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  • 1. Wednesday, May 4, 2011
    Grammar: Pronoun Agreement and Reference
    Literature: Images in Poetry
  • 2. Housekeeping
    presentations – if possible, provide the handout the class before or early on the day of class
    Grammar Quiz
    sometime in the next couple of weeks
    date and study sheet to be provided as soon as possible
    Exam average – 70%
  • 3. Student Sentences
    I really wanted to move to a country where theirthe people’s first language is English.
    or . . . where the official language is English.
    . . . where the people speak English.
    . . . English is the first/official language.
    2. The second problem is the money that drug users need to buy drugs. A desperate person who needs itmoney (or drugs) could commit a crime.
  • 4. Pronoun Agreement and Reference, p. 470
    Agreement
    Pronouns must agree in number with the noun they replace (its antecedent).
    NOT: The student forgot their homework.
    BUT: The student forgot his homework. (or her)
    NOT: Sally eats lots of vegetables because she believes it is really healthy.
    BUT: Sally eats lots of vegetables because she believes they are really healthy.
  • 5. Activity 1, p. 472
    Write the appropriate pronoun (their, they, them, it) in the blank space in each of the following sentences.
    1. their - people
    2. it - workout
    3. their - partners
    4. they - students
    5. them - neighbours
  • 6. Indefinite Pronouns
    We’ve already learned that indefinite pronouns (-one words, –body words, each, etc.) are always singular.
    So, pronouns that replace or refer to them must also always be singular.
    Ex: Everyone must be in his seat before the instructor takes attendance.
    However, this is a bit unsatisfactory. Why?
  • 7. Indefinite Pronouns
    If the class contains both genders, you can write:
    Ex: Everyone must be in his or her seat before the instructor takes attendance.
    Or, rewrite the sentence in the plural to avoid the awkward “his or her”:
    Ex: Students must be in their seats before the instructor takes attendance.
  • 8. Activity 2, p. 473
    Underline the correct pronoun. Check your answers against a classmate’s.
    1. his
    2. her
    3. his
    4. her
    5. her
    Make note of any disagreements to discuss.
  • 9. Pronoun Reference, p. 473
    Careless use of pronouns can result in confusing sentences:
    Ex: Joe almost dropped out of high school because he felt they emphasized discipline too much.
    Who does “they” refer to?
    Replace “they” with a clear noun:
    Ex: Joe almost dropped out of high school because he felt the teachers emphasized discipline too much.
  • 10. Activity 3, p. 474
    Maria’s mother let her wear her new earrings to school.
    Maria’s mother let her wear the new earrings that Maria’s mother bought.
    Maria can wear her new earrings to school now; her mother finally allowed her.
    Maria was allowed to wear her mother’s new earrings to school.
    Maria got permission to wear her mother’s new earrings to school.
  • 11. Activity 3, p. 474
    When I asked why I failed my driver’s test, he said I drove too slowly.
    When I asked the officer whom I took my driver’s test with why I failed my driver’s test, he said I drove too slowly.
    When I asked the tester why I failed . . . .
    . . . the instructor said I drove . . . .
  • 12. Activity 3, p. 474
    Dad ordered my brother to paint the garage because he didn’t want to do it.
    Dad didn’t want to paint the garage, so he ordered my brother to do it.
    Dad ordered my brother to paint the garage because Dad didn’t want to do it.
    Dad ordered my brother to paint the garage because my brother didn’t want to do it.
  • 13. Activity 3, p. 474
    Herb dropped his psychology courses because he thought they assigned too much reading.
    . . . because he thought he would be assigned too much . . . .
    . . .he thought the teachers assigned too much reading.
  • 14. Activity 3, p. 474
    I love Parmesan cheese on veal, but it does not always digest well.
    . . . but the cheese doesn’t always digest well
    . . . but the mixture doesn’t always . . .
    . . . but I don’t digest veal well . . .
    Even though parmesan cheese on veal doesn’t always digest well, I love the dish/combination.
  • 15. BREAK
  • 16. Images and Imagery in Poetry
    Imagery = mental pictures in a poem
    Read p. 61
    We will look at images in the work of three poets:
    Matsuo Basho
    William Carlos Williams
    Denise Levertov
  • 17. Images and Imagery in Poetry
    Matsuo Basho wrote haiku.
    Haiku is a traditional form of Japanese poetry that focuses on expressing one central image in only a few lines.
    Haiku typically have only three lines with a set pattern of 5, 7, and 5 syllables, respectively.
    The images described are usually of nature.
  • 18. Images and Imagery in Poetry
    William Carlos Williams and Denise Levertov wrote in free verse – poetry that does not follow a fixed structure.
    Williams’ poems focus on observing something simply and directly “in the moment.”
    Levertov was influenced by Williams and wrote in a very simple but vivid style.
  • 19. Images and Imagery in Poetry
    As in the last unit, read each poem all the way through once to get a feel for it.
    Then re-read it several times, focusing on understanding and interpretation.
    Turn to p. 63, #1-3
  • 20. Images and Imagery in Poetry
    I will read the poems aloud once. Just focus on listening to the sound and rhythm of the poems and afterwards you may ask me questions.
  • 21. Images and Imagery in Poetry
    Now read the poems to yourselves.
    Complete “Reviewing the Selections” and “Interpreting the Selections.”
    We will go over the answers together.
    If you are finished, you can read ahead to the next section of the handout (which will be assigned as homework).
  • 22. Images and Imagery in Poetry
    “Reviewing the Selections”
    b in the fall
    a
    d
    2 – sight, smell
    d
  • 23. Images and Imagery in Poetry
    “Interpreting the Selections”
    C
    A
    B
    D
    C
  • 24. Homework
    Grammar
    Review the Chapter on Pronoun Agreement and Reference and do some online practice (See Website)
    For Monday
    Read the remainder of the handout, p. 70-73.
    Answer the circled questions in brief notes (for study purposes, not for marks).
    Be prepared to discuss these in class.
    Be prepared for some in-class writing.