Able to create transgenic plants by genetically engineering them to: Be More Resistant to extreme conditions Drought, High Salinity Have a higher yield Have a heightened nutritional value Modified Using Cloning Vector Ti Plasmid Genetically Modified Crops
There are almost a billion people on Earth who suffer from malnutrition. More than 40,000 dying every day from nutritional deficiencies. Because water and the amount of arable land are the limiting factors, scientists must find a way to increase “productivity” of the same amount of land. The answer to this problem is the commercial use of transgenic crops in agriculture. Benefits of Genetically Modified Crops
Disease Resistance Transgenic papayas resistant to ring spot virus introduced into Hawaii, saved industry. Giving a greater crop yield in the same amount of farmland Indian cotton yield has increased by over 60% due to GM crops Providing Nutrients within the food “Golden Rice” was developed to prevent blindness by having more beta-carotene, a precursor to Vitamin A Decrease the need for Chemical Fertilizer Some plants have been genetically engineered with Bt Toxin, a protein toxic to most insects, yet harmless to humans 4 Main Benefits
Environment Hazards Harm Food Web Cross Pollination Reduced Pesticide Resistance Human Health Risks Bacteria will become more resistant to antibiotics Allergenicity Regulatory Problems Economic Integration Challenging Process Puts poorer farmers at risk Complex Trade Harmful Effects of Genetically Modified Crops
Bioengineer “Safer” Plants Cross Pollination: Engineered Male Sterility (No Pollen) Engineered Apomixis Engineer solely chloroplast DNA Engineer Flowers that fail to open Allergenicity: Remove genes that encode for allergenic proteins. Possible Solutions
Better labeling of food products, more testing
Aim 8 There are ethical questions here about how far it is acceptable for humans to change other species as well as other ecosystems, in order to gain benefit for humans.
Artificial Selection Selective breeding of plants and animals Religious/Lifestyle Principles Vegetarians Kosher Ethical Questions “Human intelligence should not undertake such a venture without sincere acknowledgment of its own limitations and full appreciation of the complexity and majesty of God's design.” - Alliance for Bio-Integrity
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