions to ask about a country‟s development are therefore: 1. What has been happening to poverty? 2. What has been happening to unemployment? 3. What has been happening to inequality?
• Michael P. Todaro perceived development as a process of changes in the economic and social system. It is not only to increase percapita income but it includes changes in social institution, administrative structure, public opinion, culture and beliefs/religion.
• If all three of these have declined from high levels, then beyond doubt this has been a period of development for the country concerned. If one or two of these central problems have been growing worse, especially if all three have, it would be strange to call the result „development‟ even if per capita income doubled.
DEVELOPMENT- POLITICALPERSPECTIVE• Concerned with the distribution of power between different groups or individuals, particularly the power to control or make decision about the usage of resources.
• Development = Modernization.• Most third world countries consider that development is equal to modernization. In order for a country to develop it has to follow the WESTERN countries.• Due to the perception that modernization = westernization.•
• Development – industrialization• For a country to develop it has to change the economic activities from traditional economy to industrial economy. Industrialization is part of modernization. So for a country to become a develop country it has to change its economic activities.
DEVELOPMENT ISLAMICPERSPECTIVE• Muhammad Akhir and Hailani• „Development in Islam is based on values orientations. It‟s aimed is to develop the social welfare of the ummah in every aspects‟ (moral, material and personal development)• TWO STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT• STAGE 1 : INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT• STAGE 2 : PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
• Development process begins with moral, spiritual and mental development.• Man as an active agent of transformation.• Man are responsible for the success and failure of their life in this world or world after (akhirat)• RESPONSIBILITES towards: 1. ALLAH 2. MANKIND 3. SELF 4. ENVIRONMENT
BASICS DEVELOPMENT IN ISLAM• THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF EVERY INDIVIDUALS• 1. TO DEVELOP THE COUNTRY• 2. OVERCOME DEVELOPMENT OBSTACLES• 3. DEVELOP MUSLIM CIVILIZATION• 4. NOT TO ACCEPT SECULAR AND WESTERN CIVILIZATION THAT ARE FORBIDDEN BY ISLAM
ISLAM- DEVELOPMENT GOAL• 1.The important of Personal and Individual• development.• 2. Increase the quality of human life.• 3. Sustainable Development• 4. Innovation in new technology that benefits mankind.• 5. Stimulate productions which benefits the nations.• 6. Reduce dependency to other countries and build integration among Islamic Countries.
SECULAR- DEVELOPMENT GOAL• 1. Increase National Income and Percapita Income.• 2. Innovation on new technology.• 3. Reduce poverty, exploitation and inequalities.• 4. Increase the quality of human life.• 5. Increase the country economy.• 6. A good life - world
DEVELOPMENT MEASUREMENT• Gross National Product /Gross Domestic Product• GDP is defined as the value of all (final) goods and services produced in a country in one year by the nationals, plus income earned by its citizens abroad, minus income earned by foreigners in the country. The total amount will be divided with the total numbers of population in the country.
DEVELOPMENT MODELS.• CAPITALISM.• A social system based on the principle of individual rights – free market.• DYANAMIC CRITERIA OF CAPITALISM• 1. INDIVIDUALLY OWNED• 2. LAISSEZ- FAIRE• 3. PROFIT MOTIVE
SOCIALISM MODEL• The Economic criteria of socialism. ALL IMPORTANT INDUSTRIES ARE OWNED BY THE STATE.• STRICT CONTROL ON FOREIGN INVESTMENT.• LABOUR SYSTEM ARE CONTROL BY THE STATE.. AGRICULTURE ACTIVITIES ARE CONTROL BY THE STATE AND IS WORKED COLLECTIVELY.
THE ROLE OF TECHNOCRATS INECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT• CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT• Economic Perspective:• Increase in output of goods and services.• Technologist Perspective:• Refer to transformation of technology from simple and traditional technology to application of scientific knowledge.
CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION OFECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT• From the perspective of the industrial sector:• The transition from using man and animal power to machine.• Management perspective:• Division of labour, profit and loss, wages system and training.• Political point of view:• There are two views:• i. DEVELOP COUNTRIES.• - has a mechanism to strengthen it political influence internationally.• - has a mechanism to widespread capitalism and socialism economy.• ii. UNDER DEVELOP COUNTRIES.• - to avoid/stop the country from being exploited by other countries.
THE ECONOMIC FACTORS TODEVELOP A COUNTRY• 1. Increase savings, investment and usage of new technology.• 2. Develop agriculture activities.• 3. Increase export.• 4. Develop human resources (training and retraining)
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT• Economic development is important to fulfill the basic needs.• 3 basic needs.• 1. Consumption goods (food, clothing and shelter)• 2. Basic services (Education, health, clean water supply and electricity)• 3. The right to participate in one‟s own development. The right to productive employment.• All these 3 basic needs can only be obtained through economic activities.
TECHNOCRATS ROLE• 1. New invention – for internal and external market.• 2. Build new firms and industry – more job prospects.• 3. Expert in management, financial and marketing.
Discussion on other countriesexperienced• 1. Germany• 2. Australia/New Zealand• 3. * MALAYSIA
THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT• MODERNIZATION THEORY• The 3rd World Countries are backwards due to:• 1. CULTURE• 2.ATTITUDE• 3. MENTALITY• WALT ROSTOWS‟ STAGE THEORY• The stages of development.• 1.The traditional society.• 2. Preconditions for take-off.• 3. Take-off.• 4. The drive to maturity.• 5. The age of high mass consumption.
DUAL ECONOMIC THEORY• The discussion is on the existence of two sectors. A relatively advanced sector and a relatively backward sector.• Such as CAPITALIST and SUBSISTENCE.• MODERN and TRADITIONAL.• URBAN and RURAL
DEPENDENCY THEORY• The international system as comprised of two sets of state.• 1.METROPOLITAN (CENTER)• 2.SATELLITE (PERIPHERY)• The dependency of the satellite states towards the metropolitan states cause the satellite states underdeveloped
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT• Transformation of society/mankind is related to technological development.• Changes in social system – behaviour, social interaction, personality and culture is also related with technology changes.
THE DIMENSIONS OF SOCIALDEVELOPMENT.• 1. UPGRADE THE SOCIAL QUALITY OF LIFE• There are 5 elements:• 1. Health Care.• Technocrats involved are Health Directors etc.• 11. Food and Water Supply• 111. Education.• 1V. Housing• V. Social Welfare and Services
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT• Political development is perceived as a prerequisite towards economic development.• Political development is important as development of a country depend on political stability.
THE DIMENSIONS OF POLITICALDEVELOPMENT.• 1. Develop the Political Institutions and systems• i. to develop political parties:• a. political leaders/elites.• b. functions of political parties.• ii. Government machinery•
• 2. Increase the Public Involvement in political process.• 3. National Intergration.
TECHNOCRAT AND PROFESSIONALETHICS• Definition – Ethics• 1. Rightness or wrongness of the behaviour or actions of people who work in business organization.• 2. The kind of behaviour expected by society or specific group over and above legal requirements. (Law, norms, religious principles)• 3. Critical analysis of human acts to determined their rightness or wrongness in terms of two major criteria: TRUTH AND JUSTICE
• EX. UNETHICAL BEHAVIOUR – CRITERIA OF TRUTH.• - false report.• - hiding a person wrong doings.• EX. UNETHICAL BEHAVIOUR – CRITERIA OF JUSTICE• - gain credit from other people work.• - being bias to clients due to personal interest
UNETHICAL ACT BY THEPROFESSIONAL• 1. CORRUPTION• 2.CHEAT• Examples. False documents• False information• Through advertisement.
PROFESSIONAL ETHIC CODE• Function of the professional ethic code.• 1. Inspiration and guideline.• 2. as a support system• 3. discipline• 4. uphold professional‟s prestige and image• 5. to with stand harmony in the society