Tropical Rainforest By: Madison Webb and Amanda Granger Biome
Description of Rainforest Biome• A tropical rainforest is a type of biome found in hot, humid environments in equatorial climates,The tropical rainforest is a unique with a constant temperature and a high rainfall. The temperature is warm because of it bring close to the equator. Also the average temperature is about 25 degrees celsius. Words to describe it are: Dark, Damp, Humid, Lively, Populated, Green, Vegetated, Amazing, and Beautiful.
Climate• Rain forests belong to the tropical wet climate group. The temperature in a rain forest rarely gets higher than 93 °F (34 °C) or drops below 68 °F (20 °C); average humidity is between 77 and 88%; rainfall is often more than 100 inches a year. There is usually a brief season of less rain. In monsoonal areas, there is a real dry season. Almost all rain forests lie near the equator
SeasonalTemperatureRanges• Tropical Moist Climates (Af) rainforest Average temperature: 18 ° C (° F) Annual Precipitation: 262 cm. (103 in.) Latitude Range: 10° S to 25 ° N Global Position: Amazon Basin; Congo Basin of equatorial Africa; East Indies, from Sumatra to New Guinea. Wet-Dry Tropical Climates (Aw) savanna Temperature Range: 16 ° C Annual Precipitation: 0.25 cm. (0.1 in.). All months less than 0.25 cm. (0.1 in.) Latitude Range: 15 ° to 25 ° N and S Global Range: India, Indochina, West Africa, southern Africa, South America and the north coast of Australia Dry Tropical Climate (BW) desert biome Temperature Range: 16° C Annual Precipitation: 0.25 cm (0.1 in). All months less than 0.25 cm (0.1 in). Latitude Range: 15° - 25° N and S. Global Range: southwestern United States and northern Mexico; Argentina; north Africa; south Africa; central part of Australia. Dry Midlatitude Climates (BS) steppe Temperature Range: 24° C (43° F). Annual Precipitation: less than 10 cm (4 in) in the driest regions to 50 cm (20 in) in the moister steppes. Latitude Range: 35° - 55° N. Global Range: Western North America (Great Basin, Columbia Plateau, Great Plains); Eurasian interior, from steppes of eastern Europe to the Gobi Desert and North China. Mediterranean Climate (Cs) chaparral biome Temperature Range: 7 ° C (12 ° F) Annual Precipitation: 42 cm (17 in). Latitude Range: 30° - 50° N and S Global Position: central and southern California; coastal zones bordering the Mediterranean Sea; coastal Western Australia and South Australia; Chilean coast; Cape Town region of South Africa. Dry Midlatitude Climates (Bs) grasslands biome Temperature Range: 31 ° C (56° F). Annual Precipitation: 81 cm. (32 in.). Latitude Range: 30° - 55° N and S Global Position: western North America (Great Basin, Columbia Plateau, Great Plains); Eurasian interior. Moist Continental Climate (Cf) Deciduous Forest biome Temperature Range: 31 ° C (56 ° F) Average Annual Precipitation: 81 cm (32 in). Latitude Range: 30° - 55° N and S (Europe: 45° - 60° N). Global Position: eastern parts of the United States and southern Canada; northern
TopographicalFeatures• Topography of an area refers to the shape of the land and the features within the area. The topography of a rainforest varies depending on which rainforest is in question and where in the rainforest you are visiting.However, the general topography of a rainforest includes steep areas with hills and low areas like valleys. It can include creeks and streams quite often and most of the time it has these features. It also has a sloping range in particular areas.The structure often involves a range of different heights and different levels. Starting from the leaf litter and mosses at the bottom, moving up to ground cover plants, ferns and low level trees, and stretching right up to taller trees, with epiphytes and vines connected, the structure and overall topography of a rainforest is rich, diverse and very varied.
Emergent Layer These giant trees thrust above the dense canopy layer and have huge mushroom- shaped crowns. These trees enjoy the greatest amount of sunlight but also must endure high temperatures, low humidity, and strong winds.
The broad, irregular crowns of these trees form a tight, continuous canopy 60 to 90 feet above the ground. TheCanopy Layer branches are often densely covered with other plants (epiphytes) and tied together with vines (lianas). The canopy is home to 90% of the organisms found in the rain forest; many seeking the brighter light in the treetops.
Receiving only 2-15% of the sunlight that falls on the canopy, the understory is a dark place. It is relatively open and contains young trees and leafy herbaceousUnderstory Layer plants that tolerate low light. Many popular house plants come from this layer. Only along rivers and roadways and in treefall and cut areas is sunlight sufficient to allow growth to become thick and impenetrable
The forest floor receives less than 2% of the sunlight and consequently, little grows here except plants adapted to very low light. On theForest Floors floor is a thin layer of fallen leaves, seeds, fruits, and branches that very quickly decomposes. Only a thin layer of decaying organic matter is found, unlike in temperate
Insolation in theTropical Rainforest• The tropical rainforest is earth’s most complex biome in terms of both structure and species diversity. It occurs under optimal growing conditions: abundant precipitation and year round warmth. There is no annual rhythm to the forest; rather each species has evolved its own flowering and fruiting seasons. Sunlight is a major limiting factor. A variety of strategies have been successful in the struggle to reach light or to adapt to the low intensity of light beneath the canopy.
Frilled Lizard• Chlamydosaurus (meaning "caped lizard") is a rare, modern-day frilled lizard native to New Guinea and North Australia. Its frill is a 7-14 inch (18-34 cm) flap of skin that completely circles its head. It opens this brightly-colored frill to frighten enemies. Adults are over 8 inches (20 cm) long. These climbing lizards live in trees in humid forests and eat cicadas, ants, spiders and smaller lizards. It can run quadrupedally (on all four legs) and bipedally (with the front legs off the ground). Adult females lay 8 to 14 eggs per clutch in spring and summer.
Toucan• The toucan is about 20 inches (50 cm) long. The toucans enormous bill is up to one-third of its length. The bill is brightly colored, light-weight, and edged with toothed margins. It has four toes on each foot; two toes face forwards and two face backwards. The legs are short but strong. Males are slightly larger than females, but their coloration is similar. Toucan eat mostly fruit, but also eat bird eggs, insects, and tree frogs. Toucans swallow fruit whole and then regurgitate the seeds; this disperses viable (living) seeds in the forest.
maroon pitchers that have lime-green mouths. This is an exceptional showpiece for any lowland tropical collection. Nepenthes rafflesiana is a beautiful lowland tropical pitcher plant with enormous, colorful pitchers and extremely prominent wings. Nepenthes Nepenthes rafflesiana are also well known for producing extremely long tendrils between their leaves and pitchers. The Giant form of Nepenthes rafflesiana produces extremely large pitchers that can reach over one foot in height, and originates from a single population Rafflesiana in Brunei, Borneo. This particular cone has truly striking coloration, with dark maroon pitchers that have lime-green mouths.
Orchids comprise one of the most abundant and varied of flowering plant families. There are over 20,000 known species and orchids are especially common in moist tropical regions. AlthoughOrchids temperate orchids usually grow in the soil, tropical orchids are more often epiphytes which grow non-parasitically on trees. Orchid flowers vary considerably in shape color and size, although they share a common pattern of three petals and three petal-like sepals. The lower petal has a very distinctive appearance.