Benefits and harms of genetic modification (sharath reddy and hrachya hakobian)

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  • 1. Benefits and Harms of Genetic Modification
    HrachyaHakobian
    Sharath Reddy
    IB Biology
    Period 1
  • 2. 4.4.10
    Discuss the potential benefits and possible harmful effects of one example of genetic modification.
  • 3.
    • OncoMouse
    • 4. Modified Lab Mouse Used for Cancer Research
    • 5. Xenotransplantation
    • 6. Transplant of tissues from one species to another.
    • 7. Modified for human acceptance
    • 8. GMO’s
    • 9. Genetically Modified Organisms
    • 10. Both animals and crops modified to be less susceptible to disease, have higher yields, etc.
    • 11. Biofuel Creation
    Examples of Genetic Modification
  • 12. Able to create transgenic plants by genetically engineering them to:
    Be More Resistant to extreme conditions
    Drought, High Salinity
    Have a higher yield
    Have a heightened nutritional value
    Modified Using Cloning Vector
    Ti Plasmid
    Genetically Modified Crops
  • 13. There are almost a billion people on Earth who suffer from malnutrition.
    More than 40,000 dying every day from nutritional deficiencies.
    Because water and the amount of arable land are the limiting factors, scientists must find a way to increase “productivity” of the same amount of land.
    The answer to this problem is the commercial use of transgenic crops in agriculture.
    Benefits of Genetically Modified Crops
  • 14. Disease Resistance
    Transgenic papayas resistant to ring spot virus introduced into Hawaii, saved industry.
    Giving a greater crop yield in the same amount of farmland
    Indian cotton yield has increased by over 60% due to GM crops
    Providing Nutrients within the food
    “Golden Rice” was developed to prevent blindness by having more beta-carotene, a precursor to Vitamin A
    Decrease the need for Chemical Fertilizer
    Some plants have been genetically engineered with Bt Toxin, a protein toxic to most insects, yet harmless to humans
    4 Main Benefits
  • 15. Examples of GM Crops
  • 16. Environment Hazards
    Harm Food Web
    Cross Pollination
    Reduced Pesticide Resistance
    Human Health Risks
    Bacteria will become more resistant to antibiotics
    Allergenicity
    Regulatory Problems
    Economic Integration Challenging Process
    Puts poorer farmers at risk
    Complex Trade
    Harmful Effects of Genetically Modified Crops
  • 17. Bioengineer “Safer” Plants
    Cross Pollination:
    Engineered Male Sterility (No Pollen)
    Engineered Apomixis
    Engineer solely chloroplast DNA
    Engineer Flowers that fail to open
    Allergenicity:
    Remove genes that encode for allergenic proteins.
    Possible Solutions
    • Better Regulation
    • 18. Economic:
    • 19. Suicide Genes, Produces Sterile Seeds
    • 20. Human Health:
    • 21. Guidelines preventing exposure to and transport of bacteria.
    • 22. Genetically “Crippled”
    • 23. Allergenicity:
    • 24. Better labeling of food products, more testing
  • Aim 8
    There are ethical questions here about how far it is acceptable for humans to change other species as well as other ecosystems, in order to gain benefit for humans.
  • 25. Artificial Selection
    Selective breeding of plants and animals
    Religious/Lifestyle Principles
    Vegetarians
    Kosher
    Ethical Questions
    “Human intelligence should not undertake such a venture without sincere acknowledgment of its own limitations and full appreciation of the complexity and majesty of God's design.”
    - Alliance for Bio-Integrity 
  • 26.
    • "The Debate Over Genetically Modified Foods (ActionBioscience)." ActionBioscience - Promoting Bioscience Literacy. Web. 01 Mar. 2011. <http://www.actionbioscience.org/biotech/sakko.html>.
    • 27. "Genetically Engineered Crops Benefit Many Farmers, but the Technology Needs Proper Management to Remain Effective, Report Suggests." Science Daily: News & Articles in Science, Health, Environment & Technology. Web. 01 Mar. 2011. <http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/04/100413112058.htm>.
    • 28. "Genetically Modified Foods and Organisms --HGP Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues." Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Web. 01 Mar. 2011. <http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/gmfood.shtml>.
    • 29. "Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful?" CSA. Web. 01 Mar. 2011. <http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/gmfood/overview.php>.
    • 30. "PBS - Harvest of Fear: Should We Grow Gm Crops?: Full Arguments." PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. Web. 01 Mar. 2011. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/harvest/exist/arguments.html>.
    • 31. "Releasing Genetically Modified Organisms: Will Any Harm Outweigh Any Advantage?* - Beringer - 2001 - Journal of Applied Ecology." Wiley Online Library. Web. 01 Mar. 2011. <http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-2664.2000.00502.x/full>.
    Works Cited