Curiosity talk summer_interns_jun2013


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  • Please update your name on this title slide.Also, please check for the latest version at:1) MSL Reports > Strategic Tab > Science Operations2) MSL Science Team Wiki3) Docushare 1028 “Surface Mission Outreach Slide Set”
  • Such craters are widespread on Mars, and therefore record a fundamental suite of processes that we should understand if we are to interpret the evolution of the matian surface.
  • Begin to see this diversity just be looking at the HiRise imagery
  • Curiosity talk summer_interns_jun2013

    1. 1. Results from theMars Science LaboratoryAllan TreimanMSL Science Team6/05/2013NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS
    2. 2. Curiosity’s ScienceObjectivesCuriosity’s primary scientific goal isto explore and quantitatively assessa local region on Mars’ surface as apotential habitat for life, past orpresent• Biological potential• Geology andgeochemistry• Role of water• Surface radiation
    3. 3. A field of approximately 54 different landing sites wasultimately narrowed down to Gale CraterMartian Landing SitesPHOENIXPATHFINDERVIKING 2VIKING 1OPPORTUNITYSPIRIT
    4. 4.
    5. 5. Gale is part of a family of craters with a complex historyWhy Gale Crater?BecquerelNoachis regionHenry
    6. 6. Gale Crater has intriguing large-scale geomorphic featuresWhy Gale Crater?• Enclosed basin at -4070 metersdefined by canyon near ellipseand a prominent change in slopeDistinct changes in “base level”are suggested by channel suites• Enclosed basin at -3510 metersdefined by Grand Canyon mouthand a prominent change in slope• Base level at -2290 meters definedby rim-breeching canyon, a changein slope, and initiation point ofthe Grand Canyon• Reference point at -735 metersthat marks the elevation of breechalong the southern crater rimSumner (2011) LSWG
    7. 7. More than 5 km of strata are preserved in the central moundWhy Gale Crater?
    8. 8. Why Gale Crater?Strata show evidence for diverse sedimentary environmentsHiRise Mosaic2 km
    9. 9. Target: Gale Crater andMount SharpNASA/JPL-Caltech/ESA/DLR/FU Berlin/MSSSNASA/JPL-Caltech
    10. 10. Curiosity’s Science PayloadChemCam(Chemistry)Mastcam(Imaging)REMS(Weather)DAN(SubsurfaceHydrogen)SAM(Chemistryand Isotopes)CheMin(Mineralogy)MARDI(Imaging)APXS(Chemistry) MAHLI(Imaging)RAD(Radiation)DrillScoopBrushSieves
    11. 11. THE PATH TO MARS THE PATH TO THE SURFACENov. 26, 2011…
    12. 12. Heat shield separation capturedby Curiosity’s Mars Descent ImagerNASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS
    13. 13. Curiosity on parachute, imaged byHiRISE on the Mars Reconnaissance OrbiterNASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Arizona
    14. 14. Mastcam mosaic of Mount Sharp, descentrocket scours, and rover shadowNASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS
    15. 15. Trek toward Glenelg andDiscovery of Conglomerate
    16. 16. Curiosity progressed toward Glenelg, wherethree distinct terrain types meetNASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Arizona
    17. 17. The conglomerate “Link” with associatedloose, rounded pebblesNASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS
    18. 18. The conglomerate reveals an ancientstreambed, likely originating at the northernNASA/JPL-Caltech/UofA
    19. 19. Rocknest Scooping Campaign
    20. 20. Sand dune (“shadow”) at the Rocknest siteNASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS
    21. 21. Curiosity self-portraitat RocknestAssembled from 55MAHLI imagesShows four scooptrenches and wheelscuffNASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS
    22. 22. NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSSMAHLI view of coarse (0.5 to 1.5 mm) sandfrom the ripple’s surface, and fine (< 0.25mm) sand on wall and floor of trench
    23. 23. SAM andCheMinanalysesofRocknestSand made ofbasalt minerals(olivine, pyroxenesplagioclase), similar to soils onMarsX-raydiffractionpatternfromCheMinNASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSSNASA/JPL-Caltech/AmesGasesreleasedduring SAMexperimentsNASA/JPL-Caltech/GoddardEvidence forsulfates, carbonates, and(possibly) perchlorates; lotsof adsorbed water.
    24. 24. Measurements of Mars’Atmosphere and Environment
    25. 25. Curiosity’s Rover Environmental MonitoringStation is taking weather readings 24 7REMS’ ground andair temperaturesensors are locatedon small booms onthe rover’s mastThe groundtemperaturechanges by 90 C(170 degreesFahrenheit)between day andnightThe air is warmerthan the ground atnight, and coolerduring themorning, before it isheated by thegroundNASA/JPL-Caltech/CAB(CSIC-INTA)
    26. 26. REMS pressure measurements detectlocal, regional, and global weather phenomenaEach day thepressure varies byover 10%, similar tothe change inpressure betweenLos Angeles andDenverSolar heating of theground drives apressure “tidalwave” that sweepsacross the planeteach dayNASA/JPL-Caltech/CAB(CSIC-INTA)/FMI/Ashima ResearchEarth’s atmosphere = 101,325Pascals, or about 140 times thepressure at Gale CraterOverall, the pressureis increasing ascarbon dioxidesublimates from thesouthern seasonalpolar cap
    27. 27. Curiosity’s Radiation Assessment Detectormeasures high-energy radiationRAD observedgalactic cosmicrays and five solarenergetic particleevents travelingfrom Earth to MarsMars’ atmospherepartially shields thesurface fromradiation. When theatmosphere isthicker (higherREMSpressure), RADmeasures lessradiation.NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI
    28. 28. The SAM Tunable Laser Spectrometer and MassSpectrometer measure atmospheric compositionSAM found thatargon, rather than nitrogenis the second mostabundant gasSAM also found that Mars’atmosphere is enriched inthe heavy versions ofisotopes, indicating thatatmospheric loss hasoccurredMethane has not beendefinitively detectedTLS uses infrared lasersand mirrors to measure theabsorption of light byatmospheric gasesNASA/JPL-Caltech/GoddardAtmospheric GasAbundancesMeasured by SAM
    29. 29. The Glenelg Regionand Yellowknife Bay
    30. 30. Curiosity is currently exploring YellowknifeBay, a basin within the Glenelg regionNASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Arizona
    31. 31. Nested, hand-lens imaging of the 25-cm (10”)high rock Jake MatijevicNASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS
    32. 32. Jake Matijevic studied by Mastcam(image), APXS, and ChemCamNASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSSLANL/IRAP/CNES/IAS/LPGNComposition is similar to alkalinebasalts on Earth produced bypartial melting of the mantle0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 130.010.1110BrZnNiFeMnCrTiCaKClSPSiMgAlNacountspersecondEnergy [keV]sol34 Caltarget 90 minsol46 JakeMatijevic 30 minNASA/JPL-Caltech/U. GuelphAPXS Spectra
    33. 33. “Shaler” rocks just outside Yellowknife Bay showinclined, fine layers that indicate sediment transportNASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS
    34. 34. Heading into Yellowknife BayNASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS
    35. 35. Postcards fromYellowknife Bayshowing a diversity ofrocktypes, fractures, andveinsNASA/JPL-CaltechNASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS
    36. 36. “Sheepbed” rocks contain manyspherules, concretions, suggesting that waterpercolated though poresNASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS
    37. 37. “Sheepbed” rocks also contain 1 to 5-mm fracturesfilled with calcium sulfate minerals that precipitatedfrom fluids at low to moderate temperaturesNASA/JPL-Caltech/LANL/CNES/IRAP/IAS/LPGN/CNRS/LGLyon/Planet-TerreChemCam spectra from sol 125“Crest” and 135 “Rapitan”ChemCam RemoteMicro-Imager
    38. 38. Drill Campaign atJohn Klein, Yellowknife Bay
    39. 39. John Klein drill site showing fractured bedrockand ridge-forming veinsNASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS
    40. 40. Targets studied to prepare for drillingNASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS
    41. 41. APXS and the dust-removing brushNASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSSAPXS sees higher sulfur andcalcium in vein-rich rockRemoving the dust results inslightly lower sulfurNASA/JPL-Caltech/U. Guelph
    42. 42. Arm deployed at John KleinNASA/JPL-Caltech/D. Bouic
    43. 43. Curiosity’s 1.6-cm drill bit, drill and testholes, and scoop full of acquired sampleNASA/JPL-Caltech/LANL/CNES/IRAP/IAS/LPGNNASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS
    44. 44. X-ray diffraction patterns from Rocknest (left)and John Klein (right)NASA/JPL-Caltech/Ames The drill powder contains abundantphyllosilicates (clay minerals), indicatingsustained interaction with water
    45. 45. Major gases released from John Klein sampleand analyzed by SAMNASA/JPL-Caltech/GSFCSAM analysis of the drilled rock sample reveals water, carbondioxide, oxygen, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide released on heating. Therelease of water at high temperature is consistent with smectite clay minerals.
    46. 46. NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSSAn Ancient Habitable Environmentat Yellowknife Bay• The regional geology and fine-grained rock suggest that theJohn Klein site was at the end of an ancient river system orwithin an intermittently wet lake bed• The mineralogy indicates sustained interaction with liquidwater that was not too acidic or alkaline, and low salinity.Further, conditions were not strongly oxidizing• Key chemical ingredients for life are present, such ascarbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur• The presence of minerals in various states of oxidation wouldprovide a source of energy for primitive organisms
    47. 47. Mount Sharp,The Ultimate Destination
    48. 48. Curiosity’s ultimate goal is to explore thelower reaches of the 5-km high Mount SharpNASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Arizona
    49. 49. NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS
    50. 50. Layers, Canyons, and Buttes of Mount SharpThis boulder is thesize of CuriosityNASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS