October 20, 2010 Grammar: fragments Writing: exemplification paragraph – in class assignment
Exam Practice We are going to have a short practice quiz to help you prepare for the exam on Monday! Close your books. No talking! Read the instructions and follow them carefully. You may begin as soon as you get your quiz.
Paraphrasing Practice “The experience [of being an 18 year old undergrad] is equal parts thrilling, liberating and terrifying, all rolled into one intense, first-year undertaking that catapults us from adolescence into adulthood.” – Sherrie Beattie What words do you need to look up/have explained? liberating = freeing intense = short and strong undertaking = task, activity, or project catapults = throws Do you understand the passage now? What words or phrases still aren’t clear. On the exam you will not be able to use a dictionary (but I will provided definitions for the more difficult words) so you will have to try to guess meaning from the context and ask yourself if it makes sense. Which words are necessary? “first year” “experience” Possible paraphrases: The first year of university is a mixture of positive and negative experiences that makes us grow up quickly. The first year of university can be exciting, freeing, and scary for young students, but it can help them to mature very quickly.
Exemplification, In-class Writing Writing Assignment #1 Feedback New in-class Assignment (/20 marks) Do Writing Assignment #2, p. 185. Read the directions in the text. Follow each step. When done, hand in all work, from pre-writing to final draft. Be sure to compare your work to the “Four Bases Checklist” that I will use to mark your work (5 possible marks for each base). Time: You have until 7:15 pm
Fragments Review A complete sentence must have a subject and verb, and be a complete idea Ex: The dog barked. Groups of words that do not fit this description are called fragments.
Fragments Review Here are some of the types of fragments covered in p. 415-422. Ex: After we finished dinner. Because he was late. To help his mother. Trying to get to sleep.
Fragments Review Most fragments can be solved by joining them correctly to other sentences adding a subject and changing the verb as needed
Fragments Review Frag: I spent all day in the employment office. Trying to find a job that suited me. The prospects were bleak. Fix #1: I spent all day in the employment office trying to find a job that suited me. The prospects were bleak. Fix #2: I spent all day in the employment office. I was trying to find a job that suited me. The prospects were bleak.
Activity 1, p. 417 1. Because the weather is bad, I prefer to stay at home. I don’t really want to go out tonight because the weather is bad. 2.If I lend you twenty dollars, you should give it back to me on your next paycheck. If I lend you twenty dollars,promise to pay me back on Sunday.
Activity 2, p. 418-419 “When a flock of birds is nesting in the trees, one always acts as a lookout.” 2. “. . .update on world events before he gets on with his day.”
Activity 3, p. 420 “Sweating under his heavy load, Brian staggered up the stairs . . .” “He works 10 hours a day. Then he goes to class for 2½ hours.” He works 10 hours a day, and then he goes to class for 2 1/2 hours.
Activity 4, p. 421 “. . .arrived yesterday. It bore (had) no return address.” . . . arrived yesterday, bearing no return address. “ . . . bitterly cold day to saw wood for his fireplace.” . . . bitterly cold day. He went to saw wood for. . .
Four Kinds of Fragments Dependent Word Fragments “-ing” and “to” Fragments Added-detail Fragments Missing-subject Fragments
Added-detail Fragments, p. 422-424 These types of fragments lack a subject and a verb. (lack = are missing) They usually begin with one of the following words: also, especially, except, for example, including, such as
Added-detail Fragments, p. 422-424 Frag: Tony has trouble accepting criticism. Except from Lola. To correct these types of fragments, 1. join the fragment to the previous sentence. Fix: Tony has trouble accepting criticism, except from Lola.
Added-detail Fragments, p. 422-424 2. add a subject and a verb. Frag #1: My apartment has its drawbacks. For example, no hot water in the morning. Fix: My apartment has its drawbacks. For example, there isno hot water in the morning. Frag #2: My friend likes many types of music. For instance, classical, rap, country, and pop. Fix: My friend likes many types of music. For instance,she enjoys classical, rap, country, and pop.
Activity 5, p. 423 “For example, there are / it has defective lights and leaking faucets.” For example, defective lights and leaking faucets are some.
Missing Subject Fragments Frag: One example of my father’s generosity is that he visits sick friends in the hospital. And takes along get well cards with a few dollars folded in them. The second clause is about the same subject as the first clause (he), but because it doesn’t contain a subject it is a fragment.
Missing Subject Fragments, p. 424-425 To correct these types of fragments, 1. join the fragment to the previous sentence Fix: One example of my father’s generosity is that he visits sick friends in the hospitaland takes along get well cards with a few dollars folded in them. Fix: One example of my father’s generosity is that he visits sick friends in the hospital,andhe takes along get well cards with a few dollars folded in them.
Missing Subject Fragments 2. Add a subject. Fix: One example of my father’s generosity is that he visits sick friends in the hospital. He also takes along get well cards with a few dollars folded in them.
Activity, p. 425 “I tried on an old suit hanging in our basement closet, and I discovered, to my surprise, that it was too tight.” “I tried on an old suit hanging in our basement closet and discovered, to my surprise, that it was too tight.” “I tried on an old suit hanging in our basement closet. I discovered, to my surprise, that it was too tight.”
Independent Practice Finish the activities on your own time. Complete answer keys for this chapter will be posted online as soon as possible.
Homework Study for Exam - Monday, Oct. 25 (next week) For Wednesday, Oct 27 Read English Skills, p. 192-201. Complete the Questions on p. 194. Answers will be posted online. Do Writing Assignment 1 on p. 198 for practice and feedback – due next Wed. Oct. 27th There will be a follow-up in-class assignment on Monday, November 1st worth 20 marks.