Objectives• Discuss the fundamental concepts of IPv6• Describe the IPv6 practices• Implement IPv6 in a TCP/IP network
• Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) limits – 32-bit address space supports only about 4 billion addresses – Used inefficiently with classful addressing – Wasteful method of passing out addresses – Running out of addresses
• Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) – Developed by Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) – Slowly replacing IPv4 – IPv6 supports 2128 (or ~3.4x1038) IP addresses – Improved security with IPSec out-of-the-box – More efficient routing scheme via aggregation
• IPv6 Address Notation – 128 bits written in hexadecimal – Every four hex characters separated by a colon. – Example: 2001:0000:0000:3210:0800:200C:00CF:1234 – Leading zeroes dropped – Pair of colons (::) used to represent a string of consecutive groups of zeroes – Example: 2001::3210:800:200C:CF:1234
• IPv6 Subnet Masks – Function like IPv4 subnets – Represented with /X CIDR naming – 3. Example: FEDC::CF:0:BA98:1234/64 (64-bit subnet mask) • Two Rules – No subnet greater than /64 – IANA gives /32 subnets to bit ISPs and others needing large allotments; ISPs and other pass out /48 and /64 subnets. Vast majority of IPv6 subnets are between /48 and /64
• Used in DNS – Makes a bunch of clusters all over the world act as a single server – Give a number of computers (of clusters) the same IP address – Routers can determine which of the servers is closest
• Global Address – Called a global unicast address – Required for Internet access – Given to host by its IPv6-capable default gateway router – Router must be configured to pass out global IPv6 addresses
• Aggregation1. Current problem with tier-one routers – No default routes – Therefore, huge routing table (30,000-50,000 routes)2. Aggregation solution – A router hierarchy in which every router underneath a higher router always uses a subnet of that router’s existing routes. – Reduces the size and complexity of routing tables
• DHCP in IPv6 – DHCPv6 – Works differently than in IPv4 – IP address and subnet received from gateway router advertisements – Need DHCPv6 for other IP information • DNS server IP
• DNS in IPv6 – Trivial – Most present DNS servers support IPv6 addresses – DNS servers supporting IPv6 use AAAA records – DNSv6 details not finalized – For now, manually add DNS server information to IPv6 clients
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