Disaster Management - Perspective Planning – GOI Initiatives National Institute for Disaster Management Ministry of Home Affairs, GOI
The Indian Context Area 3.2 m sq. kms. States & UTs 28 and 7 Capital Delhi Population (2001) One billion (25.7% Decadal G. Rate 21.34% Sex Ratio 933 /1000 Literacy rate 65.38% Coastline > 8000 Kms. Multi agroclimatic Multi lingual Multi ethnic Multi religious
Hazard Vulnerability in India 60% 8% 12% 16% 3%
Lack of communication networking and dissemination of information among states
Delayed response due to mismanagement of
relief, resources, manpower and duty delegation
Lack of Interface and Coordination with State, District Administration & Community
HUGE LOSS OF LIFE & PROPERTY
Initiatives after IDNDR …
The Reports of the High Powered Committee (HPC) and National Committee on Disaster Management (chaired by PM) identified wide-ranging issues and concerns and over last couple of years GOI adopted new approach:-
Shift in focus from reactive response oriented action to proactive prevention, preparedness and mitigation oriented action. Investments in mitigation more cost effective than expenditure on relief and rehabilitation .
Development cannot be sustainable unless disaster mitigation is built into development process.
Mitigation has to be multi disciplinary spanning across all sectors of development.
Annual targets fixed for various components.
A National Disaster Management Framework has also
been drawn up.
Primary objective is to mainstream disaster risk reduction into development process.
Planning Commission accepted the need for a Safe National Development
A Chapter on Disaster Management incorporated in the Tenth Plan document.
Initiatives after IDNDR …
MHA declared Nodal Ministry for Disaster Management except drought vide Notification dated 27.2.2002
Effective transfer from 1/6/02
The Central Relief Commissioner (CRC) in MHA nodal officer to coordinate relief operation for natural disasters.
Shift in focus from post disaster response and relief to pre-disaster aspects-preparedness, mitigation and human resource development
National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC) under Cabinet Secretary has Secretaries of all command Ministries as members of NCMC.
Crisis Management Group (CMG). CRC Chairman of CMG with nodal officers from concerned ministries as members.
Nodal Ministry & Institutional Mechanism
Institutional Mechanisms in Offing
National Emergency Management Authority (NEMA) set up at the national level with appropriate systems and resource linkages.
States asked to convert Departments of Relief and Rehabilitation into Departments of Disaster Management with wider Terms of Reference to include mitigation and vulnerability reduction- 11 States change over taken place.
States also asked to set up Disaster Management Authorities with the Chief Minister as the Head and Ministers of relevant Departments like Health, Agriculture, Water Resources, Home, Urban Development, PWD as Members. 10 States have notified
Constitution of District level Disaster Management Committees under District Magistrate (In 256 districts already constituted).
National Disaster Management Policy drafted, Proposes to integrate disaster mitigation into developmental planning. Objectives
- To minimize loss of lives and social, private and community assets
- Contribute to sustainable development
- Better standard of living for all
- Protect interest of poor and vulnerable sections
States also advised to clearly enunciate a D isaster Management Policy —Madhya Pradesh, and Gujarat have notified, many in pipeline
Broad Features of Draft National Policy on DM
A holistic and proactive approach
Each Ministry /Deptt. set apart an appropriate fund under the plan for specific schemes /projects for vulnerability reduction and preparedness.
Each project in hazards prone area will have
mitigation as an essential TOR.
Community involvement & awareness generation.
Close interaction between corporate sector, NGO,media and Govt.
SOPs and DM Plans at all level for handling specific disasters.
Broad Features of Draft National Policy on DM
Institutional structures to be built up and development of inter state arrangements for sharing of resources during emergencies.
Culture of Planning and preparedness for capacity building.
Construction designs as per Bureau of standards codes.
All life line buildings e.g.. hospitals, railway stations, airport control towers, etc to be disaster resistant or retrofitted.
Revision of Relief Codes in the States and develop them into disaster management codes/manuals.
Inclusion of Disaster Management in the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution
States advised to adopt Disaster Management Acts.- Gujarat and Bihar have enacted the Act , many States in pipeline.
States advised to change their Relief Codes into Disaster Management Codes by including aspects of prevention/reduction/mitigation - Guidelines prepared by NIDM.
Terms of Reference of the Twelfth Finance Commission changed to mandate that the Finance Commission looks at the entire disaster management cycle and not only relief and rehabilitation.
Memorandum drafted in consultation with States, sent to the Finance Commission and includes creation of Disaster Mitigation Fund
Emergency Operation Centers
Multi-purpose Cyclone Shelters
Coastal Shelterbelt Plantation
National Disaster Information System
Early Warning System
Pre Disaster Preparedness
Capacity Building: Training & Research
Documentation & Data-base Management
Inventory & Equipment Management
Minimum Standards of Relief for people
with special needs
Emergency search & rescue
Disposal of dead bodies and Carcass
Post-Disaster After Care
Restoration of Basic Facilities
Relief & Reconstruction
Community Mental Health
Scientific Damage Assessment
Guidelines issued to all Ministries/ State Governments:-
Wherever there is a shelf of projects, projects addressing mitigation will be given priority.
At least one Search & Rescue Unit comprising one coy of Armed Police, one engineering unit and one medical unit.
Ministry of Finance sanction -for procuring search & rescue equipment for these teams.
All projects in vulnerable areas must have disaster mitigation as a Term of Reference
States to set up District Control rooms under District Magistrates for both law and order/disaster management. 602 Emergency Operation Centers to be set up in 35 States and UT. 125 EOC to be set up under GoI/UNDP Project.
A National Steering Committee under the Home Secretary to oversee the creation of capabilities for emergency response.
National Emergency Response Force being constituted with state-of-the-art training and equipments.
8 bns being converted to specialist emergency teams. 3 training centers identified – NISA, Hyderabad, ITBP Training centre at Bhanu and CTC, Coimbatore. Training of Trainers completed at NISA, Hyderabad and ITBP Training Centre, Bhanu. Training of teams in progress.
Well equipped Regional Response Centers being set up – 12 already identified.
National Project for strengthening of emergency and fire services.
Project finalized to convert Fire Services into all hazard response units cost Rs.2457 crores).
Equipping and training of fire services for carrying out search and rescue in all types of disasters.
Filling up deficiencies in the availability of fire units as well as rescue equipments at sub-divisional and district level.
Provision of Hazmat vans in selected metropolitan cities .
Planning Commission has given in principle clearance—being posed to MOF
NBC Emergency Response
NBC Emergencies – out of the 8 bns, 4 bns to be trained and equipped for responding to NBC emergencies. BARC designated as nodal agency for training of trainers in nuclear emergencies. 48 trainers trained there.
TOTs for biological/chemical emergencies to be carried out at DRDE, Gwalior .
NISA, Hyderabad and ITBP Training Centre at Bhanu also to have faculties for training NBC teams.
State level initiatives
Creation of capabilities in States: States advised to set up specialist response teams. Action initiated by Orissa, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Delhi.
Provision made in the CRF that 10% of the funds can be used for purchase of search and rescue equipments.
Incident Command System
In order to professionalize the management of response, Incident Command System being introduced. LBSNAA identified as the Core Training Institution.
Curriculum and training of trainers being undertaken in collaboration with United States Forest Service.
3 programmes conducted. 42 officers trained in Basic and Intermediate ICS course and 29 officers trained in Planning Section Module.
India Disaster Resource Network
India Disaster Resource Network - Establishment of web-enabled, centralized database for quick access to resources to minimize response time in emergencies [for the disaster managers at district/State/National level].
The IDRN is a live system providing for updating of inventory every year. Entries into the inventory are made at two levels – district and State level. It has 226 items.
IDRN inaugurated on 1 st September 2003
69,329 records in 545 districts uploaded.
National DM Communication Plan prepared for implementation. Dedicated Communication System for disaster management with built-in redundancies.
Multi Channel Communication System. Links include DOT, POLNET, NICNET, ISDN and SPACENET.
Satellite Communication based on mobile voice/data/video communication between national EOC/State EOC/ District EOC/Mobile EOC and Disaster/Emergency Site.
Development of a GIS based National Database for Disaster Management .
National Emergency Operation Centre
Control Room at MHA upgraded to National Emergency Operation Centre which is equipped with SATPHONES, GPS, GIS info system etc-Control room personnel trained in use of equipments
States being assisted to set up Control Rooms at the State level GOI-UNDP project.
602 EOC in each district in the country being set up under GOI-UNDP project.
Earthquake Mitigation Initiatives
An Earthquake Mitigation Project drawn up with estimated cost of Rs.1132 crores. In principle cleared by Planning Commission.
National Core Group for Earthquake Mitigation formed with eminent national experts and resource institutions as Members to draw up a strategy for mitigation, development of handbooks etc and evolve systems for training of municipal engineers.
Working with States in seismic zones III, IV and V for
review of Building Bye-laws,
Awareness generation and
training of engineers and masons
National Programme for Capacity Building in Earthquake Mitigation formulated for training of 10,000 engineers and architects.
Curriculum for inclusion of earthquake engineering aspects drawn up in consultation with IIT, Kanpur
AICTE advised to develop curriculum for inclusion of mitigation technologies in technical education
Steps initiated for examination of the structural safety of life-line buildings and public utilities from the seismic point of view.
Micro Zonation undertaken by Department of Science & Technology.
Earthquake Mitigation Project
To cover 116 districts in seismic zones IV and V.
Putting techno-legal regime in place.
Capacity building/training of engineers/masons etc.
Awareness through technology demonstration.
Retrofitting of life line buildings and public utilities.
Formulation of preparedness and response plans.
Planning Commission has agreed in principle and being submitted to MOF
Accelerated Urban Earthquake Safety
38 cities with a population of over half a million in seismic zones III, IV and V taken up for focused attention as regards earthquake mitigation.
Consultations with all stakeholders organized in 38 cities.
Awareness generation programme initiated in all cities
Information, education and communication materials developed in local languages
Review of existing techno-legal regime and its compliance initiated
Training of architects and engineers started in association with IITs. 1088 engineers and 825 architects trained so far.
Cyclone Monitoring & Mitigation Project
To cover 13 cyclone prone States and UTs [cost Rs.1050 crores in collaboration with World Bank.]
Strengthening of cyclone tracking and monitoring and early warning system.
Storm surge modeling.
Preparation of disaster management plans at different levels.
Conservation and regeneration of mangrove forest & coastal shelter belt plantation.
Construction of saline embankments and cyclone shelters.
(Approved by Government)
Initiatives by NIDM
In keeping with NIDM’s envisaged role of a leading Centre of Excellence in disaster risk mitigation and management in India and the region. Visioning exercise in process.
NIDM is presently providing guidelines for converting the States’ Relief Manuals/Codes into Disaster Management Manuals/Codes
To make training need based, a nationwide TNA is being conducted. First draft of HR Plan prepared and submitted.
NIDM is preparing training modules of various line Departments keeping their job responsibilities. 11 modules already prepared.
NIDM has undertaken capacity building of State ATIs.
Youth Organizations and Student Bodies like NCC/NSS/ Scouts & Guides to be provided training in Emergency Response and Awareness Generation
Media professionals to be sensitized and encouraged to integrate DM components in different programmes for public awareness.
AICTE to include disaster mitigation technologies in engineering courses.
IITs have taken up an orientation for lecturers/professors in engineering colleges in disaster mitigation technologies .
Disaster Management introduced in CBSE School curriculum of classes 8 th , 9 th and 10 th .
States advised to include Disaster Management in school curriculum.
MHA prepared set of resource materials developed by various organizations / institutions to be replicated and disseminated by State Governments based on their vulnerabilities.
Capacity Building Initiative
Multi-hazard Preparedness and Response Planning- Community Approach
All hazard-prone areas to have community-based disaster preparedness plans—Disaster Management Committees [DMCs], Disaster Management Teams [DMTs] and Volunteer Task Forces [VTFs]
Roles and responsibilities to be defined in the DM Acts/Codes
Regular training and drills organized through local-self Governments
Preparation of inventory of local resources and their management
National Emergency Management Authority (NEMA)
Major components include constitution of corpus fund for NEMA
8 Battalions to be fully trained and equipped, 4 each in natural and NBC disasters
Air mobility by purchase of one large aircraft and 3 MI 17 helicopters
Setting up of 3 mobile hospitals
Strengthening of Civil Defence - to play a crucial role in disaster situations.
National Emergency Response Force
8 Battalions to form a National Emergency Response Force
Civil Defense to be adequately strengthened
DG(CD) to be re-designated as DG (NERF & CD)
DG (NERF & CD) to be in-charge of NERF as well as Civil Defense
Opportunities for International Cooperation
In developing framework for vulnerability reduction and natural disaster mitigation.
Collaborative training and capacity building on disaster management
Deployment of rapid response and assessment teams on request.
Institutional capacity building for host country -education, academic and training institutions